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AQUACULTURE INFORMATION CENTER - DOC/NOAA

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National Marine Aquaculture Initiative Project Summaries 2001

(Note: Some projects have links to full reports at end of individual summaries)

Globe preceding link to offsite Globe symbol preceding a link indicates you will be going to a non-Federal website.

Summary

In Fiscal Year 2001 the Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR) conducted a national competition for innovative research, policy and regulatory analysis and development of marine aquaculture in the US. Approximately $5 million dollars was competed in a process which included a pre-proposal and full proposal competition with national review panels for review of each set of proposals. Two hundred twenty three pre-proposals were received and 48 were selected for development into full proposals. A final selection of 23 proposals went forward for funding representing 24 states and Puerto Rico. Several projects were grouped into regional efforts so that there are five regions covered when including another regional program previously funded through OAR grants. These regional areas are: Northeast(New England), Southeast (Florida-Puerto Rico), the Gulf Coast, the Pacific Northwest and Hawaii/Pacific. One project was also selected from the Great Lakes in order to set the foundation for a future regional effort in that area. We funded several new candidate species for aquaculture in the various regions including: cod, halibut, haddock and scallops for the Northeast; black sea bass, redfish, cobia and mutton snapper for the Southeast, sablefish and cardinal rockfish for the Northwest, and Pacific threadfin for Hawaii/Pacific. There was continued funding on regulatory and policy oriented projects (six projects) as well as Geographic Information System studies to help site coastal aquaculture in the most environmentally acceptable areas (two projects). One project on marine recirculating systems and urban aquaculture technologies was funded for a project researching flounder and algae polyculture in an urban environment.

The majority of projects were multi-investigator, multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional, and multi-state in nature. The most successful projects were those that had academic, private industry and governmental partnerships to provide a more holistic approach to the problems that face the US aquaculture industry. The overall goal of the competition was to bring the various research lines conducted by NOAA's National Sea Grant College Program, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the National Ocean Service into coordination and create new industry and commercial opportunities in environmentally responsible technologies.

Abstracts for the projects funded in the National Marine Aquaculture Initiative for 2001. Projects marked by * indicate offshore technology component. Projects marked by # indicate urban emphasis. (Projects are not listed in any specific order beneath subcategories.)

Candidate Species

Health and Nutrition

Best Management Practices and Ecosystems Management

Legal and Operational Framework Projects

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Candidate Species Projects

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* Project: Using sable fish to create a technical base for marine fish aquaculture in the Pacific Northwest

State: WA

Principal Investigators: Robert Iwamoto, Northwest Fisheries Science Center; NMFS, Mike Rust, Northwest Fisheries Science Center; Faye Dong, University of Washington; S. Joner and R. Svec, Makah Tribal Fisheries; T. Coker, Ocean Spar Technologies; J. Salisbury and J. Bersch, Supreme Alaskan Seafoods; P. Heggelund, Aquaseed Corporation; and H. Barnett, B. Campbell, K. Massee, K. Shearer, Northwest Fisheries Science Center

Abstract: The long-term objective is to develop a viable aquaculture system for the production of sablefish with the Makah Tribe and other potential beneficiaries. The specific technical objectives of this project are:

Some accomplishments:

Project: An integrated approach to the development of cobia (Rachycentron canadum) culture in the United States

State: VA, MS, SC, MA, TX

Principal Investigators: Bill DuPaul, Virginia Institute of Marine Science; Connie Arnold, University of Texas; Mike Oesterling, Virginia Institute of Marine Science; Joan Holt, University of Texas; Fu-lin Chu, Virginia Institute of Marine Science; Peter Thomas, University of Texas; Jeffrey Lotz, University of Southern Mississippi; John Ogle, University of Southern Mississippi; James Franks, University of Southern Mississippi; Robin Overstreet, University of Southern Mississippi; Jesse Chappell, Southland Fisheries Corporation; Theodore Smith, SC Dept. of Natural Resources; and Joshua Goldman, Fins Technology

Abstract: Cobia (Rachycentron canadum) is a mild tasting, flaky, white-flesh fish with an extremely rapid growth rate and high food conversion efficiency. As such, cobia appears to have a unique combination of attributes that give it the potential to become a major replacement for declining wild fish stocks. This project brings a multi-disciplinary team of academic research scientists and industry partners together to work on four main objectives:

Progress Bullets:


Project: Development of reliable spawning, nursery and juvenile production techniques for commercialization of black sea bass aquaculture

State: SC, NH, NC, TX

Principal Investigators: Theodore Smith, South Carolina Marine Resources Research; David Berlinsky, University of New Hampshire; Joseph Tomasso, Clemson University; Wade Watanabe, University of North Carolina; Delbert Gatlin, Texas A and M University; Gloria Seaborn, National Ocean Service; Alvin Stokes, Extension, Waddell Mariculture Center; Jack Whetson, SC Sea Grant Extension; Jesse Chappell, Southland Fisheries; Richard B. Eager, Swimming Rock Fish and ShrimpCompany; and George Nardi, Great Bay Aquafarms Inc.

