Abstracts and Presentations links for UJNR Symposium “Aquaculture and Stock Enhancement of Finfish”

 

Slides are available only where the words "Slide show link" are underlined indicating a link.

 

1.   Spawning and Larval Rearing of California Yellowtail Seriola lalandi, Status and Future Prospects

Slide show link

Paula C. Sylvia,

Hubbs-SeaWorld Research Institute,

2595 Ingraham St., San Diego, CA  92109, USA

psylvia@hswri.org

 

2.    Current Situation of Technical Developments in Seed Production of Yellowtail, Seriola quinqueradiata in Japan

Slide show link

Dr. Keiichi Mushiake

Fisheries Stock Enhancement Department, Headquarters, Fisheries Research Agency, Yokohama, Kanagawa 220-6115, Japan, Tel: +81-45-227-2715, Fax: +81-45-227-2704, e-mail: mushiake@fra.affrc.go.jp

 

3.   Open Ocean Culture Of Kona Kampachi ™ (Seriola rivoliana) from Hatch to Harvest

Slide show link

Presenter: Paula Sylvia (psylvia@hswri.org)

Neil Anthony Sims

Kona Blue, P.O. Box 537, Holualoa, HI 96725

neil@kona-kampachi.com

 

4.   Sciaenids Review Paper

Slide show link

Jesse A. Chappell Ph.D.

Extension Specialist and Assistant Professor

Department of Fisheries and Allied Aquacultures

125 Swingle Hall

Auburn University, Al. 36849-5419

E-mail: chappj1@acesag.auburn.edu                 

 

5.    Culture of Spotted Seatrout Cynoscion nebulosus in a Closed, Recirculating System

Slide show link [PDF 1.96MB]

Reginald B. Blaylock

Gulf Coast Research Laboratory

The University Of Southern Mississippi

P.O. Box 7000

Ocean Springs, MS 39566-7000

Reg.blaylock@usm.edu

 

6.   Mariculture of White Seabass Atractoscion nobilis in Southern California

Slide show link

Mark Drawbridge

Hubbs - SeaWorld Research Institute

2595 Ingraham St.

San Diego, CA 92109, USA

mdrawbr@hswri.org

 

7.   Disease Surveillance in Wild and Cultured Stocks of White Seabass (Atractoscion nobilis)

Slide show link [PDF 2.29MB]

Mark S. Okihiro

California Department of Fish and Game

4065 Oceanside Blvd, suite G, Oceanside, California, 92056

ms.okihiro@att.net

 

8.   Research on Aquaculture of Rockfish in the United States.

Slide show link

Mike Rust

Resource Enhancement and Utilization Technologies Division

Northwest Fisheries Science Center

2725 Montlake Blvd. E

Seattle, WA  98112

Mike.rust@noaa.gov

 

9.  Review of Juvenile Production and Its Problems in Black Rockfish, Sebastes schlegeli

Slide show link

Mr. Masahiro Nakagawa

Miyako Station, National Center for Stock Enhancement, Fisheries Research Agency, Miyako, Iwate 027-0097, Japan, Tel: +81-193-63-8121, Fax: +81-193-64-0134, e-mail: mnakagaw@fra.affrc.go.jp

 

10. Current Status of Southern Flounder Culture and Stock Enhancement

Slide show link

Harry Daniels

North Carolina State University, Department of Zoology

127 David Clark Labs, Raleigh, NC 27695

Harry_Daniels@ncsu.edu

 

11.    Construction of BAC Library from XY Japanese Flounder Using Frozen Sperm Genomic DNA

Slide show link [PDF 750KB]

Dr. Hiroyuki Okamoto

Senior Researcher, Farming Biology Division, National Research Institute of Aquaculture, Fisheries Research Agency

 

12.    A Review of Tuna Species Aquaculture Around the World

Slide show link

Paula C. Sylvia

Hubbs-SeaWorld Research Institute, 2595 Ingraham St., San Diego, CA  92109, USA

psylvia@hswri.org

 

13.     Status Quo of Pacific Bluefin Tuna Seed Production in Amami Station of NCSE FRA

Slide show link [PDF 660KB]

Mr. Hideki Nikaido

Amami Station, National Center for Stock Enhancement, Fisheries Research Agency

Oshima,, Kagoshima 894-2414, Japan, Tel: +81-9977-5-0693, Fax: +81-9977-5-0637, e-mail; nikaidoh@fra.affrc.go.jp

 

14.    Captive Spawning and Rearing of Larvae and Juveniles of Yellowfin Tuna Thunnus Albacares

Slide show link

Daniel Margulies

Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission

Scripps Institution of Oceanography

8604 La Jolla Shores Drive

La Jolla, CA 92037, USA

dmargulies@iattc.org

 

15.    An Overview of Tuna Production and Farm Operations at Mariculture Del Norte in Ensenda, B.C., Mexico.

Slide show link

Ted Dunn

Maricultura Del Norte, Ensenada, B.C., Mexico

bluefint@san.rr.com

 

16.    Challenges of Reproducing Fish in a Captive Environment

Slide show link

Penny Swanson

Northwest Fisheries Science Center

NOAA- National Marine Fisheries Service

2725 Montlake Boulevard East

Seattle, WA  98112

penny.swanson@noaa.gov

 

17.    Visualization Tools to Probe Early Stage Fish Abnormalities

Slide show link

Mr. Susumu Uji

Farming Biology Division, National Research Institute of Aquaculture,
Fisheries Research Agency,
Nansei, Mie 516-0193,
Japan, Tel: +81-599-66-1830, Fax: +81-599-66-1962, e-mail: uji@fra.affrc.go.jp

 

18.    Techniques for Induction of Maturation, Artificial Fertilization, and Larviculture in Japanese Eel

Slide show link

Dr. Hideki Tanaka

Reproduction Group Leader, Farming Biology Division, National Research Institute of Aquaculture, Fisheries Research Agency, Nansei, Mie 516-0193, Japan, Tel: +81-599-66-1830, Fax: +81-599-66-1962

htanaka@fra.affrc.go.jp

 

19.    Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) Analysis and Marker-assisted Breeding for Economical Important Trait in Qquaculture

Slide show link [PDF 868KB]

Dr. Akiyuki Ozaki (Secretary)

Farming Biology Division, National Research Institute of Aquaculture, Fisheries Research Agency, Nansei, Mie 516-0193, Japan, Tel: +81-599-66-1830, Fax: +81-599-66-1962, aozaki@fra.affrc.go.jp

 

20.    Opportunities for Mariculture of Finfish in the Southwest Region of the United States

Slide show link

Mark Drawbridge

Hubbs-SeaWorld Research Institute

2595 Ingraham St.

San Diego, CA  92109, USA

MDrawbridge@hswri.org

 

21.    Review of Pacific Northwest Marine Aquaculture

Slide show link

Walt Dickhoff

Resource Enhancement and Utilization Technologies Division

Northwest Fisheries Science Center

2725 Montlake Blvd. E

Seattle,  WA  98112

walton.w.dickhoff@noaa.gov

 

22. Marine Aquaculture in the Northeast US:  Current Status and Future Prospects

Slide show link [PDF 4.69MB]

Richard Langan

Cooperative Institute for New England Mariculture and Fisheries, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824

rlangan@cisunix.unh.edu

 

22.    Aquaculture Development of the Pacific Threadfin, Longfin, Amberjack, and Bluefin Trevally for Commercial Cage culture in Hawaii.

Slide show link

Charles. W. Laidley

Finfish Department, Oceanic Institute, 41-202 Kalanianaole Hwy,

Waimanalo, Hawaii 96795

claidley@oceanicinstitute.org

 

23.    A Novel Technique to Collect Gut Contents for Studying Digestive Mechanism in the Abalone

Slide show link

Mr. Kentaro Niwa

Coastal Fisheries and Aquaculture Division, National Research Institute of Fisheries Sciences, Fisheries Research Agency

Yokosuka, Kanagawa 238-0316, Japan, Tel: +81-46-856-2887, Fax: +81-46-857-3075,  niwaken@fra.affrc.go.jp

 

24.    Current Hatchery and Growout Technologies for High-Value Marine Fishes in the Southeastern United States

Slide show link

Kevan L. Main

Mote Marine Laboratory

600 Ken Thompson Parkway

Sarasota, FL 34236

kmain@mote.org

 

25.    Preparation of Marine Silage and Its Potential for Industrial Use

Slide show link

Dr. Motoharu Uchida

Senior Researcher, Coastal Productivity and Environment Division, National Research Institute of Fisheries and Environment of Inland Sea, Fisheries Research Agency  Saeki, Hiroshima 739-0452, Japan, Tel: +81-829-55-0666, Fax: +81-829-54-1216,

uchida@fra.affrc.go.jp

 

26. Techniques for Live Capture of Deepwater Fishes with Special Emphasis on the Design and application of a Low-cost Hyperbaric Chamber

