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The Coast and Geodetic Survey Annual Reports 1844 - 1910 Bibliography of Appendices

Bibliography Main Page | Appendices Indexed by Author | Appendices Indexed Chronologically 

Functions of the Coast Survey and Coast and Geodetic Survey

To paraphrase an historian of science, during the mid-Nineteenth Century the Coast Survey was what it wanted to be. There were no major competing science organizations and the Coast Survey was constrained only by its level of funding and the imagination of its Superintendents and its office and field personnel. Fortunately, these men were level-headed and in general chose a middle of the road course that centered around the needs of nautical charting and geodesy. However, at first glance, there is a bewildering range of subject matter found in the appendices of the Superintendent's Reports.

First and foremost, the Coast Survey was an organization devoted to the acquisition of facts concerning the physical world. Hydrography (in the sense of determination of depths with associated positions), topography as related to coastal configuration, the science and art of cartography, the study and prediction of tidal and current phenomena, and geophysics, with particular emphasis on magnetic studies for determination of declination of the compass, were major areas of study and development associated with the nautical charting work. Collection and dissemination of geographic information relative to safe navigation and the commercial development of the nation were also major functions of the Coast Survey while it also helped develop the lighthouse/aids to navigation system of the United States. Historical information regarding the priority of discovery and initial exploration of the Coast was compiled, while the accompanying problem of origin of names of coastal features (orthography) was a matter of serious study. Physical and geological oceanography, both open-ocean and inshore, were major programs; although not major thrusts, important information on coastal geology and meteorology was collected and analyzed.

In the realm of geodesy, the Coast Survey became a world leader. Geodesy encompassed many areas including: triangulation; base line measurement; arc measurement; geodetic astronomy with development and adoption of various means of observing longitude, latitude, azimuth, and time; advanced computational methods; hypsometry, or the measurement of elevations; instrumentation with the development of new and better instruments for the measurement of distances, directions, angles, and elevations; and geophysics, with gravitational studies, embryonic studies of geodynamics, and magnetism as related to determining local meridians for surveyors throughout the country. The measurement of the great geodetic arcs along the Eastern Oblique Arc, 39th Parallel, and the Ninety-eighth Meridian provided the framework for the accurate mapping of the interior of the United States and also gave the basis for determining a new and refined model for the shape of the Earth. Transcontinental leveling, begun in the last two decades of the Nineteenth Century, provided the basis for establishing mean sea level as the vertical datum for the United States.

Other, less prominent, functions of the Coast Survey are chronicled in the Superintendent's Reports, including its minor role as keeper of the Nation's standards of weights and measures. Accounts of ship operations including "rounding the Horn" for California, shipwrecks and other disasters, and saving of life and property are found in the Reports. Articles related to observational astronomy, as opposed to geodetic astronomy, including early studies of sun spots as related to the earth's magnetic field are found in the Reports. Social issues are touched upon with discussions of the common ownership and preservation of resources such as waterways and harbors and the subordination of private property rights of individuals for the good of the community. Surprisingly, even library science is represented in the Reports as the first serious attempt to index and organize the scientific literature available for use of the scientific community in the United States originated in the Coast Survey.

Because of the many diverse functions and operations of the Coast Survey, the following index has been organized with "major function" as a key followed by a number of subordinate functions or operations. There are 18 (eighteen) identified major functions and operations within which articles from appendices of the Coast Survey have been organized by year and by appendix number. Following each entry and enclosed within brackets is a group of subordinate functions which are discussed within the appendix. There are 70 (seventy) subordinate functions listed in the index. Subordinate functions are defined below relative to the Coast Survey for instances in which confusion may arise. By use of the major and subordinate functions, investigators will be able to rapidly search for entries related to their area of interest.

Major Functions of the Coast Survey and Coast and Geodetic Survey

ASTRONOMY
CARTOGRAPHY
COAST PILOT/METEOROLOGY
DATA REPORTS
GEODESY
GEOLOGY
GEOPHYSICS
HYDROGRAPHY
INDEX
LIGHTHOUSE /AIDS TO NAVIGATION
MISCELLANEOUS
OCEANOGRAPHY: BLUE-WATER
OCEANOGRAPHY: SHALLOW-WATER AND ESTUARINE
RECONNAISSANCE AND EXPLORATION
SHIP OPERATIONS
TIDES
TOPOGRAPHY
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES

Subordinate Functions of the Coast Survey and Coast and Geodetic Survey

Arc Measurement
The measurement of the distance and direction between two widely separated points as determined by a triangulation network.
Assistance Rendered
As related to saving of life and property. In this index, primarily relates to Coast Survey vessels and field parties helping ships or individuals in distress.
Astronomy
Azimuth
Base Line Measurement
The measurement of a line on the surface of the earth by precise instrumentation and methods.
Boundaries
Refers to surveys of state or international boundaries.
Cartography
Civil War
Articles detailing office and field functions of the Coast Survey with direct bearing on the Civil War.
Coast Pilot
Commerce
Refers to descriptions of commerce of area, encouragement of commerce, or potential for commerce.
Computations
Conference
National, International, or intra-Coast Survey conference.
Currents
Data Report
Report that contains basic information such as lists of geographic positions, magnetic declinations, etc.
Deep Sea Soundings
Soundings in water depths greater than 100 fathoms. Prior to the development of electronic echo-sounding, this involved extraordinary effort.
Disaster
Occurrence involving loss of life and/or property.
Drafting
Or "draughting". Hydrographic or topographic drawing.
Electromechanics
In reference to the Coast Survey, principally refers to development of techniques and equipment for electrotyping (copper-plating in particular) and transmission and recording of telegraphic signals for longitude determinations.
Engraving
Error Analysis
Refers to discovery, description, and, where pertinent, mathematical analysis of various sources of error affecting physical measurements such as angles, directions, distances, etc.
Fisheries
Geodesy
Geodetic Astronomy
Refers to astronomic operations related to geodetic measurments such as determination of latitude, longitude, azimuth from one point to another, and determination of local time.
Geographic Positions
Latitude and longitude of positions on the surface of the earth either determined astronomically or by triangulation.
Geographical Exploration
Geography
Geology
Geophysics
Gravity
Gulf Stream
History
Refers particularly to the history of geographic exploration of the coasts of North America and the tracing of the evolution of scientific technologies and concepts.
Hydrography
Index
Refers to bibliographies, plans for producing bibliographies, philosophy of collecting and organizing collections of manuscripts, published articles, etc.
Instrumentation
The types of instruments used and developed for geodetic, hydrographic, geophysical, and oceanographic purposes.
Latitude
Laws
Leveling
Lifesaving
Refers to saving of life at sea, on shore by field parties, establishment of facilities for saving of lives.
Lighthouse
Refers to Coast Survey relationship with the Lighthouse establishment and Board. Placement and survey of lighthouses, buoys, and other aids to navigation.
List
Lists of data, survey sheets, names, etc.
Longitude
Magnetism
Marine Biology
Primarily descriptive. In reference to deep sea soundings, oyster surveys, and various expeditions.
Marine Geology
Meteorology
Methods
Refers primarily to methodology used in field operations.
Miscellaneous
Necrology
Obituaries, biographical sketches, etc. of individuals who were prominent in the Coast Survey. In general, most necrological information was found in the main body of the Coast Survey Reports with the exception of major figures such as Alexander Dallas Bache, Carlisle Patterson, etc.
Oceanography
Office
Refers to functions carried on in the offices of the Coast Survey.
Orthography
Refers to the origin and evolution of names of geographic features.
Photogrammetry
Refers to the use of photography for determination of surface Topography
Printing
Particular emphasis on the printing and maps and charts by the Coast Survey and Coast and Geodetic Survey.
Projections
Map projections.
Reconnaissance
A first look at a geographical area such as the "Reconnaissance of the Pacific Coast." Evolved into an operation for designing and planning an optimal triangulation network by studying the topography, transportation, facilities, and other factors of a region that could bear on the efficient completion of a project.
Seismology
Ship
Shoreline Changes
Refers to natural and man-induced changes of the shoreline. A series of surveys of a given area will determine whether the sea is encroaching on that area, the land is building out, channels are changing, etc.
Signals
Refers to building and design of visual signals for conducting hydrography or geodetic operations.
Social Issues
Legal and philosophic issues such as access to land for Government surveys, community ownership of waterways, dumping in and filling of tidal lands, etc.
Solar Activity
Sunspot activity as related to the Earth's magnetic field, flares, etc.
Statistics
Refers to statistics associated with work accomplishment of the Coast Survey.
Tides
Time
The determination of time for purposes of astronomic observations.
Topography
Triangulation
Weights and Measures

