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Safety Issues in Aquaculture -- Hydrogen Sulfide


The issue of hydrogen sulfide and its affect on workplace safety for aquaculture employees has recently emerged as an important concern in the aquaculture community. Below is a list of resources on research,surveillance and control as well as educational materials on dangers of hydrogen sulfide exposure. Some items can be obtained through your local library, some are available as web pages on the Internet and some are print and audivisual materials available for purchase. The bibliography at the bottom of the page contains older materials which may be more difficult to obtain.

Web Information

Dept. of Energy - Safety & Health Hazards Alert

E-medicine - Toxicity, Hydrogen Sulfide

Fatalities Attributed to Entering Manure Storage Facilities

Hydrogen Sulfide Kills by Mary Gayman

Phillps Petroelum Company - Material Safety Data Sheet

Safety data for hydrogen sulfide from the Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, Oxford University

Saskatchawan - Labor - Hydrogen Sulfide The Deadliest Manure Gas

ToxFAQsTM for Hydrogen Sulfide from the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

UC Davis Hydrogen Sulfide SafetyNet #24

World Health Organization - Hydrogen Sulfide

Educational and Training Materials

"Hydrogen Sulfide"

"Hydrogen Sulfide Safety for Plant Personnel"

"Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) Safety for the Inland Waterways and Maritime Personnel"

OSHA safety videos

"Spawn, Spat, and Sprains: A Manual for Aquaculture Safety in Alaska" -- Alaska Sea Grant (on general safety)

Bibliography of Additional Research Materials

1. American National Standards Institute and American Industrial Hygiene Association. Acceptable concentrations of hydrogen sulfide. New York : The Institute; 1972. Note: 8 pp.

2. American National Standards Institute and American Society of Safety Engineeers. American national standard accepted practices for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) safety training programs. Des Plaines, Ill. : American Society of Safety Engineers; 1995.Note: 20 pp.

3. Barth E ; Talbott N ; Gable R ; Richter S , and Reponen T. Evaluation of bioaerosol exposures during conditioning of biofilter organic media beds. Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene. 2002 Jan; 17(no.1):p 10-14.

4. Bridges, Walter J. Hydrogen sulfide gas poisoning : Instruction and training methods. [Lubbock?, Tex.]; 1986.
Note: 48 pp.

5. Coastal Video Cummunications Corp. Hydrogen sulfide a matter of life or death. Virginia Beach, Va.; Coastal Video Communications Corp., 1993). Note: 1 videocassette (18 min.).

6. Coye, Molly Joel. Hydrogen sulfide: A powerful and deceptive killer. Denver, CO.: Oil, Chemical, and Atomic Workers International Union; 1977 Note: 23 pp.
7. Donham, K. J. Human health and safety for workers in livestock housing. Latest developments in livestock housing : Seminar of the 2nd Technical Section of the C.I.G.R. American Society of Agricultural Engineers; 1987: p. 86-95.

8. Gjerde, C.; Ferguson, K.; Mutel, C.; Donham, K., and Merchant, J. Results of an educational intervention to improve the health knowledge, attitudes and self-reported behaviors of swine confinement workers. The Journal of Rural Health. 1991 Summer; 7(no.3):p. 278-286.

9. Knarr, Richard Dennis. Air sampling and analytic method for volatile thiols. Berkeley; 0028: University of California ; 1980.

10. Ledbetter J.O. Exclusion area for safety from high-pressure sour gas leaks. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. 1978 Jul; 39(no.7):586-92.

11. Louhelainen K ; Kangas J ; Veijanen A , and Viilos P. Effect of in situ composting on reducing offensive odors and volatile organic compounds in swineries. AIHAJ : a Journal for the Scienceof Occupational and Environmental Health and Safety. 2001 Mar-2001 Apr 30; 62(no.2):p 159-67.

12. Mattorano DA and Merínar T. Respiratory protection on offshore drilling rigs. Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene. 1999 Mar; 14(no. 3):p 141-8.

13. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Occupational exposure to hydrogen sulfide. Cincinnati, Ohio : Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, and Center for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ; Washington, D.C. 1977. Note: 149 pp.

14. Recommendations for a hydrogen sulfide standard. Cincinnati, Ohio : Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service: Center for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health; 1977.

15. A recommended standard for occupational exposure to .... hydrogen sulfide. Cincinnati, OH: Center for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health; 1977. Note: 9 pp.

16. National Safety Council. Beware of manure gas. See electronic record for date. Available at: URL: .

17. Occupational Health and Safety Division. Hydrogen sulfide: The deadliest manure gas. Saskatchewan, CANADA; 1999.
Note: 1 folded sheet.

18. Osbern LN and Crapo RO. Dung lung: a report of toxic exposure to liquid manure. Annals of Internal Medicine. 1981 Sep; 95(no. 3):p 312-4.

19. Patni, N. K. and Clarke, S. P. Transient hazardous conditions in animal buildings due to manure gas released during slurry mixing. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. (July 1991); 7, (no. 4):: p. 478-484. Note: St. Joseph, Mich. : American Society of Agricultural Engineers. Publishing Agencies.

20. Pierce, J. T. et al. Safety in the chemical laboratory: Experiments integrating evaluation of chemical hazards into the chemistry curriculum. Journal of Chemical Education . Mar 1984; 61(no 3):p 83,85.

21. Rogers, Sam A. Hydrogen sulfide: Recommended practices for personal protection. Santa Fe, New Mexico: New Mexico Health and Environment Dept; 1983. Note: 8 pp.

22. Washington (State) and Office of Toxic Substances. Hydrogen sulfide. Olympia, Washington; 1992. Note: 3 pp.

23.. Webber, John R. Hydrogen sulfide safety basics. Sherwood Park, Alta, CANADA: Webber Pub. 1993. Note: 16 pp.

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