Slide show link

Jeffrey E. Smiley*

Hubbs-SeaWorld Research Institute

2595 Ingraham Street

San Diego CA 92109

JSmiley@hswri.org

 

27. Aquaculture and Stock Enhancement Technologies Based on Recently Discovered Calcium-Sensing Receptors in Finfish

Slide show link

Steve Jury

MariCal Inc. Portland Maine USA

sjury@marical.biz

 

28. Use of Porphyra Protoplast as a Food Substitute for Culturing Aquatic Animals

Slide show link

Dr. Takao Yoshimatsu (Panel Secretary)

Feed Group Leader, Farming System Division, National Research Institute of Aquaculture, Fisheries Research Agency, Nansei, Mie 516-0193, Japan, Tel: +81-599-66-1830, Fax: +81-599-66-1962,

takaoyos@fra.affrc.go.jp

 

29. Lessons from Salmon Farming and their Application to New Species

Slide show link

John Forster

Forster Consulting Inc., 533 East Park Avenue, Port Angeles, WA 98362

jforster@olypen.com

 


SPAWNING AND LARVAL REARING OF CALIFORNIA YELLOWTAIL Seriola lalandi, STATUS AND FUTURE PROSPECTS

 

Paula C. Sylvia*, Mark Drawbridge, Ryan Greathouse, Shane Hughes, Keri Maull, Lisa Goldie, and Dave Jirsa

Hubbs-SeaWorld Research Institute, 2595 Ingraham St., San Diego, CA  92109, USA

Email: psylvia@hswri.org

 

Fish in the genus Seriola are commercially valued and prized worldwide for their white, fine-textured flesh.  The three most important species of Seriola for fisheries and aquaculture occurring in temperate, subtropical and tropical waters are the yellowtail “hamachi” (Seriola quinqueradiata), the kingfish yellowtail, goldstriped amberjack or California yellowtail (S. lalandi) and the greater amberjack (S. dumerili).  Commercial culture of hamachi (S. quinqueradiata) has been conducted in other countries for several decades, including Japan where wild caught fingerlings have been cultured in floating net cages since 1965, resulting in over 140,000 MT of production in 2000. Maturation, spawning, and larval rearing of S. lalandi was successfully developed by the private sector in Australia and New Zealand in the late 1990’s, resulting in approximately 1100 MT production in 2003. Since 2002, Hubbs-SeaWorld Research Institute (HSWRI) has maintained a spawning population of S. lalandi in a netpen. This paper will discuss HSWRI’s first efforts to tank spawn this species and rear resulting larvae, as well as discuss future potential of commercial farming of this species on the west coast of the U.S. 

             

              Adult California yellowtail were maintained in a 160 m3 maturation pool where they spawned voluntarily multiple times between May and July of 2005.  The broodstock consisted of 12 males and nine females that were 1.70 – 9.86 kg (49 – 104 cm) and 3.25 – 8.22 kg (71 - 104 cm) in size, respectively.  Temperature and photoperiod conditions were not controlled.  Water temperature was 18.3 - 22.6˚C and oxygen saturation was maintained at 93 - 102%. From May 5 to July 19, eleven separate spawning events occurred yielding a total of 5,801,327 eggs. Eggs were stocked at 100 eggs per L into 1.0 m3 rearing tanks supplied with flow-through, sand-filtered seawater at 2.1 L/min.  Hatching occurred after 72 hours with a success rate of 80-90%.  Tank water was greened daily during pre-metamorphosis with an algae paste (Nannochloropsis sp.).  Larvae were fed enriched rotifers and Artemia nauplii at 2 dph and 5 dph respectively, before being weaned onto 100 - 200 µm extruded dry feed beginning at 15 dph.  Larval survival was less than 1% for all batches.  Future rearing trials will incorporate a recirculating larval rearing system to achieve greater environmental control. 

 

Yellowtail species exhibit prime characteristics for aquaculture production, such as fast growth rates and low food conversion ratios, and adaptability to many different types of captive rearing conditions.  In addition, a growing market in the United States and other countries cannot be ignored. There is also a national mandate to expand aquaculture production in the U.S. and an emerging offshore aquaculture industry to support this expansion. For all these reasons, California yellowtail show enormous potential as a candidate species to support this expansion, especially on the west coast of the United States.

 

 


 

Current situation of technical developments in seed production of yellowtail, Seriola quinqueradiata in Japan

 

Keiichi MUSHIAKE*1, Hideki YAMAZAKI*2, and Hiroshi FUJIMOTO*2

*1 Fisheries Stock Enhancement Department, Headquarters, Fisheries Research Agency, Yokohama, Kanagawa 220-6115, Japan

*2 Yashima Station of National Center for Stock Enhancement, FRA, Takamatsu, Kagawa 761-0111, Japan

Email address:

mushiake@fra.affrc.go.jp

 

 

The National Center for Stock Enhancement (NCSE, formerly Japan Sea-Farming Association) of the Fisheries Research Agency introduced the stock enhancement program for yellowtail Seriola quinqueradiata in 1977. Technical developments in induced spawning as well as larval and juvenile rearing techniques have increased the production of this species to one million juveniles per year in NCSE. This project faced three major drawbacks; namely the high mortality of larvae, cannibalism and the smaller size of released juveniles in comparison with their wild counterparts. The high mortality of larvae was overcome by utilizing strong aeration during the early larval stages while cannibalism was controlled by the grading of juveniles by size selection. The two-month delay in the spawning season of reared broodstock (the usual spawning season is late April to early May), which caused the smaller size of released juveniles, was solved by developments in advanced spawning techniques. Photoperiod and water temperature manipulations were used to produce eggs in February, thus producing yellowtail juveniles that can be released into the wild at a size similar to that of the wild stock.

 


OPEN OCEAN CULTURE OF KONA KAMPACHI™ (Seriola rivoliana)

FROM HATCH TO HARVEST

 

Neil Anthony Sims

Kona Blue, P.O. Box 537, Holualoa, HI 96725

neil@kona-kampachi.com

 

Kona Kampachi™ (Seriola rivoliana) is now being cultured in the open ocean off the Kona coast, near the Big Island of Hawaii. This presentation will outline the legal, engineering and biological challenges that had to be overcome before this exciting project could come to fruition, and this superb sashimi-quality fish could become available to health-conscious consumers.

 

In 1997 and 1998, Kona Blue’s co-founders were involved in revisions to Hawaii’s open ocean leasing legislation. This innovative step provided a legal pathway for offshore aquaculture in the state waters around the islands. Over an ensuing three year permitting process, Kona Blue engaged in extensive discussions with the local community. Compromise and conciliation over several salient issues resulted in granting of Federal and State permits in March, 2004 for a 90 acre open ocean site a half-mile offshore, in waters over 200 ft deep. 

 

An integrated mooring array for Sea Station™ submersible cages and surface nursery cages was designed by Net Systems, Inc., with assistance from University of New Hampshire. A $4 million investment was obtained in October, 2004, from Hawaii and mainland U.S. investors, to finance the operation. Deployment began in February, 2005.

 

Kona Blue also developed proprietary hatchery technology that allowed culture of a number of marine fish species; several of these fish had previously never before been cultured in the hatchery. Land-based grow-out trials were used to evaluate suitability for offshore culture.  S. rivoliana distinguished itself by its adaptability to commercial hatchery production using these techniques, its excellent growth rates and FCRs, and its superb sashimi-quality product.

 

The first fingerlings were deployed in March, 2005, to the offshore site, and the first fish were harvested in September, 2005. These Kona Kampachi™ contain exceptional levels of heart-healthy omega-3 fatty acids. PCB and mercury levels are undetectable at sensitivity levels 20 times greater than the FDA’s allowable limits. The control of culture parameters from hatch-to-harvest, and the harvesting of fish solely to fulfill orders provides for excellent quality assurance. By the end of 2006, we expect to be harvesting 35,000 lbs per week of Kona Kampachi™, shipping primarily to high-end Hawaiian and mainland restaurants.

 

 


 

 

 

Culture Status of Sciaenids in the United States

 

 

Jesse A. Chappell Ph.D.

Extension Specialist and Assistant Professor

Department of Fisheries and Allied Aquacultures

125 Swingle Hall

Auburn University, Al. 36849-5419

Phone 334-844-9209

Fax      334-844-9208

Cell      334-321-1597

E-mail: chappj1@acesag.auburn.edu

Department Mail : http://www.ag.auburn.edu/dept/faa/

 

     

        This paper delivers an up-date on culture of several Sciaenids endemic to North American waters for both stock enhancement and the consumer seafood market. Investigations into culture and biology of North American drum began more than thirty years ago and they are currently widely cultured for enhancing recreational fisheries in Pacific and Atlantic/Gulf waters. Commercial aquaculture of Sciaenids, although economically viable, has met with less than enthusiastic regulatory support and consequently enterprises around their culture have not been widespread. Future opportunities for commercial businesses remain significant for many Sciaenids as bait, recreational species and as food fish as long as a reasonable ability to deal with regulatory issues exists.     