Appendices by Function

ASTRONOMY

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1861 - 19. Pp. 232-239. Solar eclipse of July, 1860. Abstract of observations made at Gunstock Mountain, New Hampshire; (1) dispositions; (2) first contact; (3) positions of spots; tables of various observations; (4) occultations of spots; (5) last contact; (6) phenomena. [Astronomy; Solar Activity.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1861 - 20. Pp. 239-241. Solar eclipse of July, 1860. Abstract of observations made at the Coast Survey office, Washington, D.C.; first contact; last contact; after the eclipse; heliographic position of the spots. [Astronomy.]

Gould, B.A., Appendix No. 1861 - 21. Pp. 241-242. Solar eclipse of July, 1860. Abstract of observations made at Cambridge, Massachusetts. [Astronomy; Longitude.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1869 - 8. Pp. 116-198. Solar eclipse, August 7, 1869. Reports of observations of the eclipse of the sun on August 7, 1869, made by parties of the Coast Survey at the following stations: Bristol, Tennessee, in charge of Richard D. Cutts; Shelbyville, Kentucky, by Joseph Winlock and G. W. Dean; Springfield, Illinois, by C.A. Schott; Des Moines, Iowa, by Julius E. Hilgard; Kohklux, Chilkaht River, Alaska, George Davidson; general path of the eclipse; contacts; obscuration of solar spots; breaking of sun's limb by lunar asperities; effects of optical inaccuracies; totality; protuberances; corona; emergence; northern and southern limits of totality ascertained; spectroscopic observations; photographic records; reduction of micrometric photograph measures; deviation of photographed sun's outline from a circle, after corrections; computations of results. [Astronomy; Geodesy; Longitude.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1870 - 16. Pp. 115-177. Reports of observations upon the solar eclipse of December 22, 1870; extent of corona as indicated by the spectroscope; nature of the coronal envelope and its relation to the sun; constitution of the solar atmosphere; suggestions with reference to the observation of future eclipses. [Astronomy.]

Peirce, B., Appendix No. 1870 - 16a. P. 229. Report on the solar eclipse of December 22, 1870. [Astronomy.]

Dean, G.W., Appendix No. 1871 - 13. Pp. 176-179. Total solar eclipse, December 22, 1870. Abstract of the chronographic record. [ Astronomy.]

Peters, C.H.F., Appendix No. 1871 - 14. Pp. 180-184. Total solar eclipse, December 22, 1870. [Astronomy.]

Young, C.A., Appendix No. 1872 - 8. Pp. 75-172. Reports of the astronomical and meteorological observations made at Sherman, Wyoming. Part I, report of R.D. Cutts. Latitude and longitude of Sherman; terrestrial magnetism; meteorology; Table I, difference of reading of observers; Table II, daily means; Tables III and IV, hourly means; aneroid barometer; solar radiation; Table V, amount of solar radiation; Table VI, solar radiation; altitude of the sun; atmospheric electricity; Table VIII, altitude of the astronomical station; spirit level; barometer; Tables IX, X, XI, boiling-point apparatus; Table XII, temperature of boiling water at Sherman, Wyoming; Table XIII, height of Long's Peak, etc.; atmosphere and climate of Sherman; meteorological register. Part II, report of Professor C.A. Young. Spectrum of the chromosphere; catalogue of bright lines in the spectrum of the chromosphere, 1872; table showing the number of coincidences between the bright lines observed in the spectrum of the chromosphere and those in the spectrum of the chemical elements; spectra of sun spots; catalogue of lines affected in the spot-spectrum between B and b; solar eruptions and other disturbances. [Astronomy; Geodesy; Latitude; Longitude; Geophysics; Magnetism; Solar Activity.]

Davidson, G.O., Appendix No. 1872 - 9. Pp. 173-176. Astronomical observations on the Sierra Nevada. Description of the country adjacent to the station at Summit; the climate and opportunities for observing; the observations; Polaris, Saturn, Moon, etc. [Astronomy.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1873 - 15. Errata in the Heis Catalogue of Stars. [Astronomy.]

Colonna, B. A., Appendix No. 1878 - 6. Pp. 81-87. Transit of Mercury, Summit Station, Central Pacific Railroad. First external and internal contacts; extracts from record book of observations, by Assistant B.A. Colonna; observation of contacts, by Assistant John F. Pratt. [Astronomy.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1878 - 7. Pp. 88-91. Transit of Mercury, Washington, D.C.; Observations by R.D. Cutts, William Eimbeck, and O. H. Tittmann, Assistants. [Astronomy; Geodesy; Longitude.]

Davidson, G.O., Appendix No. 1882 - 20. Pp. 463-468. The total solar eclipse of January 11, 1880, as observed at Mount Santa Lucia, California. Detailed report of eclipse and associated phenomena. [Astronomy.]

Powalky, C.R., Appendix No. 1882 - 21. Pp. 469-502. A new reduction of La Caille's observations of fundamental stars in the southern heavens, made at the Cape of Good Hope between 1749 and 1757, and given in his "Astronomiae Fundamenta," together with a comparison of the results with the "Bradley-Bessel" "Fundamenta;" also, a catalogue of the places of 150 stars south of declination -30o, for the epochs 1750 and 1830. Prefatory note by J. E. Hilgard and report on the reduction of La Caille's motions by C.H. F. Peters. [Astronomy; History.]