Abstract: Identification of new aquaculture species is critical for the US industry to continue to expand. Recent work with black sea bass, Centropristis striata, suggests that this species has characteristics, which make it an excellent candidate for commercial development. The goal of this project is to establish a commercial aquaculture industry for black sea bass by improving the predictability of spawning and developing protocols for the commercial-scale production of juveniles. This will be accomplished through a research team consisting of state and federal government staff, academicians, and private entrepreneurs focused on the following objectives:

Updated Summary March 2006:

The goal of this NMAI sponsored project was to improve the predictability of spawning black sea bass and to develop protocols for commercial scale production by bringing together a research team of state and federal government staff, academicians, and private entrepreneurs. The results of this work suggest that black sea bass, Centropristis striata, has characteristics that make it an excellent candidate for commercial development.

The protocols for volitional tank spawning and strip spawning were improved by studies comparing the reproductive performance of recently captured and photo-thermally controlled broodstock. These studies demonstrated that multiple tank spawns can occur over an extended period of time while strip spawning is usually complete within several days. Recently captured ripe fish were spawned using hCG and LHRHa hormones, but conditioned fish gave a better overall spawning response and egg viability than recently captured fish. Conditioned fish also responded to thermal manipulation after a period of spawning quiescence. Additionally, it was determined that over a period of years all captive fish became males requiring capture of new females.

The stage of ovarian development at which hormone delivery produced the maximum response in female black sea bass and the proper dose and delivery system of the hormones was an important aspect of the research. Females with oocytes > 500 μm in diameter were most susceptible to hormonal induction of ovulation. The use of LHRHa in pelleted form or a liquid was equally effective at inducing ovulation and data suggested better performance at mid-to-higher dose levels. The hormone hCG is an FDA approved spawning aid and worked as effectively as LHRHa at inducing ovulation.

Commercial scale production of juveniles was accomplished in intensive indoor recirculating systems and in outdoor earthen ponds. Mass production of more than 250,000 juveniles was demonstrated by industry partners in intensive indoor recirculating systems. Pond nursery systems show potential for juvenile production, as well. Harvest densities in outdoor ponds ranged from 3,000-8,000/ha after 30 days.

The optimal and limiting effects of environmental conditions on the growth and survival of black sea bass juveniles were determined. The optimal salinity for growth was calculated to be 23.4 g/L while the optimal temperature was calculated to be 25.2 C. Juvenile black sea bass survived exposure to 50 mg/L nitrite-N for 10 days in 12, 20, and 35 g/L salinity, but 50% mortality occurred when exposed to 0.7-0.8 mg/L un-ionized ammonia for 24 hours at 25 C and 20 g/L salinity.

Practical diets and densities were evaluated for larval and juvenile production and broodstock maturation. Black sea bass larvae can be intensively reared using rotifers as first feed. Diet tests with juveniles suggest considerable flexibility in providing energy-yielding nutrients when fed a diet with crude protein levels exceeding 40%. The fatty acid profiles of oocytes of wild and cultured broodstock females differed but no relation to hatchery performance was detected.

This collaborative project has produced an astounding number of publications.

Black Sea Bass
Wild caught adule Black Sea Bass Black Sea Bass in trap Black Sea Bass adult male.
Basket of trap capture wild adults

Trap of captured Black Sea Bass being dumped

Black Sea Bass - adult male
Black Sea Bass adult female Stripping Black Sea Bass of spawn Black Sea Bass juvenile in tank
Black Sea Bass adult female Strip spawning a female black sea bass Juveniles in a tank

Summary:

The goal of this NMAI sponsored project was to improve the predictability of spawning black sea bass and to develop protocols for commercial scale production by bringing together a research team of state and federal government staff, academicians, and private entrepreneurs. The results of this work suggest that black sea bass, Centropristis striata, has characteristics that make it an excellent candidate for commercial development.

The protocols for volitional tank spawning and strip spawning were improved by studies comparing the reproductive performance of recently captured and photo-thermally controlled broodstock. These studies demonstrated that multiple tank spawns can occur over an extended period of time while strip spawning is usually complete within several days. Recently captured ripe fish were spawned using hCG and LHRHa hormones, but conditioned fish gave a better overall spawning response and egg viability than recently captured fish. Conditioned fish also responded to thermal manipulation after a period of spawning quiescence. Additionally, it was determined that over a period of years all captive fish became males requiring capture of new females.