Culture of spotted seatrout Cynoscion nebulosus in a closed, recirculating system

 

Reginald B. Blaylock, Angelos Apeitos, Jason T. Lemus, Jeffrey M. Lotz

Gulf Coast Research Laboratory

The University Of Southern Mississippi

P.O. Box 7000

Ocean Springs, MS 39566-7000

 

The spotted seatrout C. nebulosus is the most popular sport fish among anglers in estuarine and near-shore waters of Mississippi. In partnership with the Mississippi Department of Marine Resources we have begun to evaluate the feasibility of using cultured spotted seatrout to supplement and assess the natural stocks in Mississippi waters.  Presently culture of seatrout consists of captive spawning of broodstock and rearing of larvae in earthen ponds containing estuarine water and mixed wild zooplankton. We have designed a recirculating system in which to rear spotted seatrout larvae and juveniles intensively. As a test of the intensive culture system, approximately 80,000 spotted seatrout (2-day post-hatch (PH)) larvae were obtained from Sea Center Texas in Lake Jackson. Larvae were stocked in eight 1000-Liter tanks at a density of 10 larvae/ liter.  Feed consisted of ss-rotifers (Range 70-110 μm), Artemia nauplii, and dry food. Mean survival from day 2 PH through day 25 PH was 25% and the larvae had a mean total length of 16.64+0.79mm and a mean weight of 0.04+0.01 g.  Cannibalism commenced at day18 ph.  At day 24 PH the juveniles were transferred to a nursery system.  At D38 the fish were transferred to a larger 50’ by 12’ by 3’ 55,000-liter raceway. Survival during the nursery phase averaged 88.84+5.80%.  Larvae averaged 45.01+1.93 mm and 0.79+0.10 g.


MARICULTURE OF WHITE SEABASS Atractoscion nobilis IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA

 

Mark Drawbridge*, Paul Curtis and Gabriel Buhr

Hubbs - SeaWorld Research Institute

2595 Ingraham St.

San Diego, CA 92109, USA

mdrawbr@hswri.org

 

Research and commercialization of marine finfish aquaculture has been limited in the United States, with California being no exception.  An ongoing interest in stock enhancement, driven largely by recreational anglers, has provided the impetus for investigating the culture potential of the white seabass Atractoscion nobilis.  Presently, culture is limited to a single hatchery in Carlsbad, California that produces as many as 250,000 juveniles per year for ocean stocking.

 

The white seabass is a member of the family Sciaenidae, which includes croakers and drums.  White seabass are induced to spawn by manipulating photoperiod and water temperature.  Broodstock maturation systems consist of 43 m3 pools that are recirculated.  Females mature in 4-5 years and may grow to 40 kg.  Eggs are spawned in batches of 0.5-2.0 million per female, with 10-14 day “resting” intervals.  The eggs are relatively large (1.2 mm diameter) and pelagic.  Egg hatching and initial larval rearing is conducted in 1.7 m3 cone-bottom, fiberglass pools that are recirculated and maintained at 18°C.  Nursery systems are also recirculated, but they are larger (8 m3) and maintained at a higher water temperature (23°C).  Growout of white seabass is currently conducted in raceways (30 m3) or nearshore cages (10-550 m3). 

 

Larvae are fed live Artemia nauplii initially and then frozen mysid shrimp, before being transitioned to a formulated dry feed.  White seabass are cannibalistic at an early age and require grading.  Among the more common infectious diseases affecting white seabass are (1) protozoan parasites, primarily Costia sp., Uronema sp., Hexamita sp.; (2) metazoan parasites, primarily monogenean trematodes; and (3) bacteria, primarily Flexibacter maritimus and Vibrio sp.  A herpes-type virus, viral nervous necrosis virus (VNNV), and Piscirickettsia salmonis have also been identified from cultured white seabass on several occasions.

 

The aquaculture potential for white seabass appears to be good, although few growout trials have been conducted.  Seabass reach 1.0 kg after 17-24 months depending on growing conditions and FCRs of 1.2 have been achieved in cages.  An established market exists for wild fish, but due to fishing regulations their size is larger (2.0 kg minimum) and availability is seasonal (late spring – early summer).  In market surveys, farm-raised white seabass received good reviews from industry professionals when rated for appearance, taste, texture, freshness, and ease of processing.  The market value is currently estimated at $7.70/kg for fresh white seabass.


Disease Surveillance in Wild and Cultured Stocks of

White Seabass (Atractoscion nobilis)

 

Mark S. Okihiro

California Department of Fish and Game

4065 Oceanside Blvd, suite G, Oceanside, California, 92056

Email: ms.okihiro@att.net

 

Success of the Ocean Resources Enhancement and Hatchery Program (OREHP) in California has, in part, been due to a comprehensive disease surveillance program geared towards rapid detection of a wide range infectious and parasitic diseases, afflicting both wild and cultured stocks of white seabass (Atractoscion nobilis). Isolation and identification of white seabass (WSB) pathogens is accomplished via a number of proven diagnostic methodologies including: thorough necropsy and gross examination, cytology, histology, electron microscopy, microbiology, serology, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays.  For WSB, major pathogens of concern are: viral nervous necrosis virus (VNNV), Piscirickettsia salmonis, Flexibacter maritimus, Vibrio sp., and Uronema marinum.  Use of an effective disease surveillance program has helped ensure that hatchery epizootics are detected in a timely fashion, and that treatment is appropriate and efficacious.  Since OREHP is a stock enhancement program, there is an additional goal of minimizing disease transfer from cultured to wild fish.  Disease outbreaks are inevitable with intensive culture; the key is determining which pathogens pose acceptable risks to wild stocks.  The most dangerous pathogens are lethal and highly contagious; the worst are novel pathogens that wild WSB have no immunity to.  Avoiding introduction of novel pathogens requires determining which diseases are “naturally-occurring.”  A broad sampling of wild populations can determine normal pathogen load and exposure level.  The most efficient method of wild fish evaluation is to determine serum antibody levels to specific pathogens using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs).  ELISAs have allowed OREHP to make informed decisions regarding enhancement efforts in California.  ELISA results have demonstrated that exposure to VNNV is widespread among wild WSB.  This data gives OREHP the option of releasing VNNV-exposed, but healthy, WSB without fear of unleashing a new plague into native stocks.  In contrast, exposure to Piscirickettsia salmonis has not been conclusively demonstrated and this novel disease retains a strictly “discover-and-euthanize” status among cultured fish.

 


Research on Aquaculture of rockfish in the United States.

M. B. Rust1 and M. Drawbridge2

1 Resource Enhancement and Utilization Technologies Division

Northwest Fisheries Science Center

2725 Montlake Blvd. E

Seattle, WA  98112

 

2 Hubbs Seaworld Research Institute

2595 Ingraham Street

San Diego, CA 92109

U.S.A.

 

Research on aquaculture of rockfish (Sebastes sp) on the west coast of the United States has a very short history (about 5 years) and is being conducted by only a few laboratories.  Hubbs-SeaWorld Research Institute (HSWRI) and the Northwest Fisheries Science Center (NWFSC) have the largest research programs on rockfish aquaculture. Occasionally, research on rockfish diseases, larval rearing and physiology is also conducted at Oregon State University or the University of California at Santa Barbara. The primary research conducted so far has been to develop methods to capture wild adults, spawn them and raise the resulting eggs and larvae.  Some related work on development of microparticulate diets to replace live feeds for these species, and one study on behavioral ecology of captivity reared juvenile rockfish has also been conducted The procurement of broodstock for rockfish and Pacific cod is challenging because the extreme depth of capture and because rockfish and cod have physoclistis swimbladders.  Bringing fish from depth (sometimes as much as 200-300 meters) causes over-expansion and rupture of the swimbladder, and can result in a condition similar to “the bends” (gas bubbles in the circulatory system).  These conditions are very often fatal for rockfish.  Research was conducted to determine if the rate of assent, and use of divers to perform underwater gas pressure releases could be used to increase post capture survival.

Spawning of rockfish is complicated by the need for internal fertilization and parturition.   We have only produced successful spawning from fish held at low densities in a large display tank at a public aquarium.  Two methods have been investigated for larval culture of rockfish in our laboratories.  Larval culture has been successful using the conventional intensive approach that utilizes indoor plastic tanks, high stocking densities and enriched cultured zooplankton (rotifers and Artemia) and/or wild zooplankton.  Quick studies using feeding success as the dependent variable have been used to identify optimal environmental conditions such as light intensity, amount of aeration and temperature for culture of several rockfish.  Another method used for larval culture of both rockfish and cod is the Floating Intensive Seawater Hatchery System (FISH).  The FISH system utilizes floating PVC bags as culture vessels to rear marine fish larvae.  The larvae are fed both wild and cultured zooplankton.  This system was developed so the whole life cycle can be carried out using a modified net-pen without the need for a shore-based facility.  The FISH system was designed so near-shore marine species could be produced with only minimal modifications to existing net-pen salmon cage structures and to reduce the costs of setting up a hatchery.