Davidson, G.O., Appendix No. 1883 - 15. Pp. 369-370. The transit of Mercury of November 7, 1881, as observed at Yolo Base, California. Description of phenomena associated with observation of transit. Reference to negative sighting of "problematical" planet Vulcan. [Astronomy.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1883 - 16. Pp. 371-378. Observations of the transit of Venus of December 6, 1882, at Washington, D.C., at Tepusquet Station, California, and at Lehman's Ranch, Nevada. Location of Washington station; instruments and observers; first external contact; first internal contact; second internal contact; the last contact; error of chronometer from Naval Observatory time-ball. -- Charles A. Schott ,Assistant, and J.G. Porter, Computer. Observations at Washington by B.A. Colonna, Assistant; instruments for time and for observation; comparison of timepieces; first external contact; second interior contact; second exterior contact. -- P. A. Welker's observations of third and fourth contacts at station Tepusquet, California; station; observer; instruments; outlines very sharp and distinct; hourly rate of chronometer; as reported by Assistant James S. Lawson. -- Assistant William Eimbeck's observations of third and fourth contacts at Lehman's ranch, Nevada; geographical position of stations; instrument used; atmospheric conditions; observed times of third and fourth contacts; chronometer used and its errors; method of observing; no "black drop" seen; contacts well observed; defective arrangement for screening down sun's excessive light; comparison of chronometers; comparison of results of Aid R. A. Marr with Assistant Eimbeck's; observed time of apparent middle of planet; appearance of sun and planet; no delay in regular work of the Survey. [Astronomy; Geodesy; Longitude.]

Davidson, G.O., Appendix No. 1886 - 6. P. 153. The solar (annular) eclipse of March 5, 1886. Prefatory letter; observations made at the Coast and Geodetic Survey station, Lafayette Park, San Francisco, and at the Davidson Observatory; observations of first and second contacts; instruments and observers. [Astronomy.]

Preston, E.D., Appendix No. 1891 - 12. Pp. 475-477. The transit of mercury of May 9, 1881, as observed at Waikiki, Hawaiian Islands. [Astronomy.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1895 - 4. Pp. 345-346. Observation of the transit of Mercury on November 10, 1894, made at the Coast and Geodetic Survey office, Washington, D.C. Report by C.A. Schott, O.H. Tittmann, E.D. Preston, Edwin Smith, G.R. Putnam, and E.G. Fischer. [Astronomy.]

Preston, E.D., Appendix No. 1895 - 7. Pp. 371 - 380. Graphic method of reducing stars from mean to apparent places. [Astronomy.]

CARTOGRAPHY

Mathiot, G., Appendix No. 1851 - 55. Pp. 541-553. Electrotyping operations of the Coast Survey. Adhesion of deposit to matrix; actions in the electrolytic solution; laboratory apparatus; manipulation of apparatus. [Cartography; Printing; Instrumentation; Electromechanics.]

Stevens, I.I., Appendix No. 1852 - 21. Pp. 108-111. Lithographic transfer printing. [Cartography; Printing.]

Hunt, E.B., Appendix No. 1853 - 36. Pp. 90-93. Notes on lithography and lithographic transfer. [Cartography; Printing.]

Schott, C.A. and Hunt, E.B., Appendix No. 1853 - 39. Pp. 96-163. Tables for projecting maps, with notes on map projection. C.A. Schott and E.B. Hunt. Map projections classified and defined; Bonne's or modified Flamsteed's projection; the polyconic, its properties and varieties; formulas used for the computation of projection tables in use at the Coast Survey Office; graphic construction of polyconic projections; rectangular polyconic method; Table I, relation between the measures of length used in different countries; II, tables for converting (A) meters into statute miles; (B) statute miles into meters; (C) meters into yards; (D) yards into meters; (E) yards into miles; III, length of a degree of the meridian in nautical statute miles for each fifth degree of latitude between 20o and 50 o ; IV (A) length of a degree of longitude between the parallels of 17o and 50o, for each degree of latitude, expressed in nautical miles; (B) length of a degree of longitude between the parallels of 17o and 50o for each degree of latitude, expressed in statute miles; V (A), length, in meters, of 1o of latitude and longitude for each degree of latitude between 17o and 50o; (B) coordinates of curvature for each degree of longitude from 1o to 35o between latitudes 17o and 50o; VI, projection tables giving latitude and longitude arcs and coordinates of curvature, from latitude 24o to 50o. [Cartography; Projections.]

Mathiot, G., Appendix No. 1854 - 31. Pp. 54-57. On electrotype operations and chemiglyphic experiments. [Cartography; Printing; Instrumentation; Electromechanics.]

Hunt, E.B., Appendix No. 1854 - 57. Pp. 201-212. Art and practice of engraving. Coast Survey topographic engraving; the office, its organization and history. [Cartography; Printing.]

Benham, H.W. and Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1855 - 37-38. Letters concerning need for skilled engravers and the state and needs of the office engraving. [Cartography; Engraving.]

Mathiot, G., Appendix No. 1855 - 62. P. 369. Electrotype art. Improved method for joining detached plates by electrotyping. [Cartography; Electromechanics.]

Hilgard, J.E., Appendix No. 1856 - 58. Pp. 296-307. Projection tables. Table applicable to the projection of maps of large extent and minimum distortion in presented area; method; earth's dimensions; Table I, of coordinates for projecting the points of intersection of meridians and parallels; II, length , in meters, of one degree of latitude and longitude from latitude 20o to 54o; values of the corresponding radii of the developed parallel, and angles at each pole for 10o of longitude; III, tables for converting measures (A) of meters into statute miles; (B) of statute miles into meters; (C) of meters into yards; (D) of yards into meters; (E) of yards into miles; IV, length of a degree of the meridian in nautical and statute miles for each fifth degree of latitude between 20o and 50o; V, length of a degree of longitude for each degree of latitude from 19o to 54o, expressed in nautical and statue miles; VI, radii and polyconic development of a sphere with radius = 1. [Cartography; Projections.]

Mathiot, G., Appendix No. 1856 - 62. Pp. 316-317. Electrotypes. On the result of experiments made in printing from thin plates. [Cartography; Printing; Electromechanics.]

Hilgard, J.E., Appendix No. 1859 - 33. Pp. 328-358. Projection tables for maps of large extent. Table I, length in meters of 1o of latitude and longitude, values of the corresponding radii of the developed parallel, and angles at each pole for 10o of longitude; II, coordinates of curvature. [Cartography; Projections.]

Whiting, H.L., Appendix No. 1860 - 20. Pp. 216-229. Topographical and hydrographical delineations. On the contouring and reduction of maps; on the scale of shades; and on the application of photography in preparing details for the engraver; (1) generalization of contour and other natural features for reduction to 1:80,000 contour; salt marsh; sand beaches and sand hills; woods; fresh marsh; shore line; low water; (2) hydrographic reductions; (3) reductions by photography; (4) scale of shades; including report by Edward Hergesheimer. (This paper reflects the work of George Mathiot in pioneering the use of photography for cartographic purposes. Mathiot was the first to develop techniques for successfully reducing map scales from hand drawn sheets and was almost single-handedly responsible for instituting a revolution in cartographic procedures.) [Cartography; Topography; Hydrography; Printing.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1861 - 15. Pp. 180-181. Drawing paper. Results of experiments made on the relative expansion and contraction, under atmospheric changes, of parchment paper and backed antiquarian paper. [Cartography; Drafting.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1862 - 27. P. 255. Drawing paper tested with reference to expansion and contraction under atmospheric changes. [Cartography; Drafting.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1863 - 24. Pp. 206-207. Harrison Globe Lens. On tests made at the Coast Survey office. [Cartography; Instrumentation.]

Appendix No. 1865 - 20. Pp. 176-186. Projection tables for a map of North America. [Cartography; Projections.]

Mathiot, G., Appendix No. 1866 - 20. Pp. 130-138. Electrotyping operations. Historical; adhesion of deposit to matrix; time and expense of electrocasting; actions in the electrolytic solution; laboratory apparatus; manipulation of apparatus. [Cartography; Printing; Electromechanics.]

Hergesheimer, E., Appendix No. 1867 - 5. Pp. 55-56. The pantograph; its use in engraving. [Cartography; Printing.]

Zumbrock, A., Appendix No. 1875 - 6. P. 87-88. Report upon electrotyping and photographing. [Cartography; Electromechanics; Printing;.]

Peirce, C.S., Appendix No. 1877 - 15. Pp. 191-192. A quincuncial projection of the sphere. [Cartography; Projections.]

Hergesheimer, E., Appendix No. 1879 - 11. P. 191. Report on the preparation of standard topographical drawings. [Cartography; Topography; Printing.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1880 - 15. Pp. 287-296. A review of various projections for charts. Comparison of the relative value of the polyconic projection used in the Coast and Geodetic Survey, with some other projections. Map projections classified and defined; three groups; first group - the square projection, the rectangular projection, the rectangular equal-surface projection, Cassini's projection, projection with converging meridians, projection by development of an intersecting cylinder, Mercator's projection; second group - Flamsteed's projection, De Lorgna's, Babinet's equal-surface projection, De l'Isle's conic projection, the simple conic projection, Murdoch's projection; third group - Lambert's projection, Bonne's polyconic; remarks on the history of Coast Survey projections; formulae for computation: (1) for an arc of a great circle of a sphere; (2) for the rhumb line on Mercator's projection; (3) for the straight line on Bonne's projection; (4) for the straight line on the polyconic projection; resulting distance in nautical miles; resulting azimuths. [Cartography; Projections; Computations.]

Hergesheimer, E., Appendix No. 1883 - 14. Pp. 367-368. Report on the preparation of standard topographical drawings. List of drawings which represent various special types of topography with topographical drawings to be used as guides for inking original plane-table sheets. [Cartography; Topography; Drafting.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1884 - 6. Pp. 135-321. Tables for the projection of maps, based upon a polyconic projection of the Clarke spheroid, and computed from the equator to the pole. History of the projection tables of the Survey; the Clarke spheroid; formulae used in establishing tables; arrangement and explanation of the tables;graphic construction of polyconic projections for limited areas; conversion tables; lengths of degrees of the meridian; arcs of the parallel in meters; meridional arcs; coordinates of curvature. [Cartography; Projections; Computations; History.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1900 - 4. Pp. 485-500. Proportions and spacing of Roman letters. [Cartography.]

COAST PILOT/METEOROLOGY

Patterson, C.P., Appendix No. 1847 - 15. Pp. 80-81. Sailing directions for Mobile Bay. [Coast Pilot; Hydrography.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1848 - 3. Pp. 74-76. Notice to mariners, concerning discoveries made by C.H. Davis off Nantucket. [Coast Pilot; Hydrography.]

Patterson, C.P., Appendix No. 1848 - 18. Pp. 109-112. Letter relative to suitable anchorages on the gulf coast, in Mobile Bay, and Lake Borgne for the British West India mail steamers. [Coast Pilot.]

Gerdes, F.H., Appendix No. 1849 - 15. P. 90. Tabular statement of losses and damages that occurred in the years 1844 and 1848 at the Florida reef, designating the different localities and the damages at each. [Coast Pilot.]

Bartlett, W.A., Appendix No. 1850 - 2. Report of the landmarks of the coast of Oregon from Point Adams to the boundary of Oregon and California. [Coast Pilot; Geography.]

McArthur, W.P., Appendix No. 1850 - 32. Sailing Directions for the western coast of the United States from Monterey to Columbia River. [Coast Pilot; Geography.]

McArthur, W.P., Appendix No. 1850 - 33. Hydrographic notice of the western coast of the United States from Monterey to Columbia River, islands and rivers. [Coast Pilot; Hydrography; Geography.]

Bartlett, W.A., Appendix No. 1850 - 36. Report in relation to the draught of vessels which can pass through the south channel into Columbia River. [Coast Pilot; Hydrography.]

Maffitt, J.N. and Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1851 - 30, tris. Sailing directions for the entrance into North Edisto Harbor. [Coast Pilot; Hydrography.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1851 - 37. Letter communicating sailing directions for Horn Island Pass. [Coast Pilot; Hydrography.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1851 - 50. Pp. 528-530. Report relating to Trinidad, Humboldt, and San Diego Bays. [Coast Pilot.]

McArthur, W.P., Appendix No. 1851 - 51. Sailing directions for entering the Columbia River as far as the harbor of Astoria. [Coast Pilot; Hydrography.]

Berryman, O.H., Appendix No. 1854 - 24. Letter on its entrance and anchorages. [Coast Pilot; Hydrography.]

Davidson, G.O., Appendix No. 1855 - 26. Pp. 176-185. Descriptive report of localities on the western coast, from the north end of Rosario Strait, Washington Territory, to the southern boundary of California. [Coast Pilot; Geography; History.]

Alden, J.M., Appendix No. 1855 - 29. Pp. 188-192. Pp. 188-192. Letter communicating information concerning Washington Territory; its coast, harbors, and commerce, and Shoalwater Bay commerce, Puget's Sound, and Hood's Canal sawmills. [Coast Pilot.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1855 - 30. Pp. 193-200. Coast Survey Sailing Directions. Catalogue of sailing directions, list of dangers, etc., contents of a collection supplementary to the Coast Survey reports. Prepared for publication under the direction of the Superintendent. [Coast Pilot.]

Duer, J.K., Appendix No. 1856 - 54. P. 290. Crystal River offing. Letter containing suggestions in regard to entering Crystal River. [Coast Pilot; Hydrography.]

McCorkle, S.C., Appendix No. 1856 - 55. P. 291. Report with remarks on the local features and facilities of St. Marks and Apalachicola, Florida. [Coast Pilot; Commerce.]

Goldsborough, H.A., Appendix No. 1856 - 57. Pp. 293-295. Communication regarding local resources of Washington Territory. [Coast Pilot; Commerce.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1857 - 36. Pp. 354-358. Winds on the western coast. Tables for deducing from the three daily observations the mean of the quantities of wind for Astoria, San Francisco, and San Diego. Includes wind statistics. [Meteorology.]

Davidson, G.O., Appendix No. 1858 - 44. Pp. 297-458. Directory for the Pacific Coast of the United States, with sailing directions, geographical positions, etc. (This document is a source document for those interested in the evolution of geographic and maritime knowledge on the western coast of North America. It is comprised of Davidson's personal observations, the observations of other Coast Surveyors, and historical records researched by Davidson. This work is unique as it provides a picture of our western coast as it was beginning the transition from a relatively pristine state to a modern agricultural and industrial region.) [Coast Pilot; Geographical Exploration; History.]

Fauntleroy, C.M., Appendix No. 1859 - 29. P. 321. Remarks on the commercial facilities of the upper waters of Port Royal Sound, South Carolina. [Coast Pilot; Commercial Facilities.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1860 - 31. P. 354. Directions for entering Charlotte Harbor, Florida, with remarks on the character of the channel, the shoals, and the coast of Florida northward to Tampa Bay. [Coast Pilot.]

Lawson, J.S., Appendix No. 1861 - 30. Pp. 264-265. The general character and capacity of Koos (Coos) Bay, Oregon. [Coast Pilot; Hydrography.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1862 - 7. P. 93. Notice to mariners of Baltic Shoal off the coast of Maryland, preliminary to an examination eastward of Winter Quarter Shoal. [Coast Pilot; Hydrography.]

Davidson, G.O., Appendix No. 1862 - 39. Pp. 268-430. Directory for Pacific Coast of the United States, with sailing directions, geographical positions, etc. [Coast Pilot; Geographical Exploration; History.]

Cordell, E., Appendix No. 1863 - 9. P. 83. Extracts from report on entrance of Charlotte Harbor, Florida. [Coast Pilot; Hydrography.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1863 - 10. Pp. 83-84. Determination of position and sailing directions for Fanny Rock, near the North Farallon, off San Francisco entrance. [Coast Pilot.]

Ferrel, W., Appendix No. 1871 - 6. Pp. 93-99. Meteorological effect on tides. Graphic representation of the relative amounts and direction of the wind for each of the four seasons for Boston. [Oceanography; Tides; Meteorology.]

Bryant, C., Appendix No. 1871 - 7. Pp. 100-108. Meteorological register, St. Paul Island, Alaska, 1870-71. [Meteorology.]

Ferrel, W., Appendix No. 1875 - 20. Pp. 369-412. Meteorological researches for the use of the Coast Pilot. Part I: On the mechanics and general motion of the atmosphere; Chapter I, general equations of the motions and pressures of the atmosphere; Chapter II, the temperature and pressure of the atmosphere at the earth's surface obtained from observation, distribution of atmospheric pressure; Chapter III, the general motion of the atmosphere, tables of directions and velocities. [Meteorology; Computations; Coast Pilot.]

Ferrel, W., Appendix No. 1878 - 10. Pp. 176-267. Meteorological researches for the use of the Coast Pilot. Part II: On cyclones, waterspouts, and tornadoes. Chapter I, the theory of cyclones; Chapter II, practical application of the theory and comparison with observations; Chapter III, tornadoes, hailstorms, and waterspouts. [Meteorology; Coast Pilot.]

Rodman, H., Appendix No. 1896 - 11. Pp. 373-394. Alaska. Compilation of the most recent information relative to the harbors, anchorages, and dangers to navigation in the vicinity of Chatham and Peril Straits, from a recent survey by the U.S. Coast Survey Steamer PATTERSON, Lieutenant Commander E.K. Moore, U.S.N., and Cooks Inlet and region to the westward by W.H. Dall, U.S. Geological Survey. Alaska. Arranged and compiled by Lieutenant Hugh Rodman, U.S.N., assistant, U.S. Coast Survey. [Coast Pilot; Hydrography; Data Report.]

DATA REPORTS

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1851 - 12. Pp. 162-442. List of geographical positions determined by the Coast Survey. (This was the first great data report for providing the information derived from Coast Survey observations to the general public for use in land surveys, civil works, and Government projects. This enlightened policy helped maximum utility of Coast Survey work for the citizens of the United States.) [Data Report; List; Geographic Positions.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1853 - 7. Pp. 14-42. List of geographical positions. [Data Report; List; Geographic Positions.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1855 - 8. Pp. 119-148. List of geographical positions. [Data Report; List; Geographic Positions.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1857 - 23-24. Pp. 223-264. List of topographic and hydrographic sheets, showing their titles, dates, scales, and registered numbers, as filed in the office. (Encompassed in this listing are many of the first accurate surveys of much of the United States coastline from Maine to Mexico on the Atlantic and Gulf coasts and from San Diego to Puget Sound on the Pacific coast.) [Data Report; List; Topography; Hydrography.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1857 - 25. Pp. 264-301. List of geographical positions. [Data Report; List; Geographic Positions.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1859 - 18. Pp. 212-214. Topographic sheets. [Data Report; Topography.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1859 - 19. Pp. 215-216. Hydrographic sheets. [Data Report; Hydrography.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1859 - 20. Pp. 216-277. List of geographical positions. [Data Report; List; Geographic Positions.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1861 - 13-14. Pp. 176-180. List of topographic and hydrographic sheets. [Data Report; List; Topography; Hydrography.]

Davidson, G.O., Appendix No. 1862 - 39. Pp. 418-420. Part of Appendix 39. Geographical positions on the Pacific coast, United States. [Data Report; Geographic Positions.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1863 - 15-16. Pp. 143-146. List of topographic and hydrographic sheets. [Data Report; List; Topography; Hydrography.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1864 - 15. Pp. 144-182. List of geographical positions. [Data Report; List; Geographic Positions.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1865 - 7. Pp. 47-49. List of maps, preliminary charts, and sketches worked upon by the Drawing and Engraving Divisions during the year ending November 1, 1865, and distribution of Coast Survey reports from 1851 to 1862, inclusive. [Data Report; List.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1865 - 8. Pp. 50-99. List of topographic and hydrographic sheets. [Data Reports; List; Topography; Hydrography.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1865 - 9. Pp. 99-136. List of geographical positions in Sections V, VI, VII, and IX. [Data Report; List; Geographic Positions.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1865 - 10. P. 137. List of geographical positions determined, approximately, in West Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, and Missouri. (These positions were determined in support of Union Army and Navy operations during the Civil War.) [Data Report; List; Geographic Positions.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1867 - 18. Pp. 265-274. Pp. 265-274. List of topographic and hydrographic sheets of Alaska, by Russian authority. ( This is part of the George Davidson report on Russian Alaska that was influential in assuring that the United States purchase Alaska.) [Data Report; Topography; Hydrography.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1868 - 13. Pp. 171-242. List of geographical positions determined by the Coast Survey. [Data Report; List; Geographic Positions.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1871 - 5. Pp. 84-92. List of original topographic and hydrographic sheets registered in archives of the U.S. Coast Survey from January 1, 1866, to December 31, 1871. [Data Report; Topography; Hydrography.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1873 - 6-7. Pp. 82-93. List of original topographic and hydrographic sheets registered in the archives of the Coast Survey from June, 1865, to January, 1873. [Data Report; List; Topography; Hydrography.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1874 - 6. Pp. 62-65. Geographical positions of prominent places in the United States. [Data Report; List; Geographic Positions.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1874 - 11. P. 134. Additional geographical positions determined astronomically by the Coast Survey on and near the western coast. [Data Report; List; Geographic Positions.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1875 - 7. Pp. 89-114. Original topographic sheets registered in the archives of the Coast Survey from January, 1834, to July, 1875. Nos. 1 to 1378, inclusive. [Data Report; List; Topography.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1875 - 8. Pp. 115-138. List of hydrographic sheets, geographically arranged, registered in the archives of the Coast Survey from January, 1835, to July, 1875. Nos. 1 to 1244, inclusive. [Data Report; List; Hydrography.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1885 - 8. Pp. 285-439. Geographical positions of trigonometric points in the States of Massachusetts and Rhode Island, determined by the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey between the years 1835 and 1885, and including those determined by the Borden survey in the years 1832 to 1838. [Data Report; List; Geographic Positions.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1888 - 8. Pp. 313-403. Geographical positions of trigonometrical points in the State of Connecticut, determined by the U.S. Coast And Geodetic Survey between the years 1833 and 1886. Introduction and explanation of tables by C.A. Schott. [Data Report; List; Geographic Positions.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1894 - 3. Pp. 71-85. Standard geodetic positions in southeastern Alaska, depending on astronomic observations made during 1892, 1893, and 1894. [Data Report; List; Geographic Positions.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1895 - 11. Pp. 399-516. List of original topographic and hydrographic sheets, geographically arranged, registered in the archives of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey from January, 1834, to December 31, 1895. [Data Report: List; Topography; Hydrography.]

GEODESY

Walker, S.C., Appendix No. 1846 - 10. Pp. 71-72. Differences of longitude of Philadelphia and Greenwich, by reduction of observations at Cambridge, Mass. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Longitude.]

Walker, S.C., Appendix No. 1846 - 11. Pp. 72-74. Differences of longitude by telegraph. Correction for personal equation. (This is one of the first publications dealing with what came to be known as the "American Method" of longitude determination.) [Geodesy; Astronomy; Longitude; Error Analysis.]

Walker, S.C., Appendix No. 1848 - 4. Pp. 78-83. Recapitulation of results for personal equations, 1844-1848. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Error Analysis.]

Walker, S.C., Appendix No. 1848 - 19. Pp. 112-118. Longitude computations. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Longitude; Computations.]

Mitchel, O.M., Appendix No. 1849 - 5. Pp. 72-78. Mechanical record of of astronomical observation. Revolving disk; arrangement for recording differences of declination. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Instrumentation; Latitude.]

Alexander, E. and Walker, S.C., Appendix No. 1849 - 9. Pp. 80-81. Correspondence giving free use of Washington and New Orleans telegraph line to Coast Survey for longitude determination. [Geodesy; Longitude.]

Bond, W.C., Appendix No. 1850 - 6. P. 79. Differences of longitude between Cambridge, Massachusetts, and Liverpool, England, observatories. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Longitude.]

Walker, S.C., Appendix No. 1850 - 13. Pp. 85-89. Telegraphic longitude operations and computations. I. Experiments for galvanic wave time between Washington and St. Louis; II, attempted experiments on wave time through different conductors; III. Experiments with the chemical telegraph line; IV, progress of the researches on the velocity of the galvanic current; the Bond spring governor. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Longitude; Computations.]

Mitchel, O.M., Appendix No. 1851 - 9. Pp. 137-145. Report on a new method of recording differences of north polar differences, or declination, by electro-magnetism. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Latitude; Instrumentation.]

Walker, S.C., Appendix No. 1851 - 18. Pp. 462-463. Arrangement with the president of the Maine Telegraph Company to determine the difference of longitude between Cambridge and Halifax. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Longitude.]

Walker, S.C., Appendix No. 1851 - 25. Pp. 476-479. Measures of wave time, made from 1849 to 1851. Specifications and tables of results. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Longitude.]

Walker, S.C., Appendix No. 1851 - 26. Pp. 480-481. Abstract of reports on longitudes. By moon culminations, eclipses, transits, occultations, and telegraph. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Longitude.]

Peirce, B., Appendix No. 1853 - 31. P. 84. On longitude from moon culminations. On the determination of longitude from observation of moon culminations; standard probable error of observation of interpolated lunar transits; constant errors of epoch and periodical one of half lunations. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Longitude; Error Analysis.]

Bond, W.C., Appendix No. 1853 - 32. Pp. 84-86. On moon culminations observed by the "American method," with remarks on the performance of Bond's spring governor. Comparison of records made by two spring governors differing one-tenth of a second in time of vibration of their respective pendulums; table of star transits; amount of probable errors. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Instrumentation; Longitude; Error Analysis.]

Gould, B.A., Appendix No. 1853 - 33. Pp. 86-88. Telegraphic longitude of Charleston, S.C. Results of observations for the determination of difference of longitude between Seaton station, Washington, D.C., and Charleston, S.C. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Longitude.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1854 - 19. Pp. 25-28. Letter to the Commissioner of the general Land Office, communicating the results of the survey of the Florida Keys, near Key West and Spanish Harbor; method of marking lines, etc.; description of the keys surveyed. [Geodesy; Triangulation.]

Hilgard, J.E., Appendix No. 1854 - 39. P. 121. Discussion of probable error of observation with a Wurdemann 26-inch portable transit; from observations by G. Davidson in 1853. [Instrumentation; Geodesy; Astronomy; Computations.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1854 - 33. Pp. 63-95. Computation of triangulation. Comparison of the reduction of horizontal angles by the methods of "dependent directions" and of "dependent angular quantities' by the method of least squares.-- A.D. Bache. Adjustment of horizontal angles of a triangulation. Probable error of observation, derived from observations of horizontal angles at any single station. -- C.A. Schott. [Geodesy; Triangulation; Computations; Error Analysis.]

Cram, T.J., Appendix No. 1854 - 34. Pp. 95-103. Measurement of heights. Experimental comparison of the methods of measuring heights by leveling, by vertical angles, by the barometer, and by the boiling-point apparatus. Experimental work done on Mt. Washington. [Geodesy; Leveling; Instrumentation.]

Hunt, E.B., Appendix No. 1854 - 35. Pp. 103-108. Base-measuring apparatus, description of as used in the Coast Survey. [Geodesy; Base Line Measurement; Instrumentation.]

Peirce, B., Appendix No. 1854 - 36. Pp. 108-120. Longitude by moon culminations. General considerations; constant errors and personal equations; correction of the lunar ephemeris; standard probable error of observation of a lunar transit; limit of accuracy attainable; longitude of the National Observatory, Washington, D.C.; three forms of correcting lunar ephemeris and modes of computation. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Error Analysis; Longitude; Computations.]

Bond, W.C., Appendix No. 1854 - 37. P. 120. Moon culminations. Observed by the American method; chronometric longitude of Cambridge and probable error. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Longitude.]

Kendall, E.O., Appendix No. 1854 - 38. P. 120. Moon culminations observed at the CentralHigh School Observatory, Philadelphia. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Longitude.]

Hilgard, J.E., Appendix No. 1854 - 39. P. 121. Discussion of probable error of observation with a Wurdemann 26-inch portable transit; from observations by G. Davidson in 1853. [Instrumentation; Geodesy; Astronomy; Computations.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1854 - 40. Pp. 122-127. Solar Eclipse, May 26, 1854. Observations made at Brooklyn, Long Island, reported by E. Blunt; at Seaton Station, Washington, D.C., by C.O. Boutelle; at Roslyn Station, near Petersburg, Virginia, by L.F. Pourtales; Black Mountain Station, California, by R.D. Cutts; Benicia, California, by Professor James Nooney; and Humboldt Bay, California, by George Davidson. [Astronomy; Geodesy; Longitude.]

Gould, B.A., Appendix No. 1854 - 41. Pp. 128-138. Telegraphic longitude. On telegraphic observations for the difference of longitude between Raleigh, N.C., and Columbia, S.C. Directions and tables for the use of "Peirce's Criterion" for the rejection of doubtfulf observations. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Longitude; Computations; Error Analysis.]

Bond, W.C., Appendix No. 1854 - 42. Chronometric longitude expeditions (Cambridge - Liverpool.) Results of the expeditions of 1849, 1850, and 1851, and on the method of computation. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Longitude.]

Dean, G.W., Appendix No. 1854 - 44. P. 146. Meridian lines. Establishment of meridian lines at Petersburg, Virginia, and Raleigh and Wilmington, North Carolina. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Geodesy; Astronomy.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1855 - 25. Pp. 171-176. Florida Keys. Survey of the General Land Office, including reports on the general topography and triangulation , on the determination of the shore-line , and reconnaissance of Barnes Sound, Florida. [Reconnaissance; Triangulation; Topography.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1855 - 40. Pp. 255-264. Normal equations. Solution of normal equations by indirect elimination. [Computations; Geodesy.]

Boutelle, C.O., Appendix No. 1855 - 41. Pp. 264 -267. Description of preliminary base apparatus devised to measure the Savannah and Georgetown bases. [Instrumentation; Geodesy; Base Line Measurement.]

Peirce, B., Appendix No. 1855 - 42. Pp. 267-274. Longitudes. - Report on the method of determining longitudes by occultations of the Pleiades. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Longitude; Computations.]

Bond, W.C., Appendix No. 1855 - 43. Pp. 275-276. Chronometric longitudes. On moon culminations observed by him, and and the chronometric expedition for determining the longitude difference between Cambridge, Mass., and Liverpool, England. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Longitude.]

Dean, G.W., Appendix No. 1855 - 44. Pp. 276-278. Description of Wurdemann's zenith telescope of 1855, used at Dixmont, Me. [Instrumentation.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1855 - 45. Pp. 278-286. Star Catalogs. Comparison of star places given in Rumker's and the Twelve-Year Catalogues. Table I -- comparison of right ascensions. Table II -- comparison of north polar distances. [Astronomy; Geodesy; Latitude; Longitude.]

Gould, B.A., Appendix No. 1855 - 46. Pp. 286-295. Telegraphic longitudes. Report on telegraphic operations for difference of longitude between Columbia, S.C., and Macon, Ga.; program of telegraphic campaign; for instrumental corrections and longitude reductions; battery memoranda; to put up Bessel's clock. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Longitude; Instrumentation; Computations.]

Boutelle, C.O., Appendix No. 1855 - 57. Pp. 361-363. Boutelle's tripod and scaffold. Description of, as constructed and used by him at the stations of the primary triangulation in section V. [Geodesy; Triangulation; Instrumentation.]

Farley, J., Appendix No. 1855 - 58. Pp. 363-364. Farley's signal. Description and drawing of a convenient signal for observing on secondary stations. [Geodesy; Triangulation; Instrumentation.]

Sands, B.F., Appendix No. 1855 - 60. Pp. 365-366. Sand's hydrographic signal. Description and drawing of his gas-pipe signal used in the breakers at Dog Island Bar. [Hydrography; Signals.]

Gould, B.A., Appendix No. 1856 - 20. Pp. 163-166. Telegraphic longitudes. Operations for difference of longitude between Wilmington, N.C., and and Montgomery, Ala., with list of stars for observation. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Longitude.]

Dean, G.W., Appendix No. 1856 - 21. Pp. 167-181. Telegraphic method of determining differences of longitude. Details of the methods used by the Coast Survey for telegraphic determinations of difference of longitude; transit instrument; astronomical clock; chronographic register; batteries; list of stars arranged from the British Association Catalogue for determining the difference of longitude between Macon, Ga., and Montgomery, Ala., March, 1856; exchange of star signals; reading off the chronographic sheets; example of reduction; observations for determining the inequality of the pivots of Coast Survey transit No. 8; personal equations. (This appendix is among the first full descriptions of what was known as the "American Method" of longitude determination. Although William Dean was not among the developers of the method, he worked continuously making field observations almost from the inception of the method and was active in developing refined field techniques for Coast Survey longitude determinations.) [Geodesy; Astronomy; Instrumentation; Longitude.]

Bond, W.C., Appendix No. 1856 - 22. P. 181. Chronometric and astronomical longitudes. On longitude computations and occultations observed; lunar spot transits. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Longitude; Computations.]

Bond, W.C., Appendix No. 1856 - 23. Pp. 182-191. Chronometric results. Results of the longitude expeditions of 1849, 1850, 1851, and 1855 for difference of longitude between Cambridge, Mass., and Liverpool, England; table of longitudes by voyages of 1855. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Longitude.]

Peirce, B., Appendix No. 1856 - 24. Pleiades . - On the determination of longitude by occultations of the Pleiades; formulas for the correction of the coordinates of the stars; table for 1840; table of logarithms for h and k for the principal observatories. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Longitude; Computations.]

Peters, C.H.F., Appendix No. 1856 - 25. Pp. 198-203. Lunar-spot transits. On the substitution of lunar spots for the moon's limb in observing culminations. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Longitude.]

Davidson, G.O., Appendix No. 1856 - 26. Pp. 203-208. Occultations on the western coast. Observations made at Port Townsend, Wash. Ter., April and May, 1856; tables and remarks. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Longitude.]

Hilgard, J.E., Appendix No. 1856 - 27. Pp. 208-209. Azimuth. Method of using the transit instrument for azimuth observations; form of record and reduction. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Azimuth.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1856 - 52. Pp. 286-289. Report of the Superintendent to the Commissioner of the General land Office on progress made in survey and marking in quarter sections of the Florida keys. [Geodesy; Reconnaissance.]

Hilgard, J.E., Appendix No. 1856 - 56. Pp. 291-292. Mississippi sound. Details of the work of triangulation; signals and station marks. [Geodesy; Triangulation.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1856 - 60. Pp. 308 -310. Subsidiary base apparatus. Description of a modification devised for ascertaining the temperature of rods in use. [Instrumentation; Geodesy; Base Line Measurement.]

Hilgard, J.E., Appendix No. 1856 - 61. Pp. 310-316. Theodolite test. Examination and trials made of a 10-inch theodolite, applicable to the testing of instruments of like construction. [Instrumentation.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1857 - 26. Pp. 302-305. Epping Base, Maine. Notes on the preparation of site, measurement of line, and progress, as compared with other measurements of the Coast Survey. (This base line was the last to be measured by Bache and the first to be measured on irregular ground.) [Geodesy; Base Line Measurement.]

Gould, B.A., Appendix No. 1857 - 27. Pp. 305-310. Telegraphic longitudes. On the progress made in the different campaigns. List of time-stars adopted; difficulties and discrepancies of transmission for signals between Wilmington, N.C., and Columbia, S.C. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Longitude; Instrumentation.]

Bond, W.C., Appendix No. 1857 - 28. Pp. 310-311. Moon culminations. On the number observed during the year at Cambridge, cooperative with those on the Pacific side; star occultation phoographs; connection with Quebec. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Longitude.]

Peirce, B., Appendix No. 1857 - 29. Pp. 311-314. Longitude methods. On the relative precision of determinations by occultations and solar eclipses; upon the use of solar eclipses; upon the occultations of the Pleiades. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Longitude.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1857 - 30. Pp. 314-324. Chronometric determination of the difference of longitude between Savannah, Ga., and Fernandina, Fla., and discussion of the method. Alexander Dallas Bache and Charles Anton Schott. Chronometers used; personal equation; temperature compensation; chronometer comparisons - table; stationary and traveling rates; tables of comparison and discussion. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Longitude.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1857 - 31. Pp. 324-334. Latitude. - On the method of determination with the zenith telescope. [Geodesy; Astronomy.]

Evans, A.W., Appendix No. 1857 - 39. Pp. 374-377. Report on a reconnaissance for base sites on Sapelo Island, Georgia. [Geodesy; Base Line Measurement; Reconnaissance.]

Simpson, J.H., Appendix No. 1857 - 41. Pp. 379-382. Florida Peninsula airline. Report of a reconnaissance between Fernandina and Cedar Keys. By Captain James H. Simpson, United States Topographical Engineers and Assistant in the Coast Survey. (Air-line refers to an overland route for the primary triangulation across the Florida Peninsula. The goal was to extend primary triangulation to the West Coast of Florida without following hundreds of miles of coast line. This line was the first major incursion of the triangulation into the interior of the country.) [Reconnaissance; Triangulation.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1857 - 42. Pp. 382-390. Florida Keys. Superintendent's report to Commissioner of General Land Office on progress made in survey and marking of the keys. [Geodesy; Reconnaissance.]

Greenwell, W.E., Appendix No. 1857 - 44. Pp. 391-395. Report on the character and progress of the work on the Santa Barbara Islands and the mainland. [Geodesy; Triangulation.]

Hilgard, J.E., Appendix No. 1857 - 45. Pp. 395-398. Base apparatus for measuring subsidiary lines. [Geodesy; Base Line Measurement; Instrumentation.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1858 - 20. Pp. 184-186. Personal equation. On the use of the zenith telescope for determining latitude by Talcott's method - table showing results of observations for personal equations. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Error Analysis.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1858 - 21. Pp. 186-189. Method of computing from moon culminations; notes on observations of moon culminations; forms and example. [Geodetic Astronomy; Longitude; Computations.]

Bond, W.C., Appendix No. 1858 - 22. P. 189. Occultations and star transits made for the Coast Survey at the Harvard Observatory. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Longitude.]

Mitchel, O.M., Mitchel, O.M., Appendix No. 1858 - 23. P. 190. Moon culminations, etc. Number of observations made by him for the Coast Survey. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Longitude.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1858 - 35. Pp. 225-227. Florida Keys. Superintendent's report to Commissioner of General Land Office on progress made in survey and marking of the keys. [Geodesy; Reconnaissance.]

Mitchel, O.M., Appendix No. 1859 - 21. P. 278. Moon culminations. Observations made for the Coast Survey at the Cincinnati Observatory for longitude purposes. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Longitude.]

Alexander, S., Appendix No. 1860 - 21. Pp. 229 - 275. Solar Eclipse, July 18, 1860. Results of the expedition to Aulezavik Island, Labrador, to observe the total eclipse of July 18, 1860; tabular comparison of chronometers; arrangement and programme; description of the telescopes employed; synopsis of the observations; times of contacts; same in local mean time (civil reckoning); other observations; reports from special parties; earth temperature (Aulezavik); atmospheric electricity; icebergs, mirage, triple rainbow, etc.; auroras; table of meteorological observations made during the hours corresponding to the eclipse at Aulezavik, from July 14 to July 23, and during the continuance of auroras from June 30 to August 6; observations with Arago's polariscope; report of photographers; changes of illumination; seamen's observations; winds; magnetic elements; longitude by chronometers. [Astronomy; Geodesy; Longitude; Geophysics; Magnetism; Meteorology; Geographical Exploration.]

Gilliss, J.M., Appendix No. 1860 - 22. Pp. 275-292. Solar eclipse. On the results of observations made near Fort Steilacoom, Washington Territory, on the solar eclipse of July 18, 1860; table of meteorological observations on Muck Prairie; latitude observations; time observations; chronometer errors and rates; longitude; the eclipse; reports from special parties. [Astronomy; Geodesy; Latitude; Longitude; Meteorology.]

Hilgard, J.E., Appendix No. 1860 - 35. Pp. 357-361. Repeating theodