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All of NOAA

Scientific Publications by Sydney Levitus

Compiled by Chris Belter and Anna Fiolek
NOAA Central Library, Current References Series, Number 2013-01
June 2013

Introduction

Syd joined the U.S. NODC in 1989 where he has been a pioneer of ocean climate science and ocean warming studies. He has made significant contributions to the scientific and ocean data management communities. Before joining NODC he worked at the NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL). While at GFDL Syd published "Climatological Atlas of the World Ocean" in 1982 which was based on the ocean data archived at the NODC/WDC. This work has been cited more than 2800 times in the refereed scientific literature indicating its impact and utility to the scientific community. He has also increased public understanding of the role of the oceans in climate. Syd was one of the first to recognize the importance and benefits of developing quality-controlled historical oceanographic databases with all data in a common digital format and gridded, objectively analyzed climatological fields of measured ocean variables including temperature, salinity, oxygen, nutrients, and fields derived from the data in these databases. These research-quality databases and products based on them have enabled systematic studies of ocean variability that were not previously possible. All of these products have been made available internationally without restriction, a characteristic of Syd's work throughout his career. The "World Ocean Atlas" series are used so frequently that they have become known generically as the "Levitus Climatology". He formed the NODC Ocean Climate Laboratory (OCL) and became director of the ICSU World Data Center for Oceanography (WDC), Silver Spring. In 1993 the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission asked Syd to lead the newly initiated "Global Oceanographic Data Archaeology and Rescue" (GODAR) project to locate and "rescue" historical ocean profile data that were at risk of being lost due to media decay. With his OCL colleagues, and unprecedented cooperation from the international ocean scientific and data management communities, this project resulted in a significant increase (millions of profiles) in the number of Station Data, XBT, MBT, and CTD casts for the pre-1991 period (Levitus, 2012). Syd has been the senior author or co-author of many peer reviewed scientific publications and book chapters, senior author of several NOAA professional papers and atlases, and editor of the "World Ocean Database" and "World Ocean Atlas" series of publications.

For more about Syd, see his Curriculum Vitae and award presentation for 39 years of service to NOAA.

We have compiled this bibliography and bibliometric analysis of Syd's scientific publications to celebrate his career at NOAA. This bibliography and analysis is also available in PDF format.

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Bibliometric Analysis of Syd's Publications


Figure 1: Co-authorship network compiled from Syd's scientific publications. Name size indicates the number of publications by each author and name color indicates groups of authors that tend to publish together. Lines represent co-authored publications and line size indicates the number of publications co-authored by the connected authors.


Figure 2: Word co-occurrence network compiled from the titles of Syd's journal articles. Word size indicates the number of articles in whose titles the word appears and word color indicates groups of words that often appear in the same titles. Lines represent words that appear together in at least three articles and line size indicates the number of articles in which the words co-occur.


Figure 3: Citation counts received by Syd's journal articles in Web of Science (WoS) per year. These counts are accurate as of June 12, 2013.


Figure 4: Citation counts received by all versions of the World Ocean Atlas (WOA) and World Ocean Database (WOD) in Web of Science per year. Together, these atlases and databases have been cited over 8,500 times. These counts are accurate as of June 12, 2013.

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List of Syd's Publications

Oceanographic Atlases and Data Sets

Levitus S. 1982. Climatological Atlas of the World Ocean. NOAA Professional Paper No. 13. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. p. 173. Find it Online

Conkright ME, Levitus S, Boyer TP. 1994. World Ocean Atlas 1994, Volume 1: Nutrients. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 1. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. p. 150. Find it Online

Levitus S, Boyer TP. 1994. World Ocean Atlas 1994, Volume 2: Oxygen. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 2. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. p. 186. Find it Online

Levitus S, Burgett R, Boyer TP. 1994. World Ocean Atlas 1994, Volume 3: Salinity. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 3. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. Find it Online

Levitus S, Boyer TP. 1994. World Ocean Atlas 1994, Volume 4: Temperature. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 4. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. p. 117. Find it Online

Levitus S, Boyer TP, Antonov JI. 1994. World Ocean Atlas 1994, Volume 5: Interannual variability of upper ocean thermal structure. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 5. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. p. 176. Find it Online

da Silva AM, Young-Molling CC, Levitus S. 1994. Atlas of Surface Marine Data 1994, Volume 1: Algorithms and Procedures. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 6. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. p. 83. Find it Online

da Silva AM, Young-Molling CC, Levitus S. 1994. Atlas of Surface Marine Data 1994, Volume 2: Anomalies of Directly Observed Quantities. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 7. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. p. 416. Find it Online

da Silva AM, Young-Molling CC, Levitus S. 1994. Atlas of Surface Marine Data 1994, Volume 3: Anomalies of Fluxes of Heat and Momentum. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 8. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. p. 413. Find it Online

da Silva AM, Young-Molling CC, Levitus S. 1994. Atlas of Surface Marine Data 1994, Volume 4: Anomalies of Fresh Water Fluxes. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 9. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. p. 308. Find it Online

da Silva AM, Young-Molling CC, Levitus S. 1994. Atlas of Surface Marine Data 1994, Volume 5: Miscellaneous Derived Quantities. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 10. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. p. 416. Find it Online

