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Published Research and Related Internet Locations on the Asian Oyster, Crassostrea ariakensis.

This page with bibliography and Internet links has been compiled to enhance available information on Crassostrea ariakensis which is a nonindigenous species being considered for introduction to the Chesapeake Bay as a triploid oyster. C. ariakensis may also be referred to as Suminoe oyster. The following bibliography has been expanded to include Ostrea rivularis and Crassostrea rivularis which are found in the taxonomic history of C. ariakensis. A limited number of additional citations on related research has also been included.

Based on correspondence with Dr. Seki of the National Research Institute of Aquaculture in Japan and various Japanese reports the following taxonomic history has been used. Crassostrea ariakensis was first reported by Fujita (1913) as Ostrea ariakensis. In 1929 Wakiya supported this view. Lischke (1869) and Amemiya (1928) regarded O. rivularis as a young stage of O. ariakensis. Fujimori (1949) suggested that O. ariakensis is the synonym of O. laperousei. Whereas Taki (1933) disagreed with this view, and Wakiya (1915) regarded both as different species due to the difference in tentacle rows of the mantle edge. Dunker (1882) reported O. rivularis of Lischke (1869) as the synonym of O. arborea Dillwyn. Hirase (1930) supported this view. Kuroda (1931) disagreed. Since that time C. rivularis (Gould) has been noted as follows in the text:

Crassostrea rivularis (Gould) [Suminoegaki in Japanese]
Ostrea rivularis (Gould 1861), (Lischke 1869), (Wakiya 1915) and (Amemiya 1928)
Ostrea ariakensis (Fujita 1913), (Wakiya 1929) and (Lischke 1871)

An explanation of the Japanese reports which are related to the above taxonomic history can be found In: Shun-ichi Takatsuki (1949) "Kaki," (Oyster), Giho-Do, Tokyo. 269 pp. +8p (index.) and In: Ken-ichi Numachi (1971) Distribution and Taxonomy of Oysters "Senkai Kanzen Youshoku." (Through Culture in Shallow Sea) Imai T. ed. Koseisha-Koseikaku Tokyo pp. 83-90. {In Japanese}

Correspondance with Dr. Hironori Usuki, Coastal Environment and Productivity Division, National Research Institute of Fisheries and Environment of Inland Sea, Fisheries Research Agency, Ohno, Saeki, Hiroshima 739-0452 Japan provides the following information:

"... recognize that C. rivularis and C. ariakensis indicate identical oyster at the present time and that the confusion of nomenclature in the past made two species names. Dr. Inaba, who is the authority of classification of oysters in Japan, is writing his publication (in Japanese) mentioning origin of the species name rivularis and ariakensis for suminoe oyster (to be published in the coming year). Crassostrea ariakensis (suminoe oyster) inhabits Ariake bay in Japan. Between 1925 and 1940, mass mortality of the oyster occurred frequently in Ariake bay and farming and culture declined during that time (Saga pref. 1951). There are little culture and research of suminoe oyster now in Japan and so there are few papers and reports mentioning suminoe oyster. In past, Amemiya (1928) showed salinity range for the development of larvae, habitats of oysters in relation to water-level, and salinity ranges in habitat. Tanaka (1954) studied spawning season of suminoe oyster in Ariake bay. "

Based on correspondance from Hironori Usuki, Coastal Environment and Productivity Division, National Research Institute of Fisheries and Environment of Inland Sea, Fisheries Research Agency Ohno, Saeki, Hiroshima 739-0452 Japan:

"The main reason for the mass mortality between 1925 and 1940 seems to be attributed to rapid rise of water temperature and salinity. Though there was not remarkable mortality during next ten years, the mass mortality appeared again in the autumn of 1950 among important shellfish like Pacific oyster and mogai cockle in addition to suminoe oyster. Saga prefectural fisheries station, Kyusyu University and Seikai national fisheries research institute started biological, chemical and bacteriological cooperative research in 1951 for four years to determine the reason for the mass mortality of suminoe oyster. Unfortunately (fortunately?), the mass mortality has not reappeared during the years....supposed that stirring up of hydrogen sulfide from the bottom mud by strong wind was the main reason of the mass mortality of suminoe oyster."