The stage of ovarian development at which hormone delivery produced the maximum response in female black sea bass and the proper dose and delivery system of the hormones was an important aspect of the research. Females with oocytes > 500 Ám in diameter were most susceptible to hormonal induction of ovulation. The use of LHRHa in pelleted form or a liquid was equally effective at inducing ovulation and data suggested better performance at mid-to-higher dose levels. The hormone hCG is an FDA approved spawning aid and worked as effectively as LHRHa at inducing ovulation.

Commercial scale production of juveniles was accomplished in intensive indoor recirculating systems and in outdoor earthen ponds. Mass production of more than 250,000 juveniles was demonstrated by industry partners in intensive indoor recirculating systems. Pond nursery systems show potential for juvenile production, as well. Harvest densities in outdoor ponds ranged from 3,000-8,000/ha after 30 days.

The optimal and limiting effects of environmental conditions on the growth and survival of black sea bass juveniles were determined. The optimal salinity for growth was calculated to be 23.4 g/L while the optimal temperature was calculated to be 25.2 C. Juvenile black sea bass survived exposure to 50 mg/L nitrite-N for 10 days in 12, 20, and 35 g/L salinity, but 50% mortality occurred when exposed to 0.7-0.8 mg/L un-ionized ammonia for 24 hours at 25 C and 20 g/L salinity.

Practical diets and densities were evaluated for larval and juvenile production and broodstock maturation. Black sea bass larvae can be intensively reared using rotifers as first feed. Diet tests with juveniles suggest considerable flexibility in providing energy-yielding nutrients when fed a diet with crude protein levels exceeding 40%. The fatty acid profiles of oocytes of wild and cultured broodstock females differed but no relation to hatchery performance was detected.

This collaborative project has produced an astounding number of 33 publications.


* Project: Hatchery Production of Mutton Snapper (Lutjanus analis) and other high value marine food fish.

State: FL

Principal Investigators: Daniel Benetti, University of Miami; Bong Kim, Florida International University; Wade Watanabe , North Carolina State University; Jesse Chappell, Southland Fisheries Corporation; Albert Tacon, Consultant; Michael Feeley, University of Miami; Douglas Mader, DVM; and Tracy Hamilton, Florida Keys Community College

Abstract: The main objective of this project is to refine and implement reliable techniques of controlled reproduction and larval husbandry, which in turn will make large-scale production of fingerlings possible.

Research will focus on:

The fingerlings will be grown out by an industry partner at a location in Puerto Rico and in cooperation with the University of Puerto Rico scientific community.

Accomplishments and milestones

In addition to a research and development financial incentive from the Puerto Rico Industrial Development Company, Snapperfarm, Inc. has obtained all the necessary federal and state permits to proceed with the development of its offshore aquaculture project off the coast of Puerto Rico.

Environmental Impact Preliminary Report

Full Progress Report

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Health and Nutrition Projects

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Project: Development of methods for the production of effective micro-particulate feeds for marine fish larvae

State: OR,WA, MT

Principal Investigators: Chris Langdon, Oregon State University; Mike Rust, Northwest Fisheries Center, NMFS; and Rick Barrows, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Bozeman

Abstract: The overall objectives are to develop complex micro-particles (particles made up of separate inclusion and carrier particle types) capable of supporting growth and development of marine fish larvae. These complex micro particles should:

This project proposes to develop formulated diets for marine fish larvae to reduce dependency on live feeds and to improve success in larval culture. The systematic approach includes further development of inclusion and carrier particles, testing combinations of inclusion and carrier particles as complex micro-particles, testing further processing of complex micro-particles, and developing a digestibility method to test complex micro-particles, prior to growth trials with the most promising complex particle types. A complete systematic protocol for the evaluation of new micro-particle types will result from this project. The following specific objectives outline the elements of the protocol to be completed in this proposal:

Progress (August 1st 2001)


Project: Development of large-scale rearing methods for the continuous culture of marine copepods

State: NC, NH

Principal Investigators: Harry Daniels, North Carolina State University; George Nardi, Great Bay Aquafarms; Timothy Pfeiffer, USDA/ARS, Pine Bluff, AR; and Peter Ferket, North Carolina State University

Abstract: Copepods are the live feed that results in the highest growth and development of fish larvae. Fish fed copepods have been consistently shown to grow faster and develop sooner than fish fed a diet of rotifers and Artemia. The overall aim of this project is to develop a culture system for the large-scale production of copepods. The production goal for this system will be 5,000 individuals/L/day, a level that has been identified by other researchers as the minimum level for economic feasibility. Specifically, this project will aim to:

Progress bullets:


Project: Signature-tagged mutagenesis: a novel and rapid approach for development of aquaculture vaccines