Levitus S, Conkright ME, Boyer TP, Bartolacci DM, Luther ME. 1994. Atlas of the Nothern Indian Ocean. St. Petersburg, FL: University of South Florida, Department of Marine Science. Find it Online

Boyer TP, Levitus S. 1997. Objective analyses of temperature and salinity for the world ocean on a 1/4° grid. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 11. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. p. 83. Find it Online*

Young-Molling CC, da Silva AM, Levitus S. 1997. Atlas of Surface Marine Data 1994, Volume 6: Heat Flux Sensitivity to Sea Surface Temperature. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 12. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. Find it Online

Young-Molling CC, da Silva AM, Levitus S. 1997. Atlas of Surface Marine Data 1994, Supplement A. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 13. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. Find it Online

Monterey GI, Levitus S. 1997. Seasonal variability of mixed layer depth for the world ocean. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 14. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. Find it Online*

Levitus S, Monterey GI. 1997. Seasonal variability of dynamic height and its fourier analysis. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 15. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. Find it Online*

Levitus S, Antonov JI. 1997. Climatological and Interannual Variability of Temperature, Heat Storage, and Rate of Heat Storage in the Upper Ocean. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 16. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. Find it Online*

da Silva AM, Young-Molling CC, Levitus S. 1997. Atlas of Surface Marine Data 1994, Supplement B: Procedures for 1/2ø x 1/2ø data set. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 17. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. Find it Online

Levitus S, Conkright ME, Boyer TP, O'Brien T, Antonov JI, Stephens C, Stathoplos L, Johnson D, Gelfeld R. 1998. World Ocean Database 1998, Volume 1: Introduction. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 18. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. p. 346. Find it Online

Levitus S, Boyer TP, Conkright ME, Johnson D, O'Brien T, Antonov JI, Stephens C, Gelfeld R. 1998. World Ocean Database 1998, Volume 2: Temporal Distribution of Mechanical Bathythermograph Profiles. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 19. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. p. 286. Find it Online

Boyer TP, Antonov JI, Levitus S, Conkright ME, O'Brien T, Stephens C, Johnson D, Gelfeld R. 1998. World Ocean Database 1998, Volume 3: Temporal Distribution of Expendable Bathythermograph Profiles. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 20. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. p. 170. Find it Online

Boyer TP, Conkright ME, Levitus S, Stephens C, O'Brien T, Johnson D, Gelfeld R. 1998. World Ocean Database 1998, Volume 4: Temporal Distribution of Conductivity/SalinityTemperature-Depth. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 21. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. Find it Online

Boyer TP, Conkright ME, Levitus S, Johnson D, Antonov JI, O'Brien T, Stephens C, Gelfeld R. 1998. World Ocean Database 1998, Volume 5: Temporal Distribution of Ocean Station Data (Bottle) Temperature- Salinity Profiles. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 22. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. p. 108. Find it Online

Conkright ME, Levitus S, O'Brien T, Boyer TP, Stephens C, Johnson D, Stathoplos L. 1998. World Ocean Database 1998, Volume 6: Temporal Distribution of Ocean Station Data (Bottle) Nutrient profiles. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 23. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. p. 296. Find it Online

O'Brien T, Conkright ME, Levitus S, Boyer TP, Johnson D, Stathoplos L, Baranova OK. 1998. World Ocean Database 1998, Volume 7: Temporal Distribution of Station Data (Bottle) Oxygen Profiles. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 24. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. p. 235. Find it Online

Conkright ME, Stathoplos L, O'Brien T, Boyer TP, Stephens C, Johnson D, Levitus S. 1998. World Ocean Database 1998, Volume 8: Temporal Distribution of Ocean Station Data (Bottle) Chlorophyll Profiles and Plankton Data. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 25. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. Find it Online

Matishov GG, Zuev AN, Golubev VA, Adrov NM, Slobodin V, Levitus S, Smolyar IV. 1998. Climatic Atlas of the Barents Sea 1998: Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 26. World Data Center-A for Oceanography, International Ocean Atlas Series, Volume 1. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. Find it Online

Antonov JI, Levitus S, Boyer TP, Conkright ME, O'Brien T. 1998. World Ocean Atlas 1998, Volume 1: Atlantic Ocean temperature fields. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 27. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. p. 166. Find it Online

Antonov JI, Levitus S, Boyer TP, Conkright ME, O'Brien T. 1998. World Ocean Atlas 1998, Volume 2: Pacific Ocean temperature fields. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 28. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. p. 166. Find it Online

Antonov JI, Levitus S, Boyer TP, Conkright ME, O'Brien T, Trotsenko B. 1998. World Ocean Atlas 1998, Volume 3: Indian Ocean temperature fields. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 29. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. p. 166. Find it Online

Boyer TP, Levitus S, Conkright ME, O'Brien T. 1998. World Ocean Atlas 1998, Volume 4: Atlantic Ocean salinity fields. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 30. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. p. 166. Find it Online