The Japanese Society of Fisheries Science has graciously allowed us to post the 1954 article by Jatarao Tanaka "Spawning season of important bivalves in Ariale Bay--II. Ostre rivularis Gould and O. gigas Tunberg." Please go to the Tanaka page <> to read this.

oyster on half shell oyster on half shell oyster on half shell oyster on half shell oyster on half shell

Chesapeake Bay regional Internet sites, research organizations and
other groups that regularly or irregularly report on oyster issues
The links below are non-NOAA sites. globe image

Bay Journal <>
Bay Weekly <>
Chesapeake Bay Commission Legislative site <>
Cheseapeake Information Managment System <>
Chesapeake Bay Program -- America's Premier Watershed Restoration Partnership <>
Chesapeake Bay Nonindigenous Species List <>
EPA Notice: Intent To Prepare a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for a Proposed Introduction of the Oyster Species, Crassostrea ariakensis, Into the Tidal Waters of Maryland and Virginia To Establish a Naturalized, Reproducing, and Self-Sustaining Population of This Oyster Species; Correction. January 15, 2004 < >
Maryland Sea Grant -- Fisheries Research Publications <>
NOAA Chesapeake Bay Office <>
Oyster Recovery Project <>
Pacific Coast Shellfish Growers Association <>
Sea Grant National Aquatic Nuisance Species Clearninghouse <>
SeaLane Pacific [Canada] Shellfish disease information. <>
VIMS' Aquaculture Genetics and Breeding Technology Center and Monitoring site <>
Virginia Marine Resources Commission <>

To read more about the success of the Shellfish Culture Technology Transfer Program, which ran from1993 to1998 and which helped establish a thriving oyster culture industry in the state of Santa Catarina in southern Brazil go to this URL: globe image

Photo of oysters taken from NOAA photo library.(

Symposia & Workshops:

Bibliography of Research on Crassostrea ariakensis and Related Species

Most recent entries to this page are marked with dates in red. (Generally does not include news articles from the links above.)

The following citations were taken from searches of various electronic databases and references from published materials. The Center and the NOAA Central Library can provide Interlibrary Loan delivery of these items for NOAA staff only. All others please contact your library for this assistance.