State: CA

Principal Investigators: James Carlberg, Kent Sea Tech; Jack van Olst, Kent Sea Tech; Victor Nizet, University of California; Mark Westerman, Kent Sea Tech; Mark Westerman, Kent Sea Tech; and Vaughn Ostland. Kent Sea Tech

Abstract: Systemic infection with Streptococcus iniae represents a serious fish health and economic problem threatening aquaculture of several commercially important species. This proposal constitutes a synergist effort toward understanding S. iniae virulence using a molecular genetic approach. The work proposed will be one of the first applications of Signature Tagged Mutagenesis (STM) in a marine aquatic pathogen. Using the powerful technique of signature tagged mutagenesis and in vivo selection, the investigators will identify S. iniae genes critical to disease production. Hybrid striped bass will be infected with 25 separate pools of S. iniae mutants and brain tissue will be harvested from infected fish. A PCR based hybridization system comparing tags present in the pre-selection and post-selection pools will permit identification of over 100 attenuated mutants, i.e.. S. iniae mutants unable to establish systemic infection. The key virulence role of select S. iniae genes will be confirmed by targeted mutagenesis and complementation analysis. Selected virulent S. iniae targeted mutants will be further analyzed for their ability to induce a S. iniae-specific humoral response in order to initiate development of vaccines for this disease.

Accomplishments:

Identified approximately 75-80 S. iniae mutant strains attenuated for virulence using a combination of in vivo and in vitro screening approaches. Successfully recovered the transposon insertion sites, obtained DNA sequence for four putative S. iniae virulence genes, and will sequence the insertion sites for the remaining attenuated mutants during the second year. Conducted one proof of principal vaccine challenge trial and shown that it confers excellent protection to HSB challenged with virulent wild type S. iniae. Development of polyclonal antibodies against S. iniae antigens expressed in vivo will allow identification of antigens that are potentially important vaccine targets. Produced highly purified HSB immunoglobulin and will use it to development mouse monoclonal anti-HSB IgM antibodies that will allow development of sensitive ELISA and Western blot assays for S.iniae infections in year two of the project.


Project: Development of a national aquatic animal health plan for the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)

State: MS, WA

Principal Investigators: Spenser Garrett, NMFS Kevin Amos, Washington Dept. of Fish and Wildlife Tony Lowery, NMFS

Abstract: This project will develop a National Aquatic Animal Health Plan for Salmonids (NAAHPS), and will contain the necessary components which provide for the safe and efficient intrastate, interstate, and international transport of aquatic animals produced in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). Prior to finalization of the plan, the NAAHPS will be subjected to a simulation testing procedure which will:

Lessons learned from the simulated implementation testing will result in more rigorous NAAHPS and allow it to be a model for developing other aquacultured species group plans. This project will also outline a framework to organize other species group plans into a coordinated, overall National Aquatic Animal Health Plan.


Project: Determination of dietary requirements for cultured summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) for enhancement of aquaculture potential

State: VA

Principal Investigators: Steven Craig, Virginia Tech; Michael Schwarz, Virginia Seafood Agricultural Research and Extension Center; Michael Jahncke, Virginia Seafood Agricultural Research and Extension Center; and Stephen Smith, Virginia Tech/MD Veterinary School

Abstract: This proposal will address the nutritional problems with currently available commercial diets for juvenile summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) by investigating basic nutritional requirements for this species. Research will focus on determining the optimal dietary protein levels, lipid requirements, energy to protein ratios and carbohydrate to lipid ratios that will support maximum weight gain, optimal health and desirable final body compositional traits in this species. Additionally, biochemical and immune responses will be assessed after the feeding trials to investigate any dietary effects on these critical parameters in an effort to characterize and describe these indicators for future use in commercial production facilities for summer flounder.

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Best Management Practices and Ecosystems Management

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Project: Production of a best management practices manual for aquaculture in Wisconsin and the Great Lakes region

State: WI

Principal Investigators: Jeffrey Malison, University of Wisconsin; Christopher Hartleb, University of Wisconsin; Stephen Yeo, University of Wisconsin; David Gollon, Wisconsin Aquaculture Association; Jerry Rodenberg, William Furbish, Daniel Helsel and Robert Masnado, Wisconsin Dept. Nat. Resources; Myron Kebus, Wisconsin Dept. of Agriculture; and Gary Casper, Milwaukee Public Museum

Abstract: Best Management Practices (BMP) have provided practical and cost-effective methods for assuring that aquaculture is conducted in an environmentally sound and sustainable manner. BMPs exist for several locations and industries but not for aquaculture in the Great Lakes area. The overall goal of this project is to provide information that is needed by current and prospective aquaculturists and regulatory agencies in Great Lakes states to foster the development of a sustainable aquaculture industry. Specific objectives are to:

Progress:
Assembled a committee of experts to develop the BMP manual. The committee includes personnel from 3 Wisconsin universities, the Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade & Consumer Protection, the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, the Wisconsin Aquaculture Association, and a member of Partners in Amphibian and Reptile Conservation.