Boyer TP, Levitus S, Conkright ME, O'Brien T. 1998. World Ocean Atlas 1998, Volume 5: Pacific Ocean salinity fields. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 31. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. p. 166. Find it Online

Boyer TP, Levitus S, Conkright ME, O'Brien T, Trotsenko B. 1998. World Ocean Atlas 1998, Volume 6: Indian Ocean salinity fields. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 32. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. p. 166. Find it Online

O'Brien T, Boyer TP, Conkright ME, Levitus S. 1998. World Ocean Atlas 1998, Volume 7: Atlantic Ocean dissolved oxygen, oxygen saturation, and Apparent Oxygen Utilization fields. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 33. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. p. 234. Find it Online

O'Brien T, Boyer TP, Conkright ME, Levitus S. 1998. World Ocean Atlas 1998, Volume 8: Pacific dissolved oxygen, oxygen saturation, and Apparent Oxygen Utilization fields. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 34. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. p. 234. Find it Online

O'Brien T, Boyer TP, Conkright ME, Levitus S. 1998. World Ocean Atlas 1998, Volume 9: Indian Ocean dissolved oxygen, oxygen saturation, and Apparent Oxygen Utilization fields. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 35. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. Find it Online

Conkright ME, Levitus S, Boyer TP, O'Brien T. 1998. World Ocean Atlas 1998, Volume 10: Nutrients and chlorophyll of the Atlantic Ocean. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 36. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. p. 217. Find it Online

Conkright ME, Levitus S, Boyer TP, O'Brien T. 1998. World Ocean Atlas 1998, Volume 11: Nutrients and chlorophyll of the Pacific Ocean. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 37. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. Find it Online

Conkright ME, Levitus S, Boyer TP, O'Brien T. 1998. World Ocean Atlas 1998, Volume 12: Nutrients and chlorophyll of the Indian Ocean. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 38. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. p. 217. Find it Online

Matishov GG, Makarevich P, Timofeev S, Kuznetzov L, Druzhkov N, Larionov V, Golubev VA, Zuev AN, Adrov NM, Denisov VV et al. . 2000. Biological Atlas of the Arctic Seas 2000: Plankton of the Barents and Kara Seas. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 39. World Data Center-A for Oceanography, International Ocean Atlas Series, Volume 2. US Government Printing Office: Washington, DC. p. 348. Find it Online

Levitus S, Stephens C, Antonov JI, Boyer TP. 2000. Yearly and Year-Season Upper Ocean Upper Ocean Temperature Fields, 1948-98. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 40. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. p. 24. Find it Online

Sapozhnikov, Gruzevich A, Zubarevich V, Arxhanova N, Mordasova N, Nalyotova I, Torgunova N, Mikhailovsky Y, Smolyar IV, Levitus S. 2001. Hydrochemical Atlas of the Sea of Okhotsk. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 41. World Data Center-A for Oceanography, International Ocean Atlas Series, Volume 3. US Government Printing Office: Washington, DC. p. 155. Find it Online

Conkright ME, Antonov JI, Baranova OK, Boyer TP, Garcia HE, Gelfeld R, Johnson D, Locarnini RA, Murphy PP, O'Brien T et al. . 2002. World Ocean Database 2001, Volume 1: Introduction. In: Levitus S, editor. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 42. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. p. 159. Find it Online

Boyer TP, Conkright ME, Antonov JI, Baranova OK, Garcia HE, Gelfeld R, Johnson D, Locarnini RA, Murphy PP, O'Brien T et al. . 2002. World Ocean Database 2001, Volume 2: Temporal Distribution of Bathythermograph Profiles. In: Levitus S, editor. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 43. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. p. 119. Find it Online

Stephens C, Conkright ME, Boyer TP, Antonov JI, Baranova OK, Garcia HE, Gelfeld R, Johnson D, Locarnini RA, Murphy PP et al. . 2002. World Ocean Database 2001, Volume 3: Temporal Distribution of Conductivity-Temperature-Depth Profiles. In: Levitus S, editor. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 44. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. p. 47. Find it Online

Locarnini RA, Conkright ME, Boyer TP, Antonov JI, Baranova OK, Garcia HE, Gelfeld R, Johnson D, Murphy PP, O'Brien T et al. . 2002. World Ocean Database 2001, Volume 4: Temporal Distribution of Temperature, Salinity, and Oxygen Profiles. In: Levitus S, editor. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 45. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. p. 233. Find it Online

Conkright ME, Boyer TP, Antonov JI, Baranova OK, Garcia HE, Gelfeld R, Johnson D, Locarnini RA, Murphy PP, O'Brien T et al. . 2002. World Ocean Database 2001, Volume 5: Temporal Distribution of Nutrient Profiles. In: Levitus S, editor. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 46. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. p. 320. Find it Online

Murphy PP, Conkright ME, Boyer TP, Antonov JI, Baranova OK, Garcia HE, Gelfeld R, Johnson D, Locarnini RA, O'Brien T et al. . 2002. World Ocean Database 2001, Volume 6: Temporal Distribution of pH, Alkalinity, pCO2, and tCO2 Data. In: Levitus S, editor. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 47. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. p. 235. Find it Online