  1. Nonnative Oysters in the Chesapeake Bay. National Academy Press. 2101 Constitution Ave. NW Washington, DC 20418. (2004)
  2. Aftab, N. "Amino Acid Composition of Tissue Protein from Five Species of Oysters." Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research 31[3]: pp. 200-202. 1988.
  3. Ahmed, M.S. "Oyster Species of West Pakistan." Pakistan Journal of Zoology 3[2]: pp. 229-236. (illus.) 1971.
  4. Ahmed, M.,S. Barkati, and M. Sanaullah. "Spatfall of Oysters in the Gharo-phitti Salt Water Creek System Near Karachi (Pakistan)." Pakistan Journal of Zoology 19: pp. 245-252. 1987.
  5. Allen, S.K. "Research and Development on Suminoegaki, Crassostrea ariakensis, for Aquaculture in Virginia, and Other Activities with Non-natives." Journal of Shellfish Research 19[1]: p. 612. 2000.
  6. Allen, S.K. Jr. "Revitalization of the Oyster Industry in Virginia, USA Using Tetraploid Technology to Introduce a New Species." 6th Asian Fisheries Forum Book of Abstracts. p. 5. 2001.
  7. Allen. S.K., A. Erskine, E. Walker, R. Zebal and G. Debrosse. "Production of Triploid Suminoe oysters C. ariakensis." Journal of Shellfish Research. 22[1]: p. 317. 2003.
  8. Allen, S. K. Jr. and P.M. Gaffney. "Genetic Confirmation of Hybridizaton Between Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg) and Crassostrea rivularus (Gould)." Aquaculture, 113[4]: pp. 291-300. 1993.
  9. Allen, S.K. Jr.and P.M. Gaffney. "Hybridization Among Three Species of Crassostrea." Journal of Shellfish Research 10: p.301. 1991
  10. Allen, S.K. Jr., et al. "Inviable Hybrids of Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin) with C. rivularis (Gould) and C. Gigas (Thunberg)." Aquaculture,113: pp. 269-289. 1993.
  11. Amemiya, I. "Ecological studies of Japanese oysters, with special reference to the salinity of their habitats." Journal of College of Agriculture, University of Tokyo. 9: p.333. 1928.
  12. Anon. "The Geographical Distribution of Crassostrea virginica, C. gigas, and C. rivularis." Virginia Marine Resource Bulletin, 28: p. 11. 1996.
  13. Asif, M. "Variations in Allometric Growth in the Shells of Crassostrea rivularia (Gould), Saccostrea glomeratav (Gould) and S. cuccullatav (Born) from the Coast of Karachi." Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 22: pp. 46-49. 1979.
  14. Audemard, C., R. Carnegie, N. Stokes, E. Burreson and M. Bishop. "Salinity effects on the susceptibility to and persistence of Bonamia ostreae and Bonamia sp in Crassostrea ariakensis. Journal of Shellfish Research, 24[2]: p. 639. Aug. 2005.
  15. Barkati, S. and R.M. Kahn. "Relative Growth in Three Species of Oysters." Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 30: pp. 624-627. 1987.
  16. Bishop, M.J. and P.J. Hooper. "Flow, stocking density and treatment against Polydora spp.: Influences on nursery growth and mortality of the oysters Crassostrea virginica and C. ariakensis." Aquaculture, 246[1-4]: pp. 252-261. May 2005.
  17. Bishop, M.J. and C.H. Peterson. "Consumer rating of the Suminoe oyster, Crassostrea ariakensis, during home cooking." Journal of Shellfish Research, 24[2]: pp. 497-502. Aug. 2005.
  18. Bishop, M.J. and C.H. Peterson. "When r-selection may not predict introduced-species proliferation: Predition of a nonnative oyster. Ecological Applications. 16[2]. pp. 718-730. April 2006.
  19. Breese, W.P. and R.E. Malouf. "Hatchery Rearing Technique for the oyster Crassostrea rivularus, Gould." Aquaculture, 12[2]: pp. 123-126. 1977.
  20. Burge, C.A., et al. "Identification of a herpes-like virus in Pacific oysters from Tomales Bay, California." Journal of Shellfish Research, 23[1]: p.283. Apr 2004.
  21. Cai, Yingya, Chenmao Deng, and Zhigang Liu. "Studies on the Ecology of Crassostrea rivularis (Gould) in Zhanjiang Bay." Tropic oceanology/Redai Haiyang, Guangzhou. 11[3]: pp.37-44. 1992.
  22. Cai, Yingya, Zhigang Liu and Shuiyang He. "A Study on the Artificial Rearing of Spats of Ostrea rivularis Gould." Marine Sciences/Haiyang Kexue, Qingdao. 1: pp.53-56. 1989.
  23. Calvo, G.W. et al. "A Comparative Field Study of Crassostrea ariakensis (Fujita 1913) and Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin 1791) in Relation to Salinity in Virginia." Journal of Shellfish Research, Natl Shellfisheries Association. 20: pp. 221-229. 2001.
  24. Calvo, G.W. "A Comparative Field study of Crassostrea ariakensis and Crassostrea virginica in Relation to Salinity in Virginia." Special Report in Applied Marine Science and Ocean Engineering; No. 360; School of Marine Science Virginia Institute of Marine Science College of William & Mary, Gloucester Point, VA, iii, 19 leaves : p., ill., map, 28 cm. 2000. ( image
  25. Calvo, G.W.; M.W. Luckenbach and E.M. Burreson. High performance of Crassostrea ariakensis in Chesapeake Bay. Journal of Shellfish Research, 19[1]: p. 643. Jun 2000.
  26. Calvo, G.W. et al. "A Comparative Field Study of Crassostrea gigas and Crassostrea virginica in Relation to Salinity in Virginia." Journal of Shellfish Research, Natl Shellfisheries Assoc. 18:, pp. 465-473. 1999.
  27. Carnegie, R. B., N.A. Stokes, C. Audemard, E.M. Burreson, M.J. bishop and C.H. Peterson. Recent developments in Bonamia research in Virginia and North Carolina. Journal of Shellfish Research, 24[1]: p. 318. Jan 2005.
  28. Cellura, Cinzia, Mylene Toubiana, Nicolo Parrinello, and Philippe Roch. HSP70 gene expression in Mytilus galloprovincialis hemocytes is triggered by moderate heat shock and Vibrio anguillarum, but not by V. spendidus or Micrococcus lysodeikticus. Developmental and Comparative Immunology. 30[11]: pp.984-997. 2006.
  29. Chen, Hongyou. "The Growth of Oyster in Spartina Anglica Seabeach in Northern Jiangsu." Marine Sciences/Haiyang Kexue. Qingdao. pp. 68-69. 1991.
  30. Cochennec, N. et al. "Bonamia-like Parasite Found in the Suminoe Oyster Crassostrea rivularis Reared in France." Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 34[3]: pp. 193-197. 1998.
  31. Committee on Nonnative Oysters in the Chesapeake Bay. Nonnative Oysters in the Chesapeake Bay. National Academies Press. Washington, D.C. ( image. 248 pp. plus References and Appendices. 2004.
  32. Cordes, J.F. and K.S. Reece. Genetic identification of oyster species based on restriction fragment-length polymorphism (RFLP0 analysis of two molecular markers amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Journal of Shellfish Research, 24[1]: p. 319. Jan 2005.
  33. Cordes, J.F. and K.S. Reece. Phylogenetics and species identification of Crassostrea oysters based on sequences and PCR-RFLP analyses of its-1 and coi markers. Journal of Shellfish Research, 24[2]: p. 647, Aug 2005.

  34. Dew, Jodi. R.A. Population Dynamic Model Assessing Options for Managing Eastern Oysters (Crassostrea Virginica) and Triploid Suminoe Oysters (Crassostrea Ariakensis) in Chesapeake Bay. (Master's Thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, 2002)
  35. Dew, J.; J. Berkson, and E. Hallerman. A Risk Assessment Simulation Model for Culture of Triploid C. ariakensis in the Chesapeake Bay. Version CD-ROM, Virginia Sea Grant VSG-01-02. 2001. ( image
  36. Dew, J. J.: Berkson, E. Hallerman, and S.K. Allen. "A Demographic Simulation Model for Assessing and Managing Risks Posed by Proposed Deployment of Triploid Suminoe Oysters in the Chesapeake Bay" (This is a PowerPoint slide show available at )globe image Given on October 7-8, 2002 at a workshop Sponsored by the Scientific and Technical Advisory Committee and the National Academy of Sciences in Fredericksburg, Virginia.
  37. Dew, J. J. . Berkson, E. Hallerman, and S.K. Allen. "A Model for Assessing the Likelihood of Self-sustaining Populations Resulting from Commercial Production of Triploid Suminoe Oysters (Crassostrea ariakensis) in Chesapeake Bay." Fishery Bulletin,101[4]: p. 11. Oct. 2003.
  38. Downing, S.L. "Comparing Adult Performance of Diploid and Triploid Monospecific and Interspecific Crassostrea hybrids." Journal of Shellfish Research, 7[3]: p. 549. 1988.
  39. Downing S.L." Triploid and Diploid Hybrids Bet`ween the Oysters Crassostrea gigas and C. rivularis: Production, Detection and Potential." Journal of Shellfish Research, 7(1): p. 156, 1988.
  40. Durve, V.S. "On the Ancestry and Distribution Pathways of Three Species of Indian Oysters." Indian Journal of Marine Sciences. New Delhi. 15[1]: pp. 56-58. 1986.
  41. Erskine, A.J. and S.K. Allen, Jr. "Histological Examination of Gametogenesis in Genetic Triploid Crassostrea ariakensis in Chesapeake Bay."Journal of Shellfish Research, 22[1]: p. 328. Jun 2003.
  42. Erskine, A.J., S. Snyder, M. Southworth, K. Hudson, J. Shen, and R. Mann. "So how far do oyster larvae disperse? A dye study simulation." Journal of Shellfish Research, 24[2]: p. 647. Aug 2005.
  43. Foighil, D. C., P. M. Gaffney and T. J. Hilbish. "Differences in Mitochondrial 16S Ribosomal Sequences Allow Discrimination Among American Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin) and Asian (C. Gigas (Thunberg) C. ariakensis (Wakiya)) Oyster Species." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, North Holland Publishing Co. 192[2]: pp. 2-11 (10 pages). 1995.
  44. Francis, EA; K.S. Reece, S.K. Allen and P.M. Gaffney. Species designation among sympatric oysters Crassostrea ariakensis, C. gigas, and C. sikamaea. Journal of Shellfish Research. 19 [1]: pp. 662-663. Jun 2000.