 

Review of juvenile production and its problems in black rockfish, Sebastes schlegeli

 

Masahiro Nakagawa

Miyako Station, National Center for Stock Enhancement,

Fisheries Research Center

 

Juvenile production of six species of rockfish (Sebastes schlegeli, S. inermis, S. pachycephalus, S. vulpes, S. thompsoni, and S. oblongus) is currently being conducted in Japan. Three and half million juveniles of Sebastes schlegeli—70 percent of the total among these six species—were produced for mariculture and stock enhancement in 2002, because this species grows fastest and moves in a narrow range after being released.

 

Juvenile production of S. schlegeli began in the 1970s. It is currently done by breeding juvenile in large water tanks belonging to prefectural hatcheries or fishermen’s associations. The technology for juvenile production of this species is now considered to be nearly fully established, and its development in recent years has been aimed at reducing the unit cost of juvenile. Juvenile of S. schlegeli costs 8.5 yen per 30 mm, a relatively low unit cost among marine fishes. The survival rate of S. schlegeli up to a size of 30 mm is approximately 50 percent, but it varies widely from 19.6 to 81.4 percent. Therefore, the survival rate is far from stable. Three patterns of mortality are observed among juvenile: they die before or after 10 or 20 days from their delivery as well as after 30 days from their confinement. Particularly noteworthy is the fact that the mortality within 10 days after the beginning of delivery is higher than at other times; it varies greatly depending on how the juvenile are reared, and it still poses a problem. This presentation is intended to review the results of research on juvenile production conducted at Miyako Station of the National Center for Stock Enhancement, Fisheries Research Agency, and to introduce the problems that remain unsolved.

 


Current Status of Southern Flounder Culture and Stock Enhancement

 

Harry Daniels1, 2, Russell Borski2, John Godwin2, Wade Watanabe3

and Ryan Murashige2

2North Carolina State University, Department of Zoology, 127 David Clark Labs, Raleigh, NC 276953  University of North Carolina at Wilmington, Center for Marine Science Research, 7205 Wrightsville Ave., Wilmington, NC 28403

Email:Harry_Daniels@ncsu.edu

 

 

The southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) is an important commercial fish along the south Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico.  Interest in aquaculture of southern flounder started about 10 years ago and has progressed to the point that stock enhancement is being considered in several states.  The main advantage to the culture of southern flounder are its ability to growth equally well in fresh and salt water (0 to 33 ppt).  This characteristic opens up the possibility of culturing flounder away from coastal areas.  

 

During the past 10 years, progress in controlled spawning of broodstock, mass-production of fingerlings and development of growout protocols has brought the culture of southern flounder to the point of adoption by the aquaculture industry.  Progress in out-of-season spawning has increased the pace of research.  Information on temperature-dependent sex determination of southern flounder has enabled culturists to produce more balanced sex ratios. 

 

Commercial stocks of southern flounder are being overfished in several states.  Fisheries managers have begun increasing size limits to reduce total harvest.  Current minimum size limits are highly selective for females (>85% of harvest); higher size limits will further increase selectivity.  With the development of reliable culture methods, interest in stock enhancement of southern flounder has emerged in several states. including North Carolina and Texas.

 

An overview of the development of southern flounder culture methods will be presented along with specific information on growth rates at different salinities in indoor recirculating systems, current work on sex determination and methods to produce gynogenetic diploids.  

 

 


Construction of BAC library from XY Japanese flounder using frozen sperm genomic DNA

Hiroyuki Okamoto1, Hiroyuki Nagoya1, Eiichi Yamamoto2, Takashi Sakamoto3, Kanako Fuji3, Nobuaki Okamoto3, Kazuo Araki1 and Ichiro Nakayama4

 

1National Research Institute of Aquaculture, Tamaki, Mie 519-0423, Japan

2Tottori Prefectural Fisheries Experimental Station, Tomari, Tohaku, Tottori 689-0602, Japan

3Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Konan, Minato, Tokyo 108-8477, Japan

4National Research Institute of Fisheries Science, Fukuura, Kanazawa, Yokohama 236-8648, Japan

 

Progress in genomic breeding for aquaculture requires several molecular genetics tools, which will facilitate analysis of genetic linkage and synteny, or to clone genes associated with desirable commercial traits. Such tools include a recombination map, a physical (e.g. chromosome and radiation hybrid) map and genomic (BAC and cosmid) libraries.

 

We have constructed BAC and cosmid libraries from the frozen sperm of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. The BAC library was generated from a XY male fish, whose heterozygosity was confirmed by examination of the male-female ratio of its offspring. This BAC library contains DNA sequences from both the X and Y chromosome, and will constitute a useful tool for the analysis of Y-specific genes. The sperm had been frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored in a freezer at –80 for more than one month. This study suggests that frozen fish sperm can be used in the construction of BAC or cosmid libraries even after prolonged storage. We have isolated several clones (e.g. MHC class Ia) using the BAC library to analyze the synteny among fish species. Our results further indicate that freezing does not create any bias in the library.


A REVIEW OF TUNA SPECIES AQUACULTURE AROUND THE WORLD

 

Paula C. Sylvia

Hubbs-SeaWorld Research Institute, 2595 Ingraham St., San Diego, CA  92109, USA

psylvia@hswri.org

 

World production of farmed tuna amounted to approximately 33,000 metric tons (MT) in 2003-2004. Currently, northern and southern bluefin tuna are the primary species farmed (Thunnus thynnus, T. thynuus orientalis and T. maccoyii).  However, bigeye tuna (T. obesus) and yellowfin tuna (T. albacares) have been farmed in Mexico as well as Central America and are now considered as alternative species for tuna farming, especially those in warmer water regions.  Large scale tuna farming or ranching began in the 1990’s, primarily in South Australia but has also existed on an experimental and commercial level in Japan for over thirty years.  Today, tuna farming exists on seven continents, in 18 countries and in 14 oceans or seas around the world.

 

Tuna farming has historically been conducted as fattening or ranching operations.  In recent years, efforts have concentrated on two areas that are critical to the advancement of the tuna aquaculture industry; research on closing the lifecycle and developing an artificial diet. In 2002, researchers at the Fisheries Laboratory of Kinki University in Japan achieved the first closed cycle breeding of bluefin tuna, producing over 800,000 newly hatched larvae.  Similar efforts are ongoing in Australia and around the Mediterranean where broodstocks are being conditioned, with first successful in-vitro fertilization from a hormone-induced broodstock taking place in July, 2005 at the Spanish Institute of Oceanography.  The Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) has maintained a spawning broodstock population of yellowfin tuna in their laboratory in Panama since 1996.  Artificial feed development has been a research priority in Australia since 1995.  Commercial pellet feeding trials have been conducted and are on-going in several countries with positive results.  At present, farms that are using a pelleted feed are only providing it as a source for vitamin supplementation in addition to fresh and frozen baitfish.

 

Currently, farmed tuna supplies more than 50% of Japan’s bluefin supplies, and its contribution to total supplies is growing every year.  Although there are still some peak market times, the growing industry worldwide and the consistent supply of tuna product on a year-round basis have resulted in a more stable price structure.  More than 97% of market demand for bluefin comes from Japan, although important markets in South-East Asia and the USA continue to emerge.   An increasing global demand for seafood production, a corresponding increase in demand for premium quality tuna for the sushi and sashimi market, and a growing need to respond to the decline of most wild bluefin tuna fisheries worldwide will all be driving forces in the development of reliable technologies for large scale production of juvenile tuna for both commercial food production and fisheries replenishment.  As these technologies improve, the economics of full cycle farming should also improve, and quite possibly result in changes in the market structure for hatchery produced fish.

 

 

 


Status quo of Pacific bluefin tuna seed production in Amami station of NCSE FRA

 

Nikaido Hideki, T. Takebe, N. Tezuka, K. Ide, H. Imaizumi and S. Masuma

Amami Station, National Center for Stock Enhancement, Fisheries Research Agency

Oshima, Kagoshima 894-2414, Japan

 

 

Tuna is one of the marine products being loved world widely, not limited to Japan.  The bluefin tuna, which has the highest market value, grows quickly and moreover the largest of the tunas, so the bluefin is placed as the extremely important fishery resources of Japan. The bluefin tuna is also international fishery resources for the countries concerned. Therefore, the management of bluefin has been entrusted to the international committees.  Japan government, which has the biggest market for the bluefin, has been promoting the development of stock enhancement techniques for the purpose of the propagation of wild resource of the bluefin tuna.

 

We will present for the outline and prospective of the seed production techniques of bluefin tuna having been developed in the Amami Station so far.

 

Status quo and problem

We have made the development of rearing technology of bluefin larvae since 1995 and succeeded in rearing about 12,000 juveniles (average 47 mm TL) in 1998.  However, the survival rate from hatch to juvenile stage amounted to 0.10.3%.  This is very lower survival than that of other marine fish artificially rearing in Japan. As for the problem of low survival, we focused particularly on the survival until 10 dah(day after hatching) and the cannibalism occurring after 7 mm TL.