O'Brien T, Murphy PP, Conkright ME, Boyer TP, Antonov JI, Baranova OK, Garcia HE, Gelfeld R, Johnson D, Locarnini RA et al. . 2002. World Ocean Database 2001, Volume 7: Temporal Distribution of Chlorophyll and Plankton Data. In: Levitus S, editor. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 48. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. p. 219. Find it Online

Stephens C, Antonov JI, Boyer TP, Conkright ME, Locarnini RA, O'Brien T. 2002. World Ocean Atlas 2001, Volume 1: Temperature. In: Levitus S, editor. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 49. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. p. 168. Find it Online

Boyer TP, Stephens C, Antonov JI, Conkright ME, Locarnini RA, O'Brien T. 2002. World Ocean Atlas 2001, Volume 2: Salinity. In: Levitus S, editor. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 50. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. p. 170. Find it Online

Locarnini RA, O'Brien T, Garcia HE, Antonov JI, Boyer TP, Conkright ME, Stephens C. 2002. World Ocean Atlas 2001, Volume 3: Oxygen. In: Levitus S, editor. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 51. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. p. 286. Find it Online

Conkright ME, Garcia HE, O'Brien T, Locarnini RA, Boyer TP, Stephens C, Antonov JI. 2002. World Ocean Atlas 2001, Volume 4: Nutrients. In: Levitus S, editor. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 52. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. p. 390. Find it Online

O'Brien T, Conkright ME, Boyer TP, Stephens C, Antonov JI, Locarnini RA, Garcia HE. 2002. World Ocean Atlas 2001, Volume 5: Plankton. In: Levitus S, editor. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 53. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. p. 89. Find it Online

Conkright ME, O'Brien T, Stephens C, Locarnini RA, Garcia HE, Boyer TP, Antonov JI. 2002. World Ocean Atlas 2001, Volume 6: Chlorophyll. In: Levitus S, editor. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 54. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. p. 89. Find it Online

Levitus S, Sychev Y. 2002. Atlas of temperature-salinity frequency distributions: North Atlantic. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 55. International Ocean Atlas and Information Series, Volume 4. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. Find it Online

Mikhailov N. 2002. Russian marine expeditionary investigations of the world ocean. In: Levitus S, Tatusko R, editors. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 56. International Ocean Atlas and Information Series Volume 5. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. Find it Online

Berger VJ, Naumov AD, Usov NV, Zubaha MA, Smolyar IV, Tatusko R, Levitus S. 2003. 36-year time series (1963-1998) of zooplankton, temperature, and salinity in the White Sea. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 57. International Ocean Atlas and Information Series, Volume 7. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. p. 362. Find it Online

Lappo S, Egorov Y, Virsis M, Nalbandov Y, Makovetski E, Virsis L, Smolyar IV, Levitus S. 2003. History of the Arctic exploration. International ocean atlas and information series Volume 8. Silver Spring, MD: World Data Center for Oceanography. Find it Online

Matishov DG, Golubev VA, Adrov NM, Timofeev S, Karamusko O, Pavlova L, Fadyakin O, Buzan A, Braunstein A, Moiseev D et al. . 2004. Climatic atlas of the Arctic Seas 2004. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 58. International Ocean Atlas Series Volume 9. Washington DC: US Government Printing Office. Find it Online

Matishov GG, Matishov DG, Gargopa Y, Dashkevich L, Berdnikov SV, Baranova OK, Smolyar IV, Levitus S. 2006. Climatic Atlas of the Sea of Azov 2006. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 59. International Ocean Atlas and Information Series, Volume 10. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. p. 105. Find it Online

Boyer TP, Antonov JI, Garcia HE, Johnson D, Locarnini RA, Mishonov AV, Seidov D, Baranova OK, Smolyar IV, Zweng MM. 2006. World Ocean Database 2005. In: Levitus S, editor. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 60. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. p. 219. Find it Online

Boyer TP, Antonov JI, Garcia HE, Johnson D, Locarnini RA, Mishonov AV, Pitcher MT, Baranova OK, Smolyar IV. 2006. World Ocean Atlas 2005, Chapter 1: Introduction. In: Levitus S, editor. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. p. 182. Find it Online

Locarnini RA, Mishonov AV, Antonov JI, Boyer TP, Garcia HE. 2006. World Ocean Atlas 2005, Volume 1: Temperature. In: Levitus S, editor. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 61. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. p. 182. Find it Online

Antonov JI, Locarnini RA, Boyer TP, Mishonov AV, Garcia HE. 2006. World Ocean Atlas 2005, Volume 2: Salinity. In: Levitus S, editor. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 62. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. p. 182. Find it Online

Garcia HE, Locarnini RA, Boyer TP, Antonov JI. 2006. World Ocean Atlas 2005, Volume 3: Dissolved Oxygen, Apparent Oxygen Utilization, and Oxygen Saturation. In: Levitus S, editor. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 63. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. p. 342. Find it Online

Garcia HE, Locarnini RA, Boyer TP, Antonov JI. 2006. World Ocean Atlas 2005, Volume 4: Nutrients (phosphate, nitrate, and silicate). In: Levitus S, editor. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 64. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. p. 396. Find it Online