  45. Francis, EA, P.M. Gaffney, S.K. Allen, and K.S. Reece. Species Designation Among Sympatric Oysters Crassostrea ariakensis, C. gigas, and C. sikamea. Aquaculture 2001: Book of Abstracts. 234 pp . 2001.
  46. Gauthier, J.D. and G.R. Vasa. "Inhibtion of Perkinsus marinus in Vitro Proliferation by Heterologous Plasma." Journal of Shellfish Research, 15: pp. 515. 1996.
  47. Grabowski, Jonathan H., Sean P. Powers, Charles H. Peterson. Growth and survivorship of non-native (Crassostrea gigas and Crassostrea ariakensis) versus native eastern (Crassostrea virginica) oysters. Journal of Shellfish Research, 24[1]: p. 322. Jan 2005.
  48. Graczyk, Thaddeus K., Autumn s. Girouard, Leena, Tamang, Sharon P. Nappier, Kellog J. Schwab. Recovery, bioaccumulation, and in activation of human waterborne pathogens by the Chesapeake Bay nonnative oyster, Crassostrea ariakensis. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 72[5]. pp. 3390-3395. May 2006
  49. Grabowski, Jonathan H., Sean P. Powers, Charles H. Peterson, et al. "Consumer ratings of non-native (Crassostrea gigas and Crassostrea ariakensis) vs. native (Crassostrea virginica) oysters." Journal of shellfish Research, 22: pp. 1- 21. 2003.
  50. Guan, Y. and Y. Li. "Preliminary Studies on the Oxygen Consumption of Gill Tissue Separated from the Oyster, Crassostrea rivularis." Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica, Haiyang Yu Huzhao. Qingdao. 19: pp. 210-214. 1988.
  51. Hallerman, E. M.; S. Mills, and S. Allen. "Aquaculture of Triploid C. ariakensis in Chesapeake Bay: A Symposium Report." Maryland Publication UM-SG-TS-2002-01, Virginia Publication VSG-02-03. 2002. ( )globe image
  52. Harding, J. M. and R. Mann. Age and growth of wild suminoe (Crassostrea ariakensis, Fugita 1913) and Pacific (C. gigas, thunberg 1793) oysters from Laizhour Bay, China. Journal of Shellfish Research. 25[1]: pp. 73-82. April 2006.
  53. Hedgecock, D. et al. "Occurrence of the Kumamoto oyster Crassostrea sikamea in the Ariake Sea, Japan." Marine Biology, 133[1]: pp. 65-68. 1999.
  54. Hu, Jiacai, Youping Zhong and Yuqing Lin. "Spat Collection Technique and Spat Collection Forecast of Ostrea rivularis Gould." Journal of Xiamen Fisheries College. Xiamen Shuichan Xueyuan Xuebao. Xiamenn. 16[2]: pp. 28-33. 1994.
  55. Hu, Jiachai, Youping Zhong and Liqing Wang. "The Technological Research on Shrimp and Oyster Mixed-culture in the Penaeid Pond." Journal of Xiamen Fisheries College. Xiamen Shuichan Xueyuan Xuebao. Xiamenn. 17[2]: pp. 22-26. 1995.
  56. Huang, Z., C. Li, L. Zhang et al. "On the Marine Fouling and Boring Organisms off Zhejiang Southern Coast. I. Notes on the Fouling Organisms of Wenzhou Harbor." Acta Oceanologica Sinica Haiyang Xuebao. Beijing. 3: pp. 634-638. 1981.
  57. Hudson, K.L., A. Kozlowski, A.J. Erskine, and S.K. Alien. "Comparative field trials of triploid Crassostrea ariakensis with C. Virgninica at eight field sites in the Chesapeake Bay: Growth, mortality, condition, reversion and gametogenesis. Journal of Shellfish Research, 24[2]: pp. 658-659. Aug 2005.
  58. Jia, Xiaoping, Wengui Cai, Qin Lin and Xiaoyu Lu. "Levels, Spatial Distribution and Variation Tendence of Arsenic in Oysters from the Coast of Guangdong Province." Journal of Fishery Sciences of China/Zhongguo Shuichan Kexue. Beijing. 6[2]: pp. 97-100. 1999.
  59. Jia, Xiaoping; Qin Lin and Yuming Zhang. "Variation Tendency of BHC and DDT Concentrations in Oysters from the Coast of Guangdong Province." Journal of Fishery Sciences of China. Zhongguo Shuichan Kexue. Beijing. 3[2]: pp. 75-83. 1996.
  60. Ke, C. H. and W. X.Wang. "Bioaccumulation of Cd, Se, and Zn in an estuarine oyster (Crassostrea rivularis) and a coastal oyster (Saccostrea glomerata)." Aquatic Toxicology, 56(1): pp. 35-51. Dec 2001.