 

We supposed that one of their causes of this low survival is that bluefin larvae are sinking to the bottom of tank during night and after that die, though its cause is not clear. So we tried the method rotating continually by using a pump in order to prevent larvae from sinking. As a result, the survival rate in 2003 improved to 40% at 10 dah and 1.5% at 2329 dah. The survival rate at 10 dah progressed more to 60% in 2005. And the revise of food sequence was attempted so as not to make the difference of growth in rearing larvae arousing cannibalism. It was possible that to put off feeding on food larvae of snapper, that is, to continue feeding on rotifer, is to delay beginning of cannibalism.

 

Prospective

The rearing technology of bluefin larvae have been steadily developing and will progress furthermore by resolving problems remained unsolved, such as nutrition, deformation, virus disease, mortality from unidentified cause and so on. Moreover, we should determine the genetic diversity before releasing a mass of bluefin juvenile. Additionally, we should grope another ways like supplying to the aquaculture.

 


CAPTIVE SPAWNING AND REARING OF LARVAE AND JUVENILES OF YELLOWFIN TUNA Thunnus albacares

 

Daniel Margulies, Vernon P. Scholey, Jeanne B. Wexler, and Sharon L. Hunt

 

Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission

Scripps Institution of Oceanography

8604 La Jolla Shores Drive

La Jolla, CA 92037, USA

Email:  dmargulies@iattc.org

 

 

The Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) has developed a spawning population of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) in large, in-ground tanks at its Achotines Laboratory in the Republic of Panama.  The broodstock was developed as part of a joint project conducted by the IATTC, the Overseas Fishery Cooperation Foundation (OFCF) of Japan, and the government of the Republic of Panama.

 

The yellowfin broodstock have been spawning daily almost year-round since October 1996.  To our knowledge, this represents the first successful spawning of yellowfin tuna in land-based tanks anywhere in the world.  Our research group has described, in recent publications, the development of the broodstock and the design of the rearing systems, growth of the broodstock fish, survival in captivity, and genetic monitoring of spawning patterns.  Several papers currently in press summarize the courtship and spawning behaviors of yellowfin, their spawning dynamics in relation to physical factors and daily ration, and early development of their eggs and larvae.

 

Larvae and early-juveniles reared from eggs have been used in a series of laboratory experiments to examine growth and survival during the early life history.  A natural product of these efforts has been refinement of rearing methods and improved survival of larval and early-juvenile yellowfin.  Juveniles have been cultured for up to 100 days, and are routinely reared up to 6 weeks after hatching.  While our culture efforts with yellowfin have been on an experimental scale and have ecological and stock-assessment applications, the techniques that we have developed for yellowfin could be applied to a resource-enhancement or commercial aquaculture project.

             

In this paper we summarize some of the important aspects of our research with yellowfin in captivity.  We will discuss recent research results on spawning dynamics, genetic monitoring of broodstock, and recent advances to improve the feeding and survival of larvae and early-juveniles.


AN OVERVIEW OF TUNA PRODUCTION AND FARM OPERATIONS AT MARICULTURA DEL NORTE IN ENSENADA, B.C., MEXICO

 

Ted Dunn*, Jaramo Ramos

Maricultura Del Norte, Ensenada, B.C., Mexico

bluefint@san.rr.com

 

World production of farmed northern and southern bluefin tuna reached 32,570 metric tons (mt) in 2003-2004.  With a total of 8 permitted farms with a production potential of 3500 mt, Mexican tuna farming operations currently represent 10% of world production.  The majority of operations are located on the Pacific side of the Baja peninsula.  Tuna farming began in Mexico in 1996 with marginal success and with only 1 or 2 companies in business at any one time.  However, the development of many innovative techniques for both fishing and farming by Mexican operations in recent years have allowed them to emerge as significant competitors in a relatively young but growing industry.

 

Maricultura Del Norte historically has been the largest tuna producing company in Mexico with production increasing from 50 to 1700 mt from 1996-2004, currently representing >66% of Mexican production.  Fishing bluefin in Mexican waters for farming operations have proven more difficult than in other parts of the world.  Many factors such as water depth, fish behavior and unique weather conditions have contributed to inconsistent and unpredictable seasons.  Typical size at capture ranges from 15-45 kilograms, with smaller fish being caught in southern areas and larger fish to the north.  The catching season typically ranges from July to late August but can extend into November, depending on fishing location.  Towing distances can range from 96 - >800 kilometers.  The production cycle is typically 3-6 months, as in other parts of the world with harvests typically beginning early in the Christmas season. The tuna are fed a mixture of sardines and mackerel daily from 4%-7% of BW/D, depending on the time of year and temperature.  Seasonal weight gain typically averages 30% of original biomass.  Feed conversion ratio is 12:1.  Water temperature ranges from 14-17ºC.

 

Mexico is particularly inviting for tuna farming because of temperate weather conditions, an abundant supply of locally caught feed, proximity to major international airports, lack of various regulations and low labor costs.    Additionally, three of the most valuable tuna species, Bluefin, Bigeye (T. Obesus) and Yellowfin (T. albacares) tuna are common inhabitants of these waters.  Bigeye and Yellowfin tuna have also been successfully farmed in different locations in Mexico. 

 

With increased national and international interests and the development of a more skilled workforce for these types of operations, Mexico is uniquely poised to expand and contribute more significantly to worldwide tuna farming production.


Challenges of reproducing fish in a captive environment

 

Penny Swanson

Northwest Fisheries Science Center

NOAA- National Marine Fisheries Service

2725 Montlake Boulevard East

Seattle, WA  98112

Email: penny.swanson@noaa.gov

 

 

Reproduction of fish in a captive environment is often met with numerous difficulties, particularly when fish are of wild origin and the goal of the breeding program is to avoid domestication as in many conservation programs.   Various forms of reproductive dysfunction have been observed, including skewed sex ratios, failure to initiate spermatogenesis or vitellogenesis, lack of volitional spawning, asynchronous timing of spawning, precocious puberty of males, poor fertility and low fecundity.   Many of these problems are due to inappropriate environmental cues, poor growth, or stress in the captive environment.   Reproduction in fish, like other vertebrates, is regulated by the brain-pituitary-gonad axis.  Environmental information is perceived and processed by the brain ultimately leading to release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) by the hypothalamus, which regulates the production and secretion of pituitary gonadotropins.    Two types of gonadotropins, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) act on the gonads to regulate virtually all aspects of gametogenesis.  Most of the actions of FSH and LH are via stimulation of gonadal steroid production, however recent work has been elucidating the role of several growth factors.   In several species, control of reproduction has been achieved by hormonal manipulations using analogues of GnRH, gonadotropins and/or sex steroids.   Reproduction has also been manipulated with environmental cues such as temperature and photoperiod.    In this talk I will review the endocrine and environmental control of reproduction, and strategies that have been used to manipulate reproduction of several marine and freshwater fish in captivity.  I will also outline strategies one might take when initiating captive broodstock programs for new target species, methods to monitor the reproductive system and methods to assess effectiveness of environmental manipulations.  

 


Visualization tools to probe early stage fish abnormalities

 

Susumu Uji and Tadahide Kurokawa

National Research Institute of Aquaculture

Naisei, Mie 516-0193, Japan

 

In Japan, the incidence of malformed fish presents waste in the seed production of many species, including yellow tail, grouper and Japanese flounder. The abnormal appearance of fish can be judged only when they have become large because examination or measurement of the miniscule exterior, jaws, faces, etc. of embryos and larvae are difficult. If abnormalities occur frequently, then unnecessary expenditures of human resources, money, and time are undertaken to raise fish to sufficient size for examination. If we were able to judge malformation at an early stage, we would thereby eliminate that waste. Therefore, we are developing rapid malformation judgment methods for fish in embryo and larval stages.

Malformations are discovered only at later stages, but we infer that they mainly occur during abnormal organogenesis at early stages. We believe that malformations in early stages are detectable using visualization tools for specific organs and cells. For this purpose, antibodies and the organizational dyeing are suitable because they are useful with many fish simultaneously. We found that many antibodies and organizational dyeing methods are useful for commercial sea fishes. As examples, antibodies to acetylated tubulin, a cell surface marker (HNK-1) and a Na, K-ATPase (a6F) are useful, respectively, to visualize the nervous system, neural crest cells, and kidney in Pufferfish, yellow tail, and Japanese eel. Calcein and alkaline phosphatase staining methods are also useful to visualize bones and intestines. Using these many tools to probe abnormalities, we can work efficiently to solve malformation problems.