Matishov GG, Matishov DG, Gargopa Y, Dashkevich L, Berdnikov SV, Kulygin V, Archipova O, Chikin A, Sahabaso I, Baranova OK et al. . 2008. Climatic Atlas of the Sea of Azov 2008. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 65. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. p. 105. Find it Online

Boyer TP, Antonov JI, Baranova OK, Johnson D, Locarnini RA, Mishonov AV, O'Brien T, Seidov D, Smolyar IV, Zweng MM. 2009. World Ocean Database 2009. In: Levitus S, editor. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 66. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. Find it Online

Luchin V, Kruts A, Sokolov O, Rostov V, Perunova T, Zolotukhin E, Pishalnik V, Romeiko L, Hramushin V, Shustin V et al. . 2010. Climatic Atlas of the North Pacific Seas 2009: Bering Sea, Sea of Okhotsk, and Sea of Japan. In: Akulichev V, Volkov Y, Sapozhnikov V, Levitus S, editors. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 67. International Ocean Atlas and Information Series Volume 12. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. Find it Online

Locarnini RA, Mishonov AV, Antonov JI, Boyer TP, Garcia HE. 2010. World Ocean Atlas 2009, Chapter 1: Introduction. In: Levitus S, editor. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. p. 219. Find it Online

Locarnini RA, Mishonov AV, Antonov JI, Boyer TP, Garcia HE, Baranova OK, Zweng MM, Johnson D. 2010. World Ocean Atlas 2009, Volume 1: Temperature. In: Levitus S, editor. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 68. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. Find it Online

Antonov JI, Seidov D, Boyer TP, Locarnini RA, Mishonov AV, Garcia HE, Baranova OK, Zweng MM, Johnson D. 2010. World Ocean Atlas 2009, Volume 2: Salinity. In: Levitus S, editor. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 69. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. Find it Online

Garcia HE, Locarnini RA, Boyer TP, Antonov JI, Baranova OK, Zweng MM, Johnson D. 2010. World Ocean Atlas 2009, Volume 3: Dissolved oxygen, apparent oxygen utilization, and oxygen saturation. In: Levitus S, editor. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 70. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. Find it Online

Garcia HE, Locarnini RA, Boyer TP, Antonov JI, Zweng MM, Baranova OK, Johnson D. 2010. World Ocean Atlas 2009, Volume 4: Nutrients (phosphate, nitrate, silicate). In: Levitus S, editor. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 71. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. Find it Online


Publications in Peer-Reviewed Journals and Books

Achberger C, Ackerman SA, Ahlstrom A, Alfaro EJ, Allan RJ, Alves L, Amador JA, Amelie V, Andrianjafinirina S, Antonov JI et al. . 2011. State of the climate in 2010. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 92(6):S17-+. Find it Online*

Achberger C, Ackerman SA, Ahmed FH, Albanil-Encarnacion A, Alfaro EJ, Alves LM, Allan R, Amador JA, Ambenje P, Antoine MD et al. . 2012. State of the climate in 2011 Special Supplement to the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society Volume 93, No. 7, July 2012. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 93(7):S1-+. Find it Online*

Antonov JI, Levitus S, Boyer TP. 2002. Steric sea level variations during 1957-1994: Importance of salinity. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans 107(C12):8013. Find it Online*

Antonov JI, Levitus S, Boyer TP. 2004. Climatological annual cycle of ocean heat content. Geophysical Research Letters 31(4):L04304. Find it Online*

Antonov JI, Levitus S, Boyer TP. 2005. Thermosteric sea level rise, 1955-2003. Geophysical Research Letters 32(12):L12602. Find it Online*

Belkin IM, Levitus S. 1996. Temporal variability of the subarctic front near the Charlie-Gibbs fracture zone. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans 101(C12):28317-28324. Find it Online*

Belkin IM, Levitus S, Antonov JI, Malmberg SA. 1998. "Great Salinity Anomalies" in the North Atlantic. Progress in Oceanography 41(1):1-68. Find it Online*

Belkin IM, Levitus S, Antonov JI, Malmberg SA. 2000. "Great Salinity Anomalies" in the North Atlantic (vol 41, pg 1, 1998). Progress in Oceanography 45(1):107-108. Find it Online*

Bindoff NL, Willebrand J, Artale V, Cazenave A, Gregory J, Gulev K, Hanawa K, Le Quere C, Levitus S, Nojiri Y et al. . 2007. Observations: Oceanic Climate Change and Sea Level. In: Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Maquis M, Averyt KB, Tignor M, Miller HL, editors. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Find it Online*

Boehlert GW, Costa DP, Crocker DE, Green P, O'Brien T, Levitus S, Le Boeuf BJ. 2001. Autonomous pinniped environmental samplers: Using instrumented animals as oceanographic data collectors. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 18(11):1882-1893. Find it Online*

Boyer TP, Conkright ME, Levitus S. 1999. Seasonal variability of dissolved oxygen, percent oxygen saturation, and apparent oxygen utilization in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Deep-Sea Research Part I-Oceanographic Research Papers 46(9):1593-1613. Find it Online*