  61. Kim, S.H., M.S. Park, Y.H. Kim, and D. Park. "Genetic Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA from Korean Oysters Crassostrea gigas." Journal of the Korean Fisheries Society. Pusan. 30: pp. 804-808. 1997.
  62. Langdon, C.J. and A.M. Robinson. "Development of the Commercial Aquaculture of the Suminoe Oyster (Crassostrea rivularis)." Journal of Shellfish Research, 10: p. 238. 1991. Notes: Abstract only
  63. Langdon, Christopher J. and Anja M. Robinson. "Aquaculture Potential of the Suminoe Oyster (Crassostrea ariakensis Fugita 1913)." Aquaculture, 144[4]: pp. 321-338. Sept. 30, 1966.
  64. Leitao, A., P. Boudry, J-P. Labat and C. Thiriot-Quievreux. "Comparative Karyological Study of Cupped Oyster Species." Malacologia, 41[1]: pp. 175-186. 1999.
  65. Lapegue, S., Boutet, I., Leitao, A., Heurtebise, S., Garcia, P., Thiriot-Quievreux, C., Boudry, P. Trans-atlantic distribution of a mangrove oyster species revealed by 16S mtDNA and karyological analyses. Biological Bulletin. (Woods Hole). 202[3]: pp. 232-242. June, 2002.
  66. Leffler, Merrill. "An Asian Oyster for the Chesapeake Update on Crassostrea ariakensis." Maryland Aquafarmer, pp. 4-5. Summer 2003.
  67. Li, Gang, Sophie Hubert, Katherine Bucklin, et al. "Characterization of 79 microsatellite DNA markes in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas." Molecular Ecology Notes, 3:[2]: pp. 228-232, 2003.
  68. Li, Keling, et al. "Experimental Studies on Nourishing Yin Effect of Oyster Complete Nutritional Tablet." Chinese Journal of Marine Drugs. Zhongguo Haiyang Yaowu. Qingdao. 13[4], pp. 12-16. 1994.
  69. Lin, Qin, Xiaoping Jia and Xiaoyu Lu. "Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Oysters During the Fattening Period."Chinese Oceanological and Limnological Science Conference. Disici Zhongguo Haiyang Huzhao Kexue Huiyi Unwenji. pp. 135-141; Qingdao, Shandon (People's Republic of China). Science Press, Beijing (China); 1991.
  70. Lu, Chaohua. "Oyster Ostrea rivularis as an Indicator of Heavy Metals Pollution." Journal of Oceanography in Taiwan Strait. Taiwan Haixia. Xiamen. n.d.
  71. Lu, Chaohua; Wenzao Xie and Guojun Zhou. "Studies on Crassostrea rivularis as a Biological Indicator of Cadmium Pollution." Journal of Fishery Sciences of China. Zhongguo Shuichan Kexue. Beijing. 5[2]: pp. 79-83. 1998.
  72. Luckenbach, M.W. "Crassostrea ariakensis: Panacea or Pandora?" University of Maryland, Center for Environmental Science. 4 pp. ( globe image(2004?)
  73. Luckenbach, M.W. "Crassostrea ariakensis: What do we know and what do we need to know to make a rational decision on introduction?" Conference. 6th International Conference on Shellfish Restoration, Charleston, SC. pp. 20-24. Nov. 2002.
  74. Luckenbach, M.W., and A. Curry. "Competition for Space between Crassostrea virginica and C. Ariakensis: Implications for the Introduction of a Non-indigenous Species." Conference. 6th International Conference on shellfish restoration, Charleston, SC. pp. 20-24, Nov. 2002.
  75. Luckenbach, M.W., and A.G. J. Curry. "Evaluating potential competitive interactions between Crassostrea virginica and non-indigenous oyster species in Chesapeake Bay." Aquaculture 2001: Book of Abstracts. 2001.
  76. Luckenbach, M.W., R. Carnegie, L.D. Coen, K. Jr. Pynter, K. Reece. "Observations on the ecology of Crassostrea ariakensis in its native environment." Journal of Shellfish Research, 24[1]: pp. 326-327. Jan 2005.
  77. Luckenbach, M.W., S. Bonniwell and C. Baylis. "Swimming Behavior and vertical distribution of Crassostrea ariakensis larvae: Effects of larval age and salinity." Conference. 6th International Conference on Shellfish Restoration, Charleston, SC. pp. 20-24 Nov. 2002.
  78. Lutz, C. Greg. "Asian Oysters in the Chesapeake Bay --- A New Beginning?" Aquaculture Magazine, pp. 28-32. May/June 2003.
  79. Lyu, S., S.K. Allen Jr. et al. "Attempted Hybridization of Eastern and Pacific Oysters Using Bridging Crosses." Journal of Shellfish Research, 15: p. 512. 1996.
  80. MacIntyre, A and Kaattari, S. Altered Perkinsus marinus protease profiles upon exposure to selected oyster tissue homogenates. Aquaculture 2001: Book of Abstracts, p. 398. 2001.
  81. Manuel, J. V.S. Kennedy and R.I.E. Newell. "A comparison of the behavior of larvae of two species of oysters, Crassostrea virginica and Crassostrea ariakensis. Journal of Shellfish Research. 24[2]: pp. 665-666. Aug 2005.
  82. Moazzam, M and S.H. N. Rizvi. "Settlement of Oyster Larvae in Pakistani Waters and Its Possible Implication for Setting up Oyster Culture." Symposium on Coastal Aquaculture. Cochin (India). 1980.
  83. Moss, J.A., e.M. Burreson, and K.S. Reece. Advanced Perkinsus marinus infections in Crassostrea ariakensis maintained under laboratory conditions. Journal of Shellfish Research. 25[1]: pp.65-72. April 2006
  84. Moss, J.A. and K.S. Reece. "Pathogens of the non-native oyster, Crassostrea ariakensis, in its native range: Current findings and work in progress." Journal of Shellfish Research. 24[2]: p.668. Aug 2005.
  85. National Academies, Committee on Non-Native Oysters in the Chesapeake Bay. Report in Brief: Non-native Oysters in the Chesapeake Bay.<>globe image (PDF file) 2003.
  86. NOAA Chesapeake Bay Office. "Non-native Oyster Research." globe image<reports_noaaresearch/ariakensis_quarterly_review03-10-05.pdf> (PDF file) Quarterly Review. 9 pp. Spring 2005.
  87. Non-native Oysters in the Chesapeake Bay. A Workshop Sponsored by the Scientific and Technical Advisory Committee and the National Academy of Sciences. October 7-8, 2002. ( image Fredericksburg, VA. Chesapeake Bay Program. Scientific and Technical Advisory Committee. 2002
  88. Numachi, Ken-Ichi. "Distribution and Taxonomy of Oysters." T. Imai, editor. Senkai Kanzen Youshoku (Through Culture in Shallow Sea). Koseisha-Koseikaku, Tokyo. 1971: pp. 83-90. Note: In Japanese. 1971.
  89. Numachi, Ken-Ichi. "Seriological Studies of Species and Races in Oysters." American Naturalist, 96: pp. 211-217. 1962.
  90. Perdue, J.A. and G. Erickson. "A Comparison of the Gametogenic Cycle Between the Pacific Oyster Crassostea gigas and Suminoe Oyster Crassostrea rivularis in Washington State." Aquaculture, 37: pp. 231-237. 1984.
  91. Paolisso, Michael, Stan Herman and Nicole Dery. Cultural Analysis for EIS on Oyster Restoration. Alternatives, Including Crassostrea ariakensis. Preliminary report prepared for Maryland Department of Natural Resources. April 30, 2005. ( image
  92. Powledge, Fred. "Chesapeake Bay Restoration: A Model of What?" BioScience, 55[12]: pp. 1032-1038. Dec 2005.
  93. Que, Huayong and S.K. Allen. Hybridization of tetraploid and diploid Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg) with diploid C. ariakensis (Fujita). Jr. Journal of Shellfish Research, 21[1]: pp. 137-143. Jun 2002.
  94. Reese, K. "Molecular genetic analysis of Crassostrea ariakensis and related oyster species." Conference. Genetics in Aquaculture VII, Townsville Australia. July 15-22, 2000. Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB No. 3, Townsville MC, Queensland 4810, Australia. 2000.
  95. Rickards, William L. and Paul C. Ticco. The Suminoe Oyster, Crassostrea ariakensis, in Chesapeake Bay: Current Status and Near-Term Research Activities. Virginia Sea Grant, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA. VSG-02-23.( ) globe image(2002?)
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