 

 


Techniques for induction of maturation, artificial fertilization, and larviculture in Japanese eel

 

Hideki Tanaka, Kazuharu Nomura and Tatsuya Unuma

National Research Institute of Aquaculture, Fisheries Research Agency, Minamiise, Watarai, Mie, 516-0193, Japan  E-mail address: htanaka@fra.affrc.go.jp

 

The Japanese eel is one of the most important species for freshwater cultivation in Japan. Seeds for eel culture absolutely depend on the wild glass eel captured in estuaries. But annual catches of glass eel fluctuate widely and are steadily decreasing. Unstable supplies and prices of glass eel are serious problems in the eel culture industry. Therefore, development of techniques for artificial breeding of the eel has been desired eagerly. It has been more than a quarter of a century since Yamamoto and Yamauchi first obtained fertilized eggs and larvae of the Japanese eel by hormonal treatment. However, no one had succeeded in production of glass eel by the end of the 20th century. Thus studies to develop techniques for obtaining good quality gametes constantly and rearing hatched larvae successfully have been conducted.

 

Weekly injections of salmon pituitary extracts (SPE) to feminized, cultivated Japanese eels at a dose of 20 mg/fish induced vitellogenesis and oocytes reached the migratory nucleus stage. Then most of the females received an injection of SPE at a priming dose followed 24 h later by 17, 20-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP) ovulated around the time of 15-18 h after the final injection. Repeated injections of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) at a dose of 1 IU/g BW/week induced spermatogenesis, spermiation in cultivated males. Most of the males spermiated after the 5th or 6th injection of hCG, and sperm motility peaked 24 h after each injection. Artificial fertilization performed immediately after ovulation with pre-diluted and stocked milt resulted in production of high quality gametes constantly.

 

Recently, a slurry-type diet made from shark egg yolk has been identified to be a suitable feed for captive-bred eel larvae. Although preleptocephalus larvae could be reared with this diet beyond the depletion of their yolk and oil droplet stores, it was still incomplete because the larvae could not be raised to glass eel. The diet was then improved by supplement of krill hydrolysate, phytase treated soybean peptide, vitamins, and minerals. Larvae fed on this new diet has grew to 50-60 mm in total length and begun to metamorphose into glass eel around 250 days after hatching. Body depth drastically decreased, black pigment appeared at the caudal region and extended along the lateral line to the head, acute and conspicuous larval teeth were lost, gills developed, eye diameter decreased, and blood colored by the completion of metamorphosis.

 

We have succeeded for the first time to rear the eel larvae to glass eel. However, the techniques for producing glass eels are not yet firmly established. Further studies should be focused on larval diets and the rearing regimes of the larvae to establish the techniques for consistent mass production of glass eels.


Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) analysis and marker-assisted breeding for economical important trait in aquaculture

AKIYUKI OZAKI1, MASANORI OKAUTI1, SOK KEAN KHOO2, ERIKO OHARA3, KANAKO FUJI3, TAKUYA HARA3, TAKASHI SAKAMOTO3, and, NOBUAKI OKAMOTO3

1National Research Institute of Aquaculture, Fisheries Research Agency, Mie, Japan, 2Laboratory of Cancer Genetics, Van Andel Institute, Michigan, USA,

3Faculty of Marine Science, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Tokyo, Japan,

Email: AKIYUKI OZAKI , aozaki@affrc.go.jp

 

In recent year, the development of molecular markers and DNA analysis technology has completely changed analysis of quantitative genetics. Because a systematic method for genetic breeding has been established using the molecular landmark of genomic DNA. We can control the phenotypes in genetic breeding, using molecular markers associated with particular economic characters.

 

Genetic linkage maps based on molecular markers are one of the important tools in these techniques. Marker-assisted breeding using molecular markers can improve breeding programs for aquaculture species. To identify individual loci controlling traits of economic significance to aquaculture, it is presently necessary to construct a genetic linkage map based on molecular markers at a large number of sites in the genome (e.g., disease resistance, growth, fecundity etc.). Among these traits, especially viral disease resistance has the first priority for breed improvement, because of no medicines or commercially available vaccines.

 

Linkage maps have been published for a large number of economically important fish species, such as Rainbow trout, Atlantic salmon, Tilapia, Catfish and Japanese flounder. Among these, the genetic linkage map of the rainbow trout and have permitted the identification of the Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) for Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis (IPN) and Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis (IHN) resistance in Rainbow trout,

 

Analysis of QTL has generalized in the field of aquaculture. This approach in aquaculture clearly aims to use Marker Assisted Selection (MAS) to improve economically important traits. Fish for aquaculture have many advantages for QTL analysis. Also, systematic breeding programs including hatchery management are needed for QTL analysis and MAS in the field of aquaculture.

 

In this study, the authors introduce our results about the identification in the case of QTL about Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis (IPN) in Rainbow trout, including trial for MAS. And will be introduce next target species for QTL analysis in aquaculture.

 

 

 


OPPORTUNITIES FOR MARICULTURE OF FINFISH IN THE SOUTHWEST REGION OF THE UNITED STATES

 

Mark A. Drawbridge* and Paula C. Sylvia

Hubbs-SeaWorld Research Institute

2595 Ingraham St.

San Diego, CA  92109, USA

MDrawbridge@hswri.org

 

Southern California offers an ideal setting for marine fish farming because of its Mediterranean climate and relatively mild sea conditions.  Sea surface temperatures are typically 12-22°C.  Protection offered by coastal islands and infrastructure offered by oil and gas platforms present attractive siting advantages.  Los Angeles is among the top U.S. ports relative to fish landings, processing, marketing and distribution.

 

Among the marine finfish species currently being spawned reliably in the Southwest is the white seabass, Atractoscion nobilis (Family Sciaenidae).  White seabass eggs are available year-round from environmentally controlled spawning of multiple captive broodstocks.  Wholesale buyers are willing to pay $7.70/kg for fresh white seabass.  California yellowtail, Seriola lalandi (Family Carangidae), are currently being spawned under natural conditions in the spring and summer in both tanks and cages.  Market prices for fresh yellowtail are considered excellent at $12-15/kg.  California halibut, Paralichthys californicus (Family Paralichthyidae), is the largest of 13 Paralichthys species that also spawns naturally in tanks during the spring and summer.  The market price for fresh California halibut is $14.30/kg, which is also marketed live with a minimum 15% surcharge.  Among these species only white seabass is currently produced at a commercial scale, with the goal of stock replenishment.  Based on success with closely related species, only 1-3 years would be required to achieve commercial productivity with California halibut and yellowtail if dedicated hatchery facilities were established. 

 

Immediately across the boarder in Mexican waters, tuna and yellowtail are being caught from the wild and held in netpens where they are “fattened” prior to harvest.  The primary tuna species being reared is the bluefin, Thunnus thynnus, but yellowfin, Thunnus albacares, and bigeye, Thunnus obesus, are also targeted.  Market price for headed and gutted fish is approximately $24/kg for each of these species, which belong to the family Scombridae.  These same species are found in U.S. waters but no cage sites are currently permitted for farming.  Progress is being made in several countries around the world in closing the life cycles of bluefin and yellowfin tuna.

 

Among other candidate finfish species native the Southwest is the lingcod, Ophiodon elongates (Family Hexagrammidae), and the sablefish, Anoplopoma fimbria (Family Anoplopomatidae).  The culture techniques to produce these fish on a commercial scale have been developed in the Northwest and are transferable to the cooler areas within the Southwest region.  Other species being cultured at an experimental level in the Southwest include the California sheephead, Semicossyphus pulcher (Family Labridae); Cabezon, Scorpaenichthys marmoratus (Family Cottidae); and several species of Sebastes rockfishes (Family Sebastidae).

 


Review of Pacific Northwest Marine Aquaculture

 

W. Dickhoff, and M. Rust

Resource Enhancement and Utilization Technologies Division

Northwest Fisheries Science Center

2725 Montlake Blvd. E

Seattle,  WA  98112

 

Marine waters of the States of Washington and Oregon make up the Pacific Northwest region.  Within this region there are three distinct oceanographic zones with potential for aquaculture; exposed coastal regions along the outer Pacific Coast, the Straits of Juan de Fuca, and estuaries along the coast and inland Puget Sound.  Salinities vary from nearly freshwater in upper reaches of estuaries and the Columbia River, to 24-28 ppt in Puget Sound to full strength seawater on the coast away from the Columbia River mouth.  Water temperatures range from 7 to 20 °C with temperatures from 10 to 15°C more common.  The region has two metropolitan areas, Seattle and Portland, with well developed fishery infrastructure, markets and export facilities.   Regional Pacific salmon hatcheries release about 190 million smolts (all species) in an average year that account for 70-88% of the salmon harvested in Oregon and Washington waters.  In addition, approximately 9,000 metric tons/yr of farmed salmon (mostly Salmo salar) with a value estimated at $25,000,000 are produced in net-pens located in Puget Sound and the Columbia River.   An additional 41,000 metric tons/yr of shellfish (Oysters, Clams, Mussels and Geoducks) valued at approximately $80,000,000 are harvested from estuaries in the region.  Future marine finfish aquaculture development is expected to occur in the Straits of Juan de Fuca and utilize submersible net-pens capable of withstanding high-energy marine environments. Finfish species that are technically feasible for commercial rearing in high-energy environments or for enhancement of wild stocks include sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) and lingcod (Ophiodon elongatus.).  Finfish species that are experimentally feasible for enhancement or commercial rearing include several species of rockfish (Sebastes sp.) and Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus).  There are no commercial marine fish hatcheries in the region, though sablefish are commercially available from a single private hatchery in British Columbia, Canada.  NOAA’s Northwest Fisheries Science Center operates the only research hatchery producing non-salmonid marine finfish in the Northwest.

