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WINDandSEA: The Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences Internet Guide

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Government agencies

Agencies with Environmental Information

Canada - Environment Canada - the Canadian weather service, environmental protection agency, and environmental research organization

Canada - Fisheries and Oceans Canada, the oceanic agency of the Canadian government

The National Archives - preserves and provides access to the records of the Federal Government
http://www.archives.gov/research/start/by-organization.html (search the record groups of NOAA and NOAA predecessor agencies, related records, etc.)
http://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/022.html (Records of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service)
http://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/023.html (Records of the Coast and Geodetic Survey)
http://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/027.html (Records of the Weather Bureau)
http://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/037.html (Records of the Hydrographic Office)
http://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/077.html#77.5.1 (Records of the U.S. Lake Survey, Office of the Chief of Engineers)
http://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/111.html (Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer)
http://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/370.html (Records of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration)

National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) is the descendant of the Defense Mapping Agency/National Imagery and Mapping Agency. NGA develops imagery and map-based intelligence solutions for U. S. national defense, homeland security and safety of navigation

National Institute of Standards and Technology - an agency of the U.S. Department of Commere

National Science Foundation - supports environmental research through many programs

National Sea Grant - a partnership between the nation's universities and NOAA - links to information about Sea Grant programs, history of Sea Grant, publications, the National Sea Grant Library, etc.

Office of Naval Research
http://www.onr.navy.mil/ (Home)
http://www.onr.navy.mil/en/Science-Technology/Departments/Code-32/All-Programs/Atmosphere-Research-322.aspx (Ocean, Atmosphere, and Space Research Division)

Smithsonian Institution, the world's largest museum complex and research organization

United States Army Corps of Engineers - responsible for investigating, developing, and maintaining the nation's water and related environmental resources
http://www.usace.army.mil/About/CentersofExpertise.aspx (Centers of Expertise)

United States Coast Guard - a military branch of the United States involved in maritime law, mariner assistance, and search and rescue

United States Environmental Protection Agency

United States Federal Emergency Management Agency - flood data, flood plain maps, etc. as well as many joint publications and programs with NOAA
http://www.fema.gov/ (Home)
http://www.fema.gov/national-flood-insurance-program/map-service-center (flood maps)

United States Fish and Wildlife Service, U. S. Department of the Interior

United States Geological Survey, U. S. Department of the Interior - many ocean, coastal, and mapping programs
http://www.usgs.gov/science/#biology (Science Topics)

United States Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Geology Program
http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov (USGS Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center)
http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/index.php (USGS St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center)
http://woodshole.er.usgs.gov (USGS Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center)

United States Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center - satellite images of the Earth and aerial photos of the U.S.

Links to Federal and State Government Agencies and Information

Federal Register - the official daily publication for rules, proposed rules, and notices of Federal agencies and organizations, as well as executive orders and other presidential documents

Federal statistics - official statistical information produced by the Federal Government from more than 100 Federal agencies

Government Printing Office - the Federal Government's primary centralized resource for producing, procuring, distributing, and preserving the official information products for all three branches of the Federal Government, as well as the official publications of Congress, the White House and other Federal agencies, and the courts.
http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/search/home.action (FDsys - GPO's Federal Digital System) - links to Catalog of U.S. Government Publications, U.S. Government Bookstore, Federal Depository Library Program, Congressional Reports (House and Senate Reports 1995 forward), Ben's Guide to the U.S. Government for Kids, public and private laws, history of bills, etc.
http://www.gpo.gov/libraries/ (Federal Depository Library Program)
http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectiontab.action (browse government publications)

National Technical Information Service - the nation's largest central source for government-sponsored scientific, technical, engineering, and related business information. NTIS has more than 3 million titles in its collection.
http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx  (search the NTIS collection of products for sale, 1964-present)

The U. S. Code
http://uscode.house.gov - the U.S. Code is a consolidation and codification by subject matter of the United States laws (U. S. House of Representatives Office of the Law Revision Counsel)

U.S. Office of Personnel Management - Hiring, firing, retiring...

USA.gov - U.S. Government Information by topic

Great Lakes

Binational.net - a collaboration between Environment Canada and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to provide a single window on joint Great Lakes programs. Access management plans, State of the Great Lakes reports, etc.

Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
http://www.glerl.noaa.gov/library/ (GLERL Library)

Great Lakes Information Network - maintained by the Great Lakes Commission

Great Lakes National Program Office of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Great Lakes St. Lawrence Seaway System - information on the maritime route from the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean

Great Lakes Science Center of the U. S. Geological Survey

Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement between Canada and the United States (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency)

Maritime History of the Great Lakes (site maintained by Librarian Walter Lewis)

Our Great Lakes from Environment Canada and the Environmental Protection Agency

History of Oceanic and Atmospheric Science

NOAA Historical Image Collections - thousands of photographs and images of operations of the Coast and Geodetic Survey, National Weather Service, and National Marine Fisheries Service/NOAA Fisheries Service

NOAA History Page - writings and collections from the Coast and Geodetic Survey, National Marine Fisheries Service/NOAA Fisheries,  and National Weather Service.  Includes institutional histories and also pertinent writings concerning the atmospheric and oceanic sciences from such luminaries as Benjamin Franklin and Louis Agassiz. This site has diaries, biographical sketches, speeches, autobiographies, and personal accounts of individuals associated with the above bureaus as well as links to historical image collections.

Biographical Information

Abbe, Cleveland - a highly respected civilian meteorologist who worked for the Signal Service, and later the Weather Bureau. Essentially, he was considered the expert on forecasting.

Agassiz, Alexander - biographical sketch by Sir John Murray

Agassiz, Louis - picture and biographical note from the University of California Museum of Paleontology

Audubon, John James - biography of the naturalist and painter
http://www.pbs.org/wnet/americanmasters/episodes/john-james-audubon/drawn-from-nature/106/ (John James Audubon: Drawn from Nature (a PBS American Masters site))

Bache, Alexander Dallas - eulogy by Professor Joseph Henry

Baird, Spencer Fullerton - the first United States Commissioner of Fisheries, appointed by President Ulysses S. Grant in 1871

Bigelow, Henry Bryant - biography of a founder of oceanography by Sue Ann Gardner, University of Nebraska, Lincoln

Carson, Rachel - picture and biographical sketch of the great ecologist: select Biography

Davidson, George - biographical sketch by Charles G. Yale

Ferrel, William - memorial articles and works by Ferrel, an American meteorologist and astronomer who worked on the theory of tides

Benjamin Franklin: Glimpses of the Man from the Franklin Institute

Goode, George Brown - biographical sketch by David Starr Jordan

Hassler, Ferdinand Rudolph - the first Superintendent of the U.S. Coast Survey
http://www.lib.noaa.gov/noaainfo/heritage/coastsurveyvol1/CONTENTS.html (The Coast Survey 1807-1867: see Part I. The Hassler Legacy)

Henry, Joseph - first Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution and a major personality in the development and evolution of American science. This is a comprehensive site that includes a special section on Joseph Henry's contribution to the formation of a national weather service.

Hooke, Robert - English biologist, early microscopist, physicist, inventor, and experimental scientist

Hopper, Grace Murray - the great U. S. Navy computer scientist

Kane, Elisha Kent - nineteenth century American naval officer and explorer who captured the imagination of the American public with his quest for the open polar sea (American philosophical Society)

MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive - biographies, topics, chronologies, bibliography. Biographies of hundreds of mathematicians including Benjamin Peirce, Charles Peirce, William Ferrel, Gauss, and Bessel. The "Mac" is the genuine article as this site has been developed by the School of Mathematical and Computational Sciences, University of St. Andrews, Scotland.