  • The chapters are currently being reviewed and revised by members of the committee.
  • 2005 Progress Report

  • Project: Massachusetts ocean resource information system (MORIS)

    State: MA

    Principal Investigators: Susan Snow-Cotter, Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management; Diane Carle, Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management; Scott Soares, Massachusetts Department of Food and Agriculture; Dale Leavitt, Woods Hole Sea Grant; and Tom Hoopes, Massachusetts Division of Fisheries

    Abstract: The Massachusetts Ocean Resource Information System (MORIS) addresses several obstacles to the development of marine aquaculture: concerns over environmental impacts, difficult permit and licensing processes, and multi-use conflicts in the coastal zone. The project will provide easy-to-use applications and a centralized database of resources end users to make a more effective decision for siting aquaculture endeavors in the coastal zone. This phase of the project consists of outreach, training, data mining and data development to improve the GIS based system developed in the previous phase of the project.

    Progress Report:


    * Project: Balanced ecosystems management for the development of sustainable offshore aquaculture in the Gulf of Mexico

    State: MS, LA, TX, AL

    Principal Investigators: Chris Bridger, University of Southern Mississippi; John Gold, Texas A and M, University; Cliff Goudey, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Donald Lewis, Texas A and M University; Jeffrey Lotz, University of Southern Mississippi; Ben Posadas, Mississippi State University; Ian Workman, National Marine Fisheries Service; Gary Loverich, Ocean Spar Technologies; Langley Gace, Ocean Spar Technologies; David Martin, Land of Lakes Farmland Feed; Dennis Good, Good Streak Marine; Tim Reid, Mississippi/Alabama Sea Grant Communicator; D. LaDon Swann, Auburn University; Harold Rosenthal, University of Kiel(Advisor only); Robert Vega, Texas Parks and Wildlife; George White, Good Streak Marine; and Sharon Walker, University of Southern Mississippi

    Abstract: Research will be conducted in a collaborative, Gulf-wide (even nation-wide), university-based interdisciplinary (husbandry, environmental, engineering, economics/marketing, disease mitigation and genetics) fashion with broad public/commercial input needed to develop socially and environmentally acceptable offshore aquaculture for the Gulf of Mexico region. A Proposed Offshore Aquaculture Consortium (OAC) research and demonstration project will be conducted in a manner similar to a commercial-scale offshore aquaculture operation (i.e.. feeding, net cleaning, mortality removal, fish size/health sampling). All necessary farm chores will be documented with regards to cost and necessary man-hours to assist in determination of economic viability and to compile enterprise budgets needed to assemble a "Best Management Practices" workbook. To view the CageCam in Mississippi, visit Globe symbol indicating offsite link  http://www-org.usm.edu/~ooa/index.htm


    * Project: Offshore finfish mariculture in the Western Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington State

    State: WA

    Principal Investigators: Peter Granger, Washington Sea Grant Program; Jack Rensel, Rensel Associates Aquatic Science Consultants; John Forster, Aquaculture Business Consultant; Dana Woodruff, Battelle Marine Science Lab; Dale Kiefer, University of Southern California; John Pitts, Bellweather Consulting Washington Fish Growers Association Washington Dept. of Natural Resources Washington Dept. of Ecology Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Makah Tribal Nation

    Abstract: This project will develop the necessary environmental data to support permit applications by interested investors for offshore net-pen finfish mariculture in NW Washington. It will use state-of-the-art physical/biological modeling and a novel and dynamic GIS program for data analyses and presentation. The study will also develop a methodology for doing this work that can be used elsewhere in the US. The final work products will consist of a website posting of summarized results and key modeling products as well as a formal written report and data appendices. These reports and work products will be used by the Washington Fish Growers Association, the Washington State Department of Natural Resources and the Makah Tribe to encourage investment in finfish mariculture in the Straits and should be sufficient in detail to greatly expedite permit application for potential investors.