 


Marine Aquaculture in the Northeast US:  Current Status and Future Prospects

 

Richard LANGAN, Cooperative Institute for New England Mariculture and Fisheries, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824, rlangan@cisunix.unh.edu

 

The marine waters of the northeastern U.S. support approximately U.S. $40 of aquaculture production of edible seafood products. For the purpose of this assessment, the northeast region is defined as the estuarine and marine waters of the states of Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut and New York, and the westernmost portion of the federal waters of the northwest Atlantic continental shelf.  Though all the coastal waters in the region are classified as north temperate Atlantic, there is considerable variation in seasonal temperature profiles, tidal amplitude, and coastal bathymetry and geology throughout the region. The shoreline consists of sandy beaches, primarily in the southwest, and rocky coastline interspersed with numerous bays and estuaries of all types, including one of the largest estuaries in the U.S.  Land use in the coastal watersheds of the region ranges from highly urbanized in the southwest portion to rural in the northeast, though the entire stretch of coastline is experiencing rapid residential and commercial development.  The primary commercial aquaculture sectors are on-bottom and suspension culture of several species molluscan shellfish, and net pen culture of salmonids, though this sector is restricted to the far northeast portion of the region.  Oysters (Crassostrea virginica) are the most important and most valuable of the shellfish species, followed by hard clams (Mercenaria mercenaria) and blue mussels (Mytilus edulis). Small quantities of other marine species are produced in land based, estuarine and offshore systems.  A considerable amount of research and development on native species that include Atlantic halibut, Atlantic cod, black sea bass, giant sea scallops and several species of macroalgae is being conducted by academic, government and private sector entities. This regional also hosts the only experimental offshore production system for finfish and molluscan shellfish in the continental U.S.  This paper describes current production by sector and species, current hatchery capacity for producing seed and fingerlings, and constraints and prospects for industry expansion. 

 

 


 

Aquaculture Development of the Pacific threadfin, longfin amberjack, and bluefin trevally for commercial cage culture in hawaii

 

Charles. W. Laidley, Ken Liu, Aaron Ellis, Chris Demarke, and Augustin Molnar

Finfish Department, Oceanic Institute, 41-202 Kalanianaole Hwy,

Waimanalo, Hawaii 96795

Email: claidley@oceanicinstitute.org

 

The Oceanic Institute has been actively engaged for several decades in the development of technologies for the commercial culture of marine warm water fishes.  In recent years our focus has been on local high-value species that are very popular in Hawaii and are growing in popularity in mainland U.S.A.  This presentation will review the status of three species, the Pacific threadfin (Polydactyulus sexfilis), longfin amberjack (Seriola rivoliana) and bluefin trevally (Caranx melampygus).

 

The Pacific threadfin, locally known as moi is the most “mature” of the three technologies with year-round hatchery production and large-scale (peak of 200,000 fingerlings/run) growout in commercial offshore cages off Oahu. Over the last few years nearly two-million fingerlings have been cultured and stocked for offshore growout. Key hatchery concerns relate to broodstock management, hatchery scale-up and recent declines in hatchery productivity.

 

The longfin amberjack, locally known as kahala, is rapidly emerging as the next commercial species with recent deployment of commercial cages off the Kona coast on the island of Hawaii. Although the hatchery technology is less developed, the concerns generally appear similar to that of the moi.  There is also added concern over potential ectoparasite infestations, as has been experienced with seriolid culture world-wide.

 

The bluefin trevally, locally known as omilu, may also be amenable to year-round production but larval production appears limited using rotifer/Artemia based hatchery technologies. However, OI’s recent efforts to establish copepod culture technology for rearing a number of “difficult to rear” foodfish and ornamental species may open the door to commercial development of such species with extremely small pelagic larvae.  Toward this goal we are focusing efforts on optimizing and scaling up copepod culture technology that would allow for commercial application in the marine foodfish and ornamental sectors.

 

 


A novel technique to collect gut contents for studying digestive mechanism in the abalone

 

Kentaro Niwa*1, Hideaki Aono*1 and Tomoo Sawabe*2

*1 National Research Institute of Fisheries Science, 6-31-1 Nagai, Yokosuka, Kanagawa, Japan

Email: niwaken@affrc.go.jp

*2Laboratory of Microbiology, Hokkaido University, 3-1-1 Minato-cho, Hakodate, Hokkaido, Japan

 

 

Abalones are commercially important gastropods in Japan. In the algae- feeding creatures, many polysaccharide degrading enzymes and gut microbes work together on the digestion of seaweeds. Genes encoding these polysaccharide degrading enzymes, such as cellulase and alginate lyase have been cloned from the hepatopancreas of the abalone, Haliotis discus hannai (Suzuki et al., 2003, Shimizu et al., 2003) and H. discus discus (Niwa and Aono, 2004). Bacteria with alginate degrading activity have been also isolated from the gut of various abalone species (Sawabe et al., 1995, 1998). However, it is not known when these bacteria colonize in the gut of the abalone and to what extent they contribute to the digestion of polysaccharides. Real-time methodology to study change of host digestive enzyme activities and gut microflora in a same individual without killing the animal is required. In a conventional method to measure the change of enzyme activities and microflora, animals have to be sacrificed to collect gut contents. In this study, we developed a simple technique to collect digestive fluid with a syringe without terminating abalone. Using the method, we succeeded in measurement of glycosidase activities, isolation of cellulase and gut bacteria from the digestive fluid of H. discus discus. The method could be a useful tool to clarify the digestive mechanism accompanied with bacterial role of abalone.


Current Hatchery and Growout TEchnologies for High-Value Marine Fishes in the Southeastern United States

 

Kevan L. Main

Mote Marine Laboratory

600 Ken Thompson Parkway

Sarasota, FL 34236

kmain@mote.org

 

 

Marine fish hatchery and growout activities in the southeastern United States include research-scale, pilot-scale and commercial-scale efforts to produce fish for stock enhancement, food and ornamental production. Stock enhancement efforts range from experimental to pilot-scale programs to develop culture technology and release strategies using red drum, snook, cobia and red snapper. Food and ornamental production efforts range from experimental research programs to pilot-scale and commercial-scale ventures using emerging species, such as cobia, pompano, black sea bass, summer and southern flounder, mutton snapper and marine ornamental fishes. There are three commercial companies in Florida that have recently started producing fingerling cobia, mutton snapper and pompano, for growout facilities in Florida and the Caribbean. These companies are investigating the potential for offshore cage, pond and recirculating tank production systems.  In both North Carolina and Virginia, there are farms that are purchasing juvenile wild-caught flounder and growout out these fish in tanks for local markets. The Florida freshwater tropical fish industry has diversified to include production of marine ornamental fishes and is marketing fish in the aquarium trade. A regional perspective and species profiles for the marine fishes under investigation and in commercial production in Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina and Virginia will be presented.

 

 


Preparation of marine silage and its potential for industrial use

 

MOTOHARU UCHIDA

National Research Institute of Fisheries and Environment of Inland Sea, 2-17-5, Maruishi, Hatsukaichi, Hiroshima 739-0452, Japan (e-mail: uchida@affrc.go.jp)

 

 

  “Marine silage (MS)” is fish dietary materials prepared from algae by a fermentative processing.  The objective of this work is to report the method to prepare the marine silage from seaweeds and refer to its future potential for industrial use.  The fermentation of seaweeds can be performed by the enzymatic saccharification by cellulase, followed by the fermentation process with the use of lactic acid bacteria and/or yeast.  This method can be applied on any kind of seaweeds containing cellulose.  Red sea bream that are challenged with iridovirus and fed a diet containing the MS at 10% (w/w) resulted in the significant promotion of the survival rate (%) against those fed the control diet.  The use of MS diet may contribute to culture fish that is free from drugs.  For the case of Undaria pinnatifida, the frond is so fragile and easily decomposed to one cell unit during the saccharification process.  The particle size of the obtained product (single cell detritus-marine silage, or SCD-MS) is ca. 5~10μm in diameter as like microalgae diet.  The mass culture of the SCD-MS can be performed with a plastic tank alone at high concentration of ca. 107-108 cells/ml and any electrical facilities for temperature control, light, and air-supply are not necessary.  The feeding tests for pearl oyster spat demonstrated the dietary value of the SCD-MS to bivalves.  The SCD-MS diet may replace a part of microalgae diet in future.  The development of the SCD-MS diet also suggests a new style of aquaculture.  We are attempting to link the production of nuisance algae such as Ulva spp.to fish productions utilizing the marine silage system.  We believe that aquaculture based on algal fermented materials is eco-friendly as well as the agriculture utilizing compost and livestock industry feeding silage.