Boyer TP, Levitus S. 2002. Harmonic analysis of climatological sea surface salinity. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans 107(C12):8006. Find it Online*

Boyer TP, Levitus S, Antonov JI, Locarnini RA, Garcia HE. 2005. Linear trends in salinity for the World Ocean, 1955-1998. Geophysical Research Letters 32(1):L01604. Find it Online*

Boyer TP, Levitus S, Antonov JI, Locarnini RA, Mishonov AV, Garcia HE, Josey SA. 2007. Changes in freshwater content in the North Atlantic Ocean 1955-2006. Geophysical Research Letters 34(16):L16603. Find it Online*

Boyer TP, Levitus S, Garcia HE, Locarnini RA, Stephens C, Antonov JI. 2005. Objective analyses of annual, seasonal, and monthly temperature and salinity for the world ocean on a 0.25 degrees grid. International Journal of Climatology 25(7):931-945. Find it Online*

Conkright ME, Gregg WW, Levitus S. 2000. Seasonal cycle of phosphate in the open ocean. Deep-Sea Research Part I-Oceanographic Research Papers 47(2):159-175. Find it Online*

Ellis JS, Vonder Haar TH, Levitus S, Oort AH. 1978. The annual variation in the global heat balance of the Earth. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 83(C4):1958-1962. Find it Online*

Fanning AF, Greatbatch RJ, Dasilva AM, Levitus S. 1994. Model-calculated seasonal transport variations through the Florida straits - a comparison using different wind-stress climatologies. Journal of Physical Oceanography 24(1):30-45. Find it Online*

Friedrich H, Levitus S. 1972. An Approximation to the Equation of State for Sea Water, Suitable for Numerical Ocean Models. Journal of Physical Oceanography 2(4):514-517. Find it Online*

Garcia HE, Boyer TP, Levitus S, Locarnini RA, Antonov JI. 2005. Climatological annual cycle of upper ocean oxygen content anomaly. Geophysical Research Letters 32(5):L05611. Find it Online*

Garcia HE, Boyer TP, Levitus S, Locarnini RA, Antonov JI. 2005. On the variability of dissolved oxygen and apparent oxygen utilization content for the upper world ocean: 1955 to 1998. Geophysical Research Letters 32(9):L09604. Find it Online*

Glover DM, Wiebe PH, Chandler CL, Levitus S. 2010. IOC Contributions to international, interdisciplinary open data sharing. Oceanography 23(3):140-151. Find it Online*

Greatbatch RJ, Fanning AF, Goulding AD, Levitus S. 1991. A diagnosis of interpentadal circulation changes in the North-Atlantic. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans 96(C12):22009-22023. Find it Online*

Hansen J, Sato M, Nazarenko L, Ruedy R, Lacis A, Koch D, Tegen I, Hall T, Shindell D, Santer B et al. . 2002. Climate forcings in Goddard Institute for Space Studies SI2000 simulations. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 107(D18):4347. Find it Online*

Isayev G, Levitus S. 1995. A diagnosis of the North-Atlantic horizontal and vertical circulation with error-estimates. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans 100(C4):6795-6815. Find it Online*

Karl TR, Derr VE, Easterling DR, Folland CK, Hofmann DJ, Levitus S, Nicholls N, Parker DE, Withee GW. 1995. Critical issues for long-term climate monitoring. Climatic Change 31(2-4):185-221. Find it Online*

Kraus EB, Levitus S. 1986. Annual heat-flux variations across the tropic circles. Journal of Physical Oceanography 16(8):1479-1486. Find it Online*

Levitus S. 1974. Comment on ‘A subsurface north equatorial countercurrent in the eastern Pacific Ocean’ by M. Tsuchiya. Journal of Geophysical Research 79(18):2757-2758. Find it Online*

Levitus S. 1984. Annual cycle of temperature and heat-storage in the world ocean. Journal of Physical Oceanography 14(4):727-746. Find it Online*

Levitus S. 1986. Annual cycle of salinity and salt storage in the world ocean. Journal of Physical Oceanography 16(2):322-343. Find it Online*

Levitus S. 1987. A comparison of the annual cycle of 2 sea-surface temperature climatologies of the world ocean. Journal of Physical Oceanography 17(2):197-214. Find it Online*

Levitus S. 1987. Meridional Ekman heat fluxes for the world ocean and individual ocean basins. Journal of Physical Oceanography 17(9):1484-1492. Find it Online*

Levitus S. 1987. Rate of change of heat-storage of the world ocean. Journal of Physical Oceanography 17(4):518-528. Find it Online*

Levitus S. 1988. Decadal and pentadal distributions of hydrographic stations at 1000m depth for the world ocean. Progress in Oceanography 20(2):83-101. Find it Online*

Levitus S. 1988. Ekman volume fluxes for the world ocean and individual ocean basins. Journal of Physical Oceanography 18(2):271-279. Find it Online*

Levitus S. 1989. Correction. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans 94(C10):599-599. Find it Online*