Peirce, Charles Sanders - arguably the most important of all American philosophers. He had and continues to have a profound influence on the Philosophy of Science. The Peirce Edition Project, Arisbe, the Peirce Organization, and NOAA sites all have different thrusts concerning his life and influence on American science.
http://www.iupui.edu/~peirce/ (Peirce Edition Project from the University of Indiana)
http://www.cspeirce.com/ (Arisbe - home of the International Peirce Telecommunity)
http://www.history.noaa.gov/giants/peirce.html (biographical sketch of Peirce from the NOAA Corps Bulletin)

Reichelderfer, Francis Wilton - naval aviator, meteorologist, and longest running Director of the U.S. Weather Bureau. Reichelderfer brought modern technology to weather forecasting.

Schott, Charles Anthony - biographical memoir by Cleveland Abbe

Seattle - Chief Seattle of the Northwest coast - many famous environmental quotes

Tharp, Marie - autobiographical sketch titled "Connect the Dots: Mapping the Seafloor and Discovering the Mid-ocean Ridge" by the oceanographic cartographer in: Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University Twelve Perspectives on the First Fifty Years 1949-1999

Wexler, Harry - one of our nation's greatest meteorologists

Women in Science - biographies from Eastern Illinois University

Women mathematicians - biographies from Agnes Scott College
http://www.agnesscott.edu/lriddle/women/alpha.htm (Alphabetical Index of Women Mathematicians)

Women of Science at the Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole - highlights early women marine biologists

General Historical Information

American Historical Association is a nonprofit membership organization founded in 1884 and incorporated by Congress in 1889 for the promotion of historical studies, the collection and preservation of historical documents and artifacts, and the dissemination of historical research

American Memory website at the Library of Congress - photos, biographies, and more. Civil War photos of Dorr-Donn tripod at Chattanooga, topographers at Yorktown, George Wise, Amos Kendall, Levi Woodbury, etc.

Archives II - researcher information for those wishing to access records at Archives II, the National  Archives and Records Administration facility at College Park, Maryland

Astronautics History from NASA - includes history of development of meteorological and oceanographic satellites and also provides insight into the evolution of environmental science from space

The Center for History of Physics from American Institute of Physics

Explorers - series on Antarctic explorers from Antarctic Philately

Jefferson's Legacy: A Brief History of The Library of Congress

Sea History: The National Maritime Historical Society

World Wide Web - The Birthplace of the Web from the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (V. 19, No. 16/Friday, August 16, 1996 of Fermi News)

History of Fisheries and Fisheries Science

NOAA Fisheries Historical Information - also includes many photos and a timeline of the National Marine Fisheries Service from 1870 on
http://www.nefsc.noaa.gov/history/stories/legacy/legacy2.html (Baird's Legacy: The History and Accomplishments of NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service, 1871-1996)
http://www.nefsc.noaa.gov/history/stories/whistory.html (Woods Hole: The Early Years)

History of Mapping, Charting, and Surveying

Coast and Geodetic Survey - Bibliography of the Appendices to the Reports of the Superintendent from 1844 to 1910

Coast and Geodetic Survey Historical Photo Collection - more than 3,000 images covering most aspects of C&GS work
http://www.photolib.noaa.gov/cgs/index.html (C&GS album)
http://www.photolib.noaa.gov/  (NOAA Photo Library Home Page)

Exploring the West from Monticello: A Perspective in Maps from Columbus to Lewis and Clark from the University of Virginia - images of maps, discussions of surveying and navigation instruments, etc.

Historical Map and Chart Collection of NOAA's Office of Coast Survey: more than 20,000 maps and charts from the late 1700s to present day - collection includes some of the nation's earliest nautical charts, hydrographic surveys, topographic surveys, geodetic surveys, city plans, and Civil War battle maps

Historical maps from the Perry-Castaneda Library Map Collection at the University of Texas at Austin - historical maps of the world and links to historical maps on other web sites

History of the U.S. Coast Survey
http://www.nauticalcharts.noaa.gov/hsd/hydro_history.html (History of Hydrographic Surveying)

Mississippi River Commission - a short history from the Army Corps of Engineers concerning the organization responsible for guiding the mapping, charting, and improving the Mississippi River

New York State historical maps dating from the Sixteenth Century to the Nineteenth Century
http://www.sunysb.edu/libmap/contents.htm (Long Island maps and their makers)

The Northwest Coast -  A history of the exploration and settlement of the Northwest Coast including excerpts from works describing Spanish expeditions, Captain Cook's touching at Nootka Sound, and early fur trading expeditions

Northwest of the West: The Frontier Experience on the Northwest Coast from the University of Washington

The Southwest United States - Maps of the Pimeria: Early Cartography of the Southwest - a collection from the University of Arizona detailing the mapping of the American Southwest from the 16th through 19th Centuries

The United States Coast Survey 1807-1867 - an on-line book that details the science, politics, and Civil War experience of the first science agency in the United States

History of Meteorology

Air Force Weather History

Aircraft Operations Center history

Aristotle's Meteorology - full text translation of Aristotle's view of meteorology

Arrhenius on global warming - the classic 1896 paper by Nobel prize-winning Swedish chemist Svante Arrhenius relating the rise in carbon dioxide from fossil fuel burning in the atmosphere to increasing global temperatures

The Cooperative Weather Observer Program history

Hurricane Research Division history

International Commission on the History of Meteorology - established at the 2001 International Congress of History of Science
http://meteohistory.org/?page_id=46 (access volumes of the ICHM's History of Meteorology journal)

Military meteorology bibliography - works developed at the University of North Carolina

National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL) History

National Weather Service history

National Weather Service river forecasting - A short history from the Middle Atlantic River Forecast Center

NOAA Satellite Program History - by Gary Davis of the NESDIS Office of Systems Development

Storm Prediction Center - a brief history

Tornado Forecasting (history of) - a feature of the NOAA 200th Anniversary site
http://celebrating200years.noaa.gov/breakthroughs/tornadowarnings/welcome.html (Tornado detection and warnings)

United States Early Radio History by Thomas H. White - includes a special section about broadcasting weather information
http://earlyradiohistory.us/1916impt.htm#safeguard  (a timeline for the use of wireless as a safeguard to life at sea)

War History of the Australian Meteorological Service in the Royal Australian Air Force April 1941 to July 1946

Weather Forecasting Through the Ages from NASA's Earth Observatory

Weather Prediction and Detection from the NOAA History: A Science Odyssey site

Weather Prediction Center history - Summary of WPC's Heritage and Leadership (WPC was formerly the Hydrometeorological Prediction Center)

Weather Satellite History - NOAA's Environmental Satellites: A History in Images (NESDIS Office of Satellite and Product Operations)

Weather vanes - a brief history of weather vanes
http://www.denninger.com/biblio.htm#Bibliography (bibliography of weather vanes)

History of Oceanography

Challenger Expedition - History of the H.M.S. Challenger Expedition, 1872-1876, from the Birch Aquarium of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography

Challenger Expedition - History of the H.M.S. Challenger Expedition, 1872-1876, from the Natural History Museum, London

Coast and Geodetic Survey - Bibliography of the Appendices to the Reports of the Superintendent from 1844 to 1910

Darwin's Origin of Species and Voyage of the Beagle online from the Online Literature Library

Historical Map and Chart Collection of NOAA's Office of Coast Survey: over 35,000 scanned images including some of the Nation's earliest nautical charts, bathymetric maps, city plans, and Civil War battlefield maps.

History of National Marine Sanctuaries - access a historical timeline, maritime heritage information, etc. (NOAA's National Ocean Service)
http://sanctuaries.noaa.gov/library/pdfs/fop.pdf (Fathoming Our Past: Historical Contexts of the National Marine Sanctuaries)

History of Ocean Exploration from NOAA's Office of Ocean Exploration and Research
http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/ (Ocean Explorer home page)

History of Oceanography from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

History of Oceanography, 1987-2002 (a cumulative bibliography) - hosted by NOAA's Northeast Fisheries Science Center Library in Woods Hole, Massachusetts

Leuckart -- Diagrams and images of various invertebrates drawn by Rudolph Leuckart, famous zoologist and parasitologist. These images were produced as Wandtafeln (wall charts) between 1877 and 1892. Site produced by Woods Hole Marine Biological Laboratory.

Longitude -- English attack on the longitude problem - site is hosted by the School of Mathematics and Statistics at the University of St. Andrews in Scotland

Longitude -- Longitude and the Academie Royale - history of attempts to discern longitude to the 18th Century. The site is hosted by the School of Mathematics and Statistics at the University of St. Andrews in Scotland.

Oceanography - A history of Coast Guard oceanography associated with the Coast Guard International Ice Patrol

Tide predicting machines - discussion of Lord Kelvin's tide prediction machine, William Ferrel's Coast  Survey No. 1, the Fischer-Harris Coast Survey No. 2, and tide-predicting machines from other countries (National Ocean Service's Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services/NOAA)
http://tidesandcurrents.noaa.gov/predhist.html#Up (History of tidal analysis and prediction)
http://www.Math.sunysb.edu/~tony/tides/machines.html  (Tide analysis and prediction machines site from the State University of New York at Stonybrook)

The Titanic Disaster, Steamship Lanes, and the Establishment of the Ice Patrol: The 1912 Report of the Hydrographer, U.S. Navy
http://www.whoi.edu/page.do?pid=83577&tid=3622&cid=128009 (History of the Titanic from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution)
http://www.noaa.gov/titanic/ (R.M.S. Titanic 100 Years Later - NOAA and the Titanic)
http://www.gc.noaa.gov/gcil_titanic.html (R.M.S. Titanic site of the NOAA Office of the General Counsel)
http://www.loc.gov/rr/news/topics/titanicsinking.html (Sinking of the Titanic - articles from the Library of Congress Newspaper & Current Periodical Reading Room)
http://www.titanicarchive.com/ (information including construction, ship history, lifeboats, notable passengers, etc.)
http://www.lva.virginia.gov/exhibits/titanic/titanic1.htm (newspaper coverage of the sinking from the University of Virginia's Virginia Newspaper Project)

History of Organizations

American Microscopical Society - a history of the beginnings of this organization which was formed in 1878 to promote the use of the compound microscope as a research tool

Scripps Institution of Oceanography
http://scilib.ucsd.edu/sio/hist/bibliography_on_history_of_scripps.pdf (a bibliography on the history of Scripps)
http://libraries.ucsd.edu/locations/sio/scripps-archives/index.html (Scripps Archives)

United States Coast and Geodetic Survey - Volume I, 1807-1867

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution history and legacy - site includes historical photos, an interactive timeline, etc.


NOAA Libraries

NOAA Central Library

Directory of NOAA Libraries - includes email addresses, telephone numbers, links to library sites, descriptions of collections, etc.

Other Libraries

American Geographical Society Library at the University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee

British Library - the national library of the United Kingdom. Includes an environmental information service, historical manuscripts, a collection of maps, atlases and globes of all parts of the world dating back to the 15th century, etc.

The Center for Ocean-Atmosphere Prediction studies (COAPS) Library - The James J. O'Brien Library is located at Florida State University.

Commerce Research Library

Federal Depository Libraries: locate a Federal Depository Library in the U.S. and its territories

Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Resource & Document Library of the Department of Homeland Security

Federal Library Directory compiled by the Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress
http://www.loc.gov/flicc/FLD/Federal-Library-Directory.pdf (link to the directory)

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations David Lubin Memorial Library
http://www.fao.org/fishery/library/en (Fisheries & Aquaculture Branch Library)

Government and Public Libraries - a USA.gov site

Homeland Security Digital Library - sponsored by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security's National Preparedness Directorate, FEMA and the Naval Postgraduate School Center for Homeland Defense and Security

ipl2: information you can trust (resources by subject) - collections of resources from the Internet Public Library and the Librarians' Internet Index websites were merged to form ipl2. The site is hosted by Drexel University's College of Information Science & Technology, and a consortium of colleges and universities with programs in information science are involved in developing and maintaining the ipl2.

The Library of Congress is the nation's oldest federal cultural institution and serves as the research arm of Congress. It is also the largest library in the world.
http://www.loc.gov/rr/ (Research and Reference Services)
http://www.loc.gov/rr/askalib/virtualref.html (Virtual Reference Shelf)
http://www.loc.gov/loc/pub/ (Publications Home Page - link to the Library's various collections: Rare Books & Special Collections, Prints & Photographs, Geography & Maps, etc.)
http://www.loc.gov/rr/geogmap/gmpage.html (Geography & Map Reading Room)
http://www.loc.gov/loc/legacy/ (Jefferson's Legacy: A Brief History of the Library of Congress)

Lib-web-cats - a directory of libraries throughout the world

Marine Biological Laboratory/Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Library contains one of the world's most complete collections of biological, ecological and oceanographic literature. It is operated jointly by the Marine Biological Laboratory and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.

Maritime Knowledge Centre of the International Maritime Organization
http://www.imo.org/Library/ (SeaLibrary Online)

Merchant Marine Academy Schuyler Otis Bland Library

National Agricultural Library of the Department of Agriculture. Source of aquaculture and fisheries information.

National Center for Atmospheric Research Library

National Sea Grant Library is located on the University of Rhode Island campus in Narragansett. NSGL is the digital library and official archive for NOAA Sea Grant documents.

National Transportation Library, U.S. Department of Transportation

Naval Research Laboratory Ruth H. Hooker Library

Navy Department Library- in addition to naval role in United States' wars contains historical references to the Coast Survey, explorations, etc.
http://www.history.navy.mil/library/online/readingroom.htm (Online Reading Room: publications, documents, and subject presentations)

Northwestern University Transportation Library
http://www.library.northwestern.edu/libraries-collections/evanston-campus/transportation-library/services/reference-services/search-eis - tips for searching the library's catalog for Environmental Impact Statements: nearly all of the Environmental Impact Statements issued by federal agencies since 1969 are held, usually in draft as well as final form

Ohio State University Libraries - catalog includes a lot of NOAA-related material

Pell Marine Science Library at the Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island

Pentagon Digital Library

United States Army Corps of Engineers Library

United States Coast Guard Library

United States Environmental Protection Agency National Library Network

United States Fish & Wildlife Service Conservation Library
http://www.fws.gov/digitalmedia National Digital Library - images, publications, video and audio clips, oral history transcripts, etc.

United States Geological Survey Libraries Program - the world's largest earth science library

United States Naval Observatory James Melville Gilliss Library

University of South Carolina Thomas Cooper Library - catalog includes many NOAA-related titles

Virginia Institute of Marine Science (William J. Hargis, Jr.) Library at The College of William and Mary


A Brief History of Lighthouses - a Smithsonian Institution site

Historic Lighthouse Index - a U.S. Coast Guard site

Keepers of the Light - a site of The Lighthouse Preservation Society

The Lighthouse Directory - information for more than 17,100 of the world's lighthouses (a site of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)

Lighthouse Getaway - lighthouses of the United States

Mapping and Charting

Aeronautical and Nautical Charts

Aeronautical Charts - Aeronautical Navigation Products (AeroNav Products) of the Federal Aviation Administration

Nautical Charts - NOAA Office of Coast Survey, the Nation's nautical chartmaker.
http://www.nauticalcharts.noaa.gov/staff/chartspubs.html (nautical charts and publications)
http://www.nauticalcharts.noaa.gov/staff/charts.htm (obtain charting products)

Careers in Mapping and Charting

Careers in surveying from Pennsylvania State University Wilkes-Barre

Geodesy and Land Surveying

NOAA National Geodetic Survey (NGS) - defines and manages the National Spatial Reference System (NSRS) - the framework for latitude, longitude, height, scale, gravity, orientation and shoreline throughout the United States. NGS products include aerial photographs, latitude and longitude values for triangulation and GPS stations, elevations for bench marks, state plane coordinates, etc.

Geographic Information

Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) - an interagency committee, organized in 1990 under OMB Circular A-16 that promotes the coordinated use, sharing, and dissemination of geospatial data on a national basis.

Geographic Information Systems
http://webgis.wr.usgs.gov/globalgis/ (Global Geographic Information Systems)

Global Positioning System

National Ocean Service GPS site
http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/kits/geodesy/geo09_gps.html (GPS education site)

United States Coast Guard Navigation Center GPS site

U.S. Government GPS site - developed by the National Space-Based Positioning, Navigation, and Timing Coordination Office and hosted by the United States Coast Guard Navigation Center


International Hydrographic Organization - an intergovernmental consultative and technical organization that was established in 1921 to support safety in navigation and protection of the marine environment.
http://www.iho.int/srv1/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=306&Itemid=452 (IHO Member States)

NOAA Office of Coast Survey - conducts and manages hydrographic surveying for NOAA
http://www.nauticalcharts.noaa.gov/hsd/hydrog.htm (Hydrography, Hydrographic Surveys, Wrecks & Obstructions, etc.)

Maps and Mapping

Bathymetry and Global Relief products and services of NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center

Data Explorer of NOAA's National Ocean Service offers access to geospatial data, including nautical charts, bathymetry/topography, shoreline data, environmental sensitivity index maps, aerial photographs, and more.

Environmental Sensitivity Index Maps of NOAA's Office of Response and Restoration

Historical Map and Chart Collection of NOAA's Office of Coast Survey: over 35,000 scanned images including some of the Nation's earliest nautical charts, bathymetric maps, city plans, and Civil War battlefield maps.

Historical Map Archive of the University of Alabama - a digitized collection of selected map holdings from sources including the University of Alabama Map Library, the W. S. Hoole Special Collections Library, the Rucker Agee Map Collection of the Birmingham Public Library, the Geological Survey of Alabama, the Samford University Special Collections Library, and the Alabama Department of Archives and History.

Historical Maps of the Hargrett Rare Book & Manuscript Library, University of Georgia Libraries. Many digitized images of maps of Georgia and South Carolina dating back to the 1500s.

Library of Congress Geography & Map Reading Room
http://www.loc.gov/rr/geogmap/guides.html (Online Collections Listed by Theme)

MapMachine - National Geographic's interactive atlas

National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) - descendant of the Defense Mapping Agency/National Imagery and Mapping Agency: CIA mapping and imagery, etc.

The National Map - the Nation's Topographic Map for the 21st Century (U.S. Geological Survey)
http://nationalmap.gov/historical/ (Historical Topographic Map Collection)

NOAA Shoreline Website - includes shoreline mapping history, information about t-sheets, etc. (site developed and designed by NOAA's Coastal Services Center)

Perry-Castaneda Library Map Collection of the University of Texas - current interest maps, general interest maps, historical maps, etc.

United States Geological Survey - the major mapping agency for the United States

World War II Cloth Maps

Photography and Photogrammetry

NOAA Digital Photogrammetry (National Geodetic Survey)
http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/web/APOS2/price_list.shtml (aerial photography orders)
http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/PUBS_LIB/shore_map.html (NOS Shoreline Mapping Program)

Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center - U.S. Geological Survey satellite images of the Earth and aerial photos of the U.S.

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