 


 

TECHNIQUES FOR LIVE CAPTURE OF DEEPWATER FISHES WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON THE DESIGN AND APPLICATION OF A LOW-COST HYPERBARIC CHAMBER

 

Jeffrey E. Smiley* and Mark A. Drawbridge

Hubbs-SeaWorld Research Institute

2595 Ingraham Street, San Diego CA 92109

JSmiley@hswri.org

 

HSWRI is currently collecting brood fish representing several species of Sebastes rockfishes that are typically found at depths >90 m.  Following rapid depressurization from depth, physoclistous fish suffer from overinflation of the gas bladder, bubble formation in the circulatory system, and trauma to internal tissues that may result in hemorrhaging, swelling, and death.  In order to alleviate these problems, we developed a relatively simple, low-cost, portable hyperbaric chamber.

 

This system was designed to quickly recompress fish brought to the surface, and then allow for decompression over a period of days.  The system was portable so that fish could be transferred from the collection boat to the laboratory under pressure.  The hyperbaric chamber was built from 30.5 cm schedule 80 PVC and capable of continuous stable operation from 0 to 10.2 atmospheres.  Pressure throughout the apparatus was maintained by a pump that delivered continuous pressure and water flow of 3.8 - 7.6 Lpm.  Water temperature was maintained at approximately 11°C by drawing supply water from a chilled sump.  Numerous safety and monitoring features were designed into the chamber including check and solenoid valves, a flow meter, an oxygen monitoring port, and a viewing window.

 

These chambers were successfully used for a total of 14 decompression treatments on cowcod (Sebastes levis) caught at depths between 89 and 128 m.  Typical ascent rates were 11.9 m/min with surface times not exceeding 10 minutes.  At the surface fish were immediately placed into one of the chambers and pressurized to 8.4 kg/cm2 (120 psi) or the equivalent of 82 m depth.  When the boat reached the dock, the pressure chamber was “locked down” and the fish was brought to HSWRI still under pressure.  During the next six days the fish was slowly decompressed in stages at a relatively constant water temperature.  The techniques and equipment described above have consistently yielded survival rates of 50-100% for cowcod, which is the most sensitive species we are working with.
Aquaculture and Stock Enhancement Technologies Based on Recently Discovered Calcium-Sensing Receptors in Finfish

 

H. William Harris*1, Timothy Linley*1, David Russell*1, Marlies Betka*1, Steve Jury*1, Susan Anderson*1, Shinji Harakawa*2 and Akikuni Hara*2

*1MariCal Inc. Portland Maine USA (www.marical.biz)

*2 Hakuju Institute for Health Science, Tokyo, Japan (www.hakuju.co.jp).

Email: wharris@marical.biz

Recent discoveries that calcium sensing receptors (CaRs) acts as a salinity sensors (Nearing et. al. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 99:9231, 2002) and perhaps electroreceptors in finfish provides a basis for the development of multiple technologies designed to improve aquaculture and stock enhancement efforts in the US and Japan.  The combination of molecular cloning, cell biology and physiological experiments show that CaRs play key roles in finfish osmoregulation and physiological adaptation to varying salinity environments.  Important CaR-mediated roles in finfish appear to involve not only osmoregulatory acclimation via gill, renal and intestinal tissues but also changes in endocrine as well as olfactory responses.  Taken together, these data provide support for CaRs as regulators of the multiple physiological and behavioral changes occurring during smoltification in salmonid species. 

 

Based on knowledge of the “ionic pharmacology” of CaRs, juvenile salmonids can be pre-adapted to seawater while they remain fresh water.  Alternatively, marine fish species normally restricted to seawater can be maintained under near freshwater conditions.  In this regard, the SuperSmolt® (US Patent #6,463,883) and SeaReadyTM (US Patent #6,748,900) processes are currently being licensed to salmon aquaculture and enhancement producers.  Both of these technologies are applied to fish reared in tanks where mineral salts are added to the rearing water and fish are fed a diet containing elevated NaCl and a naturally occurring CaR-reactive, amino acid for an interval of 3-6 weeks. Thus, the resulting biological changes are induced by manipulation of natural processes and do not involve genetic modifications. These changes are monitored using enzymatic (e.g., gill Na+K+ATPase) and physiological (e.g., seawater challenge, plasma chloride levels) tests to determine development of optimal seawater transfer characteristics.  In farmed Atlantic salmon, the SuperSmolt® process greatly reduces or eliminates the deleterious effects of incomplete smoltification after the transfer of smolt to seawater.  This improves both the growth and feed conversion ratios while reducing mortalities during grow out in seawater.  In Chinook, Coho and Sockeye salmon, the SeaReadyTM process improves the osmoregulatory and growth performance in the early seawater rearing environment and preliminary data suggests that this will increase the number and performance of adult returns. The SuperSmolt® process has been recently tested and endorsed by EWOS a major aquaculture feed producer. By contrast, CaR modulation in marine fish such as cobia (Rachycentron canadum) enables their production under very low salinity conditions providing inland growers or those utilizing recirculation technologies the option to produce high value marine species. 

 

Current research by MariCal and Hakuju is focused on the role(s) of CaRs in the response of fish to electric fields via either lateral line or specific electroreceptor tissues.  Since a gradient of charged ions (Na+, Cl-, Mg2+ or Ca2+) is likely involved in salinity as well as electric field effects, CaRs in specific tissues may provide a molecular means to “sense” and integrate changes in both the ionic and electric field environments that fish may encounter. We conclude that CaR-based technologies possess considerable promise to expand and improve aquaculture and stock enhancement technologies in the US and Japan.

Use of Porphyra protoplast as a food substitute for culturing aquatic animals

 

T. Yoshimatsu1, A. Kalla2, T. Araki2, D.-M. Zhang3, and S. Sakamoto4

1 National Research Institute of Aquaculture, Fisheries Research Agency, Mie 516-0193, Japan

2 Mie University, Graduate School of Bioresources, Mie 514-8507, Japan

3 Kyushu University, Graduate School of Bioresource and Bioenvironmental Sciences, Fukuoka 812-8581, Japan

4 Oriental Yeast Industry Co. Ltd, Tokyo 174-8505, Japan

 

 

Purple lavers Porphyra spp. are known to be one of the most nutritious macroalgae (red algae) and its processed products are well known as the wrapping food material for a famous Japanese dish, sushi-rolls. Porphyra contains very high amount of various kinds of minerals and vitamins like vitamins A, C, E, and a good source of digestible protein (ca. 30-40% in dry basis). In addition to that it is notable that Porphyra contains very high amount of taurine, an important amino acid for various important aquatic animals. Recently efficient biochemical technologies for mass-producing Porphyra protoplast using purified polysaccharases isolated from bacteria was developed.

 

In the present research, Porphyra protoplast was prepared in the laboratory as follows. As the cell wall of this alga is composed of three kinds of polysaccharides (β-1, 4-mannan, β-1, 3-xylan, and porphyran), three kinds of enzyme (β-1, 4-mannanase, β-1, 3-xylanase, and agarase) were produced from some kind of bacteria which have been isolated from marine environments. Suitable conditions for preparing a large amount of protoplasts from Porphyra were determined in advance, i.e. pH of reaction mixture, the concentration of each enzyme, and time and temperature of reaction mixture, and so on. After getting protoplast, it was subjected to freeze dry so its nutrient qualities were retained. Freeze-dried Porphyra protoplast was ground into powder form manually by mortar and fed to the test animals. The particle size of protoplast product was varied from several to several ten m depending on the level of enzymatic reaction process.

 

Protoplasts are cells that have had their cell wall completely or partially removed using either mechanical or enzymatic means. Therefore protoplasts are easily digestible when ingested by animals as food. In the present experiment we investigated preliminarily the availability of this Porphyra protoplast as a live food substitute or a food supplement for culturing various aquatic animals, like bivalves, fish, and so on.. In this paper we summarize the rearing results obtained in a bivalve species (manila clams : Ruditapes philippinarum) and a marine fin-fish (red sea bream : Pagrus major).


 

Lessons from Salmon Farming and their Application to New Species

 

John Forster, Forster Consulting Inc., 533 East Park Avenue, Port Angeles, WA 98362

 

Salmon farmers have taught us that fish really can be farmed at sea to produce high quality, nutritious, affordable seafood. Based on what they have learned, new aquaculture species and new methods of open sea farming are being developed in several parts of the world. This paper reviews lessons leaned from salmon farming and questions that have still to be resolved before offshore aquaculture of new species can achieve a similar status, as a supplier of affordable seafood to millions of people.  Specifically it examines why salmon farming succeeded so well? What lessons have been learned in the market? What technologies have been developed that can be applied to new species in offshore farms and what technologies are still needed?

 

 

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