Levitus S. 1989. Interpentadal variability of salinity in the upper 150m of the North-Atlantic Ocean, 1970-1974 versus 1955-1959. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans 94(C7):9679-9685. Find it Online*

Levitus S. 1989. Interpentadal variability of temperature and salinity at intermediate depths of the North-Atlantic Ocean, 1970-1974 versus 1955-1959. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans 94(C5):6091-6131. Find it Online*

Levitus S. 1989. Interpentadal variability of temperature and salinity in the deep North-Atlantic, 1970-1974 versus 1955-1959. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans 94(C11):16125-16131. Find it Online*

Levitus S. 1990. Interpentadal variability of steric sea-level and geopotential thickness of the North-Atlantic Ocean, 1970-1974 versus 1955-1959. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans 95(C4):5233-5238. Find it Online*

Levitus S. 2012. Sea Level Changes Results from the IPCC 2007 Report and Subsequent Results. Sea Level Rise and Coastal Infrastructure. p. 20-27. Find it Online*

Levitus S. 2012. The UNESCO-IOC-IODE "Global Oceanographic Data Archeology and Rescue" (GODAR) Project and "World Ocean Database" Project. Data Science Journal 11:46-71. Find it Online*

Levitus S, Antonov JI. 1995. Observational evidence of interannual to decadal-scale variability of the subsurface temperature-salinity structure of the world ocean. Climatic Change 31(2-4):495-514. Find it Online*

Levitus S, Antonov JI, Boyer TP. 1994. Interannual variability of temperature at a depth of 125 meters in the North-Atlantic Ocean. Science 266(5182):96-99. Find it Online*

Levitus S, Antonov JI, Boyer TP. 2005. Warming of the world ocean, 1955-2003. Geophysical Research Letters 32(2):L02604. Find it Online*

Levitus S, Antonov JI, Boyer TP, Baranova OK, Garcia HE, Locarnini RA, Mishonov AV, Reagan JR, Seidov D, Yarosh ES et al. . 2012. World ocean heat content and thermosteric sea level change (0-2000 m), 1955-2010. Geophysical Research Letters 39:L10603. Find it Online*

Levitus S, Antonov JI, Boyer TP, Garcia HE, Locarnini RA. 2005. EOF analysis of upper ocean heat content, 1956-2003. Geophysical Research Letters 32(18):L18607. Find it Online*

Levitus S, Antonov JI, Boyer TP, Garcia HE, Locarnini RA. 2005. Linear trends of zonally averaged thermosteric, halosteric, and total steric sea level for individual ocean basins and the world ocean, (1955-1959)-(1994-1998). Geophysical Research Letters 32(16):L16601. Find it Online*

Levitus S, Antonov JI, Boyer TP, Locarnini RA, Garcia HE, Mishonov AV. 2009. Global ocean heat content 1955-2008 in light of recently revealed instrumentation problems. Geophysical Research Letters 36:L07608. Find it Online*

Levitus S, Antonov JI, Boyer TP, Stephens C. 2000. Warming of the world ocean. Science 287(5461):2225-2229. Find it Online*

Levitus S, Antonov JI, Wang JL, Delworth TL, Dixon KW, Broccoli AJ. 2001. Anthropogenic warming of Earth's climate system. Science 292(5515):267-270. Find it Online*

Levitus S, Antonov JI, Zhou XJ, Dooley HD, Selemenov K, Tereschenkov V. 1995. Decadal-scale variability of the North Atlantic Ocean. In: Martinson DG, Bryan K, Ghil M, Hall MM, Karl TM, Sarachick ES, Sorooshian S, Talley LD, editors. Natural Climate Variability on Decade-to-Century Time Scales. The National Academies Press. Find it Online*

Levitus S, Conkright ME, Reid JL, Najjar RG, Mantyla A. 1993. Distribution of nitrate, phosphate and silicate in the world oceans. Progress in Oceanography 31(3):245-273. Find it Online*

Levitus S, Isayev G. 1992. Polynomial-approximation to the international equation of state for seawater. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 9(5):705-708. Find it Online*

Levitus S, Isayev G. 1994. Polynomial-approximation to the international equation of state for seawater (Vol 9, pg 705, 1992). Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 11(3):843-843. Find it Online*

Levitus S, Matishov GG, Seidov D, Smolyar IV. 2009. Barents Sea multidecadal variability. Geophysical Research Letters 36:L19604. Find it Online*

Levitus S, Oort AH. 1977. Global Analysis of Oceanographic Data. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 58(12):1270-1284. Find it Online*

Levitus S, Sarkisyan AS. 2001. Ocean dynamic characteristics obtained by synthesizing climatic data and the WOCE program information. Izvestiya Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics 37(4):496-507. Find it Online*

Matishov GG, Denisov VV, Zuev AN, Golubev VA, Adrov NM, Levitus S, Smolyar IV. 1999. Climatic Atlas of the Barents Sea. Doklady Akademii Nauk 366(5):692-694.

Matishov GG, Matishov DG, Berdnikov SV, Sorokina VV, Levitus S, Smolyar IV. 2008. Secular Climate Fluctuations in the Sea of Azov Region (Based on Thermohaline Data over 120 Years). Doklady Earth Sciences 422(1):1101-1104. Find it Online*

Matishov GG, Zuev AN, Golubev VA, Levitus S, Smolyar IV. 2005. Mega database on oceanography and biology of the western Arctic region. Doklady Earth Sciences 401(2):343-346. Find it Online*

Mehta V, Lindstrom E, Busalacchi A, Hansen J, Lau KM, Susskind J, Delworth T, Deser C, Meehl G, Fu LL et al. . 2000. Proceedings of the NASA Workshop on Decadal Climate Variability. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 81(12):2983-2985. Find it Online*

Oguma S, Suzuki T, Levitus S, Nagata Y. 2003. Skewed occurrence frequency of water temperature and salinity in the subarctic regions. Journal of Oceanography 59(6):921-929. Find it Online*

Oort AH, Ascher SC, Levitus S, Peixoto JP. 1989. New estimates of the available potential-energy in the world ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans 94(C3):3187-3200. Find it Online*

Palmer MD, Antonov JI, Barker P, Bindoff NL, Boyer TP, Carson M, Domingues C, Gille S, Gleckler P, Good SA et al. . 2009. Future Observations for Monitoring Global Ocean Heat Content. In. OceanObs’09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society; 21-25 September 2009; Venice, Italy: ESA Publication WPP-306. Find it Online*

Peterson TC, Baringer MO, Thorne PW, Menne MJ, Kennedy JJ, Christy J, Seidel D, Mears C, Haimberger L, Wang JH et al. . 2009. State of the Climate in 2008. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 90(8):S13-+. Find it Online*

Reverdin G, Cayan D, Dooley HD, Ellett DJ, Levitus S, Dupenhoat Y, Dessier A. 1994. Surface salinity of the North-Atlantic - can we reconstruct its fluctuations over the last 100 years. Progress in Oceanography 33(4):303-346. Find it Online*

Rixen M, Beckers JM, Levitus S, Antonov JI, Boyer TP, Maillard C, Fichaut M, Balopoulos E, Iona S, Dooley HD et al. . 2005. The Western Mediterranean Deep Water: A proxy for climate change. Geophysical Research Letters 32(12):L12608. Find it Online*

Stephens C, Levitus S, Antonov JI, Boyer TP. 2001. On the Pacific Ocean regime shift. Geophysical Research Letters 28(19):3721-3724. Find it Online*

Trenberth K, Angell J, Barry R, Bradley R, Diaz H, Elliott W, Etkins R, Folland CK, Jenne R, Jones T et al. . 1991. Working Group I: Observations. In: Schlesinger ME, editor. Greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change: a critical appraisal of simulations and observations. Amsterdam: Elsevier. p. 571-582. Find it Online*

Zhang RH, Levitus S. 1996. Structure and evolution of interannual variability of the tropical Pacific upper ocean temperature. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans 101(C9):20501-20524. Find it Online*

Zhang RH, Levitus S. 1997. Interannual variability of the coupled tropical Pacific ocean-atmosphere system associated with the El Nino southern oscillation. Journal of Climate 10(6):1312-1330. Find it Online*

Zhang RH, Levitus S. 1997. Structure and cycle of decadal variability of upper-ocean temperature in the North Pacific. Journal of Climate 10(4):710-727. Find it Online*


Technical Reports

Boyer TP, Levitus S. 1994. Quality control and processing of historical oceanographic temperature, salinity, and oxygen data. NOAA technical report NESDIS 81. Find it Online

Conkright ME, Boyer TP, Levitus S. 1994. Quality control and processing of historical oceanographic nutrient data. NOAA technical report NESDIS 79. Find it Online

Isayev G, Levitus S. 1993. The North Atlantic Absolute Circulation: Climatology and Change between 1950's and 1970's. University of Maryland Technical Report.

Levitus S, Gelfeld R. 1992. National Oceanographic Data Center Inventory of Oceanographic Profiles: Global Distributions by Year for All Countries. Washington, DC: Key to Oceanographic Records Documentation No. 18, National Oceanographic Data Center. Find it Online*

Levitus S, Gelfeld R, Boyer TP, Johnson D. 1994. Results of the NODC and IOC Data Archaeology and Rescue projects. Washington, DC: Key to Oceanographic Records Documentation No. 19, National Oceanographic Data Center. Find it Online*

Levitus S, Gelfeld R, Conkright ME, Boyer TP, Johnson D, O'Brien T, Stephens C, Forgy C, Baranova OK, Smolyar IV et al. . 2000. Results of the NODC and IOC Data Archaeology and Rescue projects. Washington, DC: Key to Oceanographic Records Documentation No. 20, National Oceanographic Data Center.

Levitus S, Sato S, Maillard C, Mikhailov N, Caldwell P, Dooley H. 1998. Building ocean profile-plankton databases for climate and ecosystem research. Silver Spring, MD: NOAA technical report NESDIS 117. Find it Online

Young-Molling CC, da Silva AM, Levitus S. 1993. Monthly distribution of SST observations in COADS : 1945-89. University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee Department of Geosciences Technical Report 93.01. Find it Online*

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