    Key findings to date are:

    Juan de Fuca Summary Report

    Final Third Year Report

    Rensel, J.E. and J.R.M. Forster.  2007.  Beneficial environmental effects of marine net pen aquaculture.  Rensel Associates Aquatic Sciences Technical Report prepared for NOAA Office of Atmospheric and Oceanic Research. 57 pp.  http://www.wfga.net/documents/marine_finfish_finalreport.pdf

    Rensel, J.E., D.A. Kiefer, J.R.M. Forster, D.L. Woodruff and N.R. Evans. 2007. Offshore finfish mariculture in the Strait of Juan de Fuca. Bull. Fish. Res. Agen. No. 19, 113-129, http://www.fra.affrc.go.jp/bulletin/bull/bull19/13.pdf


    * Project: Hawaii offshore aquaculture research Project (HOARP) Phase III: Critical research and development issues for commercialization

    State: HI

    Principal Investigators: Charles Helsley, University of Hawaii; Tony Ostrowski, Oceanic Institute University of Hawaii; J. Bailey-Brock, R. Brock, S. Dollar, J. Dore, Dale Hebel, D. Karl Oceanic Institute; S. Divarkaran, W. Dominy, I. Forster, and C.W. Laidley; Cates International

    Abstract: This project is a joint project between the University of Hawaii and the Oceanic Institute and these organizations will continue their joint efforts to research offshore aquaculture in the Pacific by teaming up with several commercial partners to leverage assets and expertise in carrying out this project. Offshore, UH will collect water quality and benthic data while OI will address early fish survival issues in replicated offshore and laboratory simulated nursery cage systems. Specifically UH will:

    Oceanic Institute will focus on the offshore survival of Pacific threadfin by determining the effect of nursery cage design and fish stocking size on survival of fingerlings.

    .NOAA photo of the 2002 Fish Fry groupPHOTO: A successful tasting of the "chef -prepared"
    Moi or Pacific threadfin:

    Left to Right Vice-Admiral Conrad Lautenbacher (Undersecretary of NOAA), Virginia Enos (Cates International, HI), Senator Daniel Akaka (Hawaii), Ronald Baird, (National Sea Grant Program), Glen Chu (Indigo Restaurant, HI), and Gary Cars (Oceanic Institute, HI).

     

    The following efforts have been undertaken and completed:

    Continuing cleanup activities include:

    Highlights 2002:

    Open Ocean Offshore Report by Dr. Helsley


    Project: Ecological characteristics and carrying capacity of suspended shellfish culture systems

    State: WA

    Principal Investigators: Dan Cheney, Pacific Shellfish Institute; Jonathan Davis, Taylor Resources, Inc.; Kenneth Brooks, Aquatic Environmental Science Lab; Curtis Ebbesmeyer, Evans-Hamilton Rita Horner, University of Washington; and Frank Smith, Northwest Research Associates

    Abstract: The goal of this study is to quantify the interaction of bivalves cultured in an intensive raft culture system to the surrounding environment by examining linkages between the oceanographic and physiological processes and relationships with nutrient loading and ecosystem function.

    Specific objectives are:


    Project: Improved recovery and utilization of seafood processing waste and by-catch in aquafeeds to enhance substainability of aquaculture

    State: TX, ID, AK

    Principal Investigators: Delbert Gatlin, Texas A and M, University; Ronald Hardy, Hagerman Fish culture Experiment Station, University of Idaho; and Jerry Babbitt, NMFS Alaska Granvil Treece, Texas Sea Grant Extension

    Abstract: This proposal outlines a multi-disciplinary, regional project to address critical issues that will enhance the use of fish processing wastes and by-catch in aquafeeds. Fish processing wastes and by-catch from the Pacific Northwest and Gulf of Mexico, respectively, will be the focus of these investigations as they represent large resources that are currently underutilized. Several processing technologies will be used to produce meals from fish processing waste and by-catch, including de-boning, protein hydrolysis, and several methods of drying. A major thrust of this project will be to determine the minimum amount of fish meals from fish processing waste and by-catch, which will likely differ in amino acid content from regular fish meal, needed in aquafeed formulations to provide the essential nutrients required to ensure rapid, economical fish growth. The project will evaluate the nutritional value of seafood wastes in diets of rainbow trout and red drum as representative of cold water and warm water species, respectively. An economic and other analyses related to the production, manufacturing and utilization of fisheries byproducts in aqua-feeds will be conducted.

    Accomplishments:

    Wang, X., P. Li and D. M. Gatlin III (2004) Nutritional evaluation of fisheries processing waste and by-catch meals in the diet of red drum Sciaenops ocellatus. World Aquaculture 2004, Honolulu, Hawaii.

    Whiteman, K. M. and D. M. Gatlin III (2004) Evaluation of crystalline amino acid test diets including pH adjustment with red drum and hybrid striped bass. 11 th International Symposium on Nutrition and Feeding of Fish, Phuket Island, Thailand.


    Project: Quantifying impacts of clam culture on adjacent communities

    State: FL

    Principal Investigators: Karen Metcalf, Florida Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services; and Sherman Wilhelm, Florida Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services

    Abstract: The goal of the proposed work will be to examine the impact of clam culture in an aquaculture lease area on adjacent communities, which include shallow water soft bottoms, salt marsh, oyster bars and sea grass beds. The work will involve two main components: baseline data collection prior to the initiation of clam culture and quantification of impacts once leases are stocked. Information on the impact of clam culture will be used for improved management of aquaculture leases and, if necessary, to refine Florida's Aquaculture Best Management Practices.

    Specific objectives include:

    Accomplishments

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    Legal Framework Projects

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    Project: Clarifying marine aquaculture legal rights: Improving the legal interest framework

    State: ME

    Principal Investigators: John Duff, University of Maine Law School

    Abstract: Recent research findings in the sciences (social and natural) indicate that the legal barriers to marine aquaculture development are directly related to social and cultural concerns of coastal and traditional fishing community members, as well as the physical, chemical, and biological capacity of prospective development sites. Affected community concerns include a general wariness of government-led efforts that are perceived as creating or reallocating property rights or interests in ocean areas or resources. At the same time effective aquaculture development depends on the ability of individuals to secure financing which in turn is directly related to the ability of prospective developers to identify their legal interests in areas and resources that may serve as security in loan negotiations.

    This project seeks to identify legal and policy issues related to the property interests involved in ocean aquaculture financing; to assess other property interest regimes that may serve as models for allowing common property resource users to define a sufficient property interest that will meet the requirements set forth by financial institutions to warrant financing of aquaculture operations; to determine the state, local and federal governments' willingness to convey such an interest to aquaculture operations; to determine the means for guaranteeing a public benefit for such transactions; to gauge public willingness for such transactions; and to inform stakeholders of results of research through presentations and publications.


    Project: Engineered ecosystems for high rate sustainable marine shrimp and bivalve production

    State: SC

    Principal Investigators: David Brune, Clemson University; A.G. Eversole, Clemson University; J. A. Collier, Clemson University; T.E. Schwedler, Clemson University; and Knox Grant, L. Sololev and A.Picchi, Atlantic Aquafarms

    Abstract: The overall goal of this project is to adapt and demonstration a prototype marine Partitioned Aquaculture System (PAS) process for successful culture of high value marine shrimp and co-cultured marine bivalves with yields potentially in excess of 20,000 kg/ha, with reduced resource inputs and reduced or eliminated environmental impact.

    Specific objectives at Clemson University are:

    Specific objectives at Atlantic Farms:

     Middle size class shrimp (stocked in Mid-July) Shrimp at 20 grams. Greenhouse used in Clemson University research project. Outside view of Clemson research project greenhouses.
    View of four greenhouse structures used in research project. Photo showing tilapia co-culture with shrimp Photo showing cointinuous solids removal system Photo showing algal differences

    Accomplishments:


    # Project: Development of an Integrated Recirculating Aquaculture System for Nutrient Bioremediation in Urban Aquaculture

    State: CT, NH, NY, Canada

    Principal Investigators: Charles Yarish, University of Connecticut; G. P. Kraemer, State University of New York; Thierry Chopin, University of New Brunswick; C.D. Neefus, University of New Hampshire; George Nardi, Great Bay Aquafarms; and John Curtis, Bridgeport Regional Vocational School

    Abstract: This proposal is to develop a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) suitable for urban aquaculture and to develop financial models to facilitate funding of startup business planning to use the system in urban areas. The project represents a regional, multi-institutional, multi-disciplinary cooperative study to provide scientific, technical, and business information, as well as training, for the development of a relatively small-scale (800 to 1000 m2 footprint) integrated finfish/seaweed recirculating aquaculture system suitable for use in urban areas.

    Several objectives are:

    Objective 1: Develop and demonstrate the performance of a continuously operating, integrated recirculating aquaculture system, from which finfish and marine plant biomass is harvested;

    Objective 2: Demonstrate that acceptable water quality can be maintained in such a system and that effluent nutrient levels are well below guidelines being developed by the EPA;

    Objective 3: Compare four candidate native species of Porphyra to act as biofilters and as crops;

    Objective 4: Examine nutrient dose-response relationships to determine the maximum finfish biomass that can be maintained for a given marine plant biomass (and biofilter area);

    Objective 5: Provide education in the technical and scientific aspects of aquaculture at both high school and university levels.

    Photo 1: Students rotating seeding wheel in greenhouse. Photo 2: Seeding wheel being seeded by suspensions of conchospores Photo 3: Porphyra nets mounted on seeding wheel in seawater Photo 4: Conchospore germlings that have attached to nori net fibers after a seeding operation Photo 5: Porphyra blades up to 1.2 cm in length after culturing on nori nets at 12-15degrees C

    Photo 1: Bridgeport Vocational Aquaculture students rotating seeding wheel in greenhouse
    Photo 2: Seeding wheel being seeded by suspensions of conchospores
    Photo 3: Porphyra nets mounted on seeding wheel in seawater
    Photo 4: Conchospore germlings that have attached to nori net fibers after a seeding operation
    Photo 5: Porphyra blades up to 1.2 cm in length after culturing on nori nets at 12-15°C

    Accomplishments and Results:

    2002 Report on bioremediation

    Final Report


    * Project: Environmental impact of sustainable offshore cage culture production in Puerto Rican waters

    State: PR, FL

    Principal Investigators: Alexis Cabarcas, Puerto Rican Commercial Aquaculture Research and Development Center; Dallas Alston, Puerto Rican Commercial Aquaculture Research and Development Center; Ricardo Cortes, Puerto Rican Commercial Aquaculture Research and Development Center; Herbert Quintero, Puerto Rican Commercial Aquaculture Research and Development Center; Daniel Benetti, University of Miami; and Sarah Metzoff, University of Miami

    Abstract: The overall goal of this proposal is to determine the environmental, economical, and social impact of finfish offshore cage culture on tropical marine waters located near Puerto Rico. The environmental component will evaluate the impact of cage culture on the chemical, physical, and biological variables in the area surrounding the commercial scale operation. Coupled with the demonstration component of the proposal, the project will evaluate negative and positive perceptions and attitudes, support from the community, potential vandalism, and poaching. Possible conflicts with the fisheries industry, tourism and boat traffic will be analyzed. This proposal will join the forces of the University of Puerto Rico, the University of Miami and private enterprise.

    Preliminary Results

    Water quality analysis

    Macroinvertebrate benthic fauna associated with the cages

    Biofouling in the cage net

    Icthyofauna around the cages

    Preliminary Report: Environmental and Social Impact of Sustainable and Offshore Cage Culture Production in Puerto Rican Waters

    Final Report: Environmental and Social Impact of Sustainable Offshore Cage Culture Production in Puerto Rican Waters FINAL

    NOAA Administrator leaving zipper in underwater net.NOAA staff and researchers on underwater net.NOAA adminstrator face to face with barracuda outside net.


    Project: Development and testing of an operational framework for offshore aquaculture in conjunction with stakeholders at national and regional levels

    State: DE, HI, SC, CA, MA, TX, RI

    Principal Investigators: Biliana Cicin-Sain, University of Delaware; Susan Bunsick, NOAA; John Corbin, State of Hawaii ;Richard DeVoe, South Carolina Sea Grant; Tim Eichenberg, Legal Consultant; John Ewart, Delaware Aquaculture Resource Center; Kristin Fletcher, MS/AL Sea Grant Law Center; Harlyn Halvorson, Policy Center for Marine Bioscience and Technology, University of Massachusetts; Tony MacDonald, Coastal States Organization; Ralph Rayburn, Texas Sea Grant; Robert Rheault, Moonstone Oysters; and Boyce Thorne-Miller, Sea Web

    Abstract: Building on the work from a previously funded project by Sea Grant an expanded research team will develop and test an operational framework for off shore aquaculture in conjunction with stakeholders at national and regional levels. The team will focus on:

    Guidelines and standards fro monitoring of aquaculture operations, which may involve conditions on operations such as insurance, bonds, environmental monitoring requirements to insure the safety of operations and, in the case of termination of operations, the removal of structures and the return of the area to its previous state.

    Go to January 2003 Workshop Summaries (in three parts with forwarding link at the end of each part)


    * Project: Using GIS for offshore aquaculture siting in the US Caribbean and Florida

    State: FL, MD, Puerto Rico

    Principal Investigators: John Gifford, University of Miami; Daniel Benetti, University of Miami; Mark Monaco, NOAA; Jose Rivera, National Marine Fisheries Service; Karen Metcalf, Florida Dept. of Agriculture; Maria Villanueva, University of Miami; Craig Lilyestrom, DNER/Marine Resources Division; Ernesto Diaz, PR Coastal Zone Program; and Mark Black, University of Miami

    Abstract: This project will design and construct a Geographic Information System (GIS)-based decision support system, the Caged Aquaculture Suitability Index (CASI), dedicated to optimally locating caged aquaculture projects planned for offshore Florida, Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands. Both regulatory requirements and environmental conditions will be incorporated into the system. The investigators will migrate the datasets developed for CASI to the EPR-GIS application developed by the Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) as an extension to the ArcView software package developed and marketed by the ESRI for the Florida Department of Environmental Protection's Bureau of Submerged Lands and Environmental Resources. This is an extension of the GIS system from initial siting to long-term management of offshore cage facilities within the regulatory frameworks of local, state, and federal agencies.

    Work Completed:

    · Regulatory Framework Coverages of Florida

    Work in Progress:


    · Marine Environmental Coverages of Florida
    · Regulatory Framework Coverages of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands
    · Marine Environmental Coverages of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands

    Final Report: National Marine Aquaculture Initiative: Using GIS for Offshore Aquaculture Siting in the U.S. Caribbean and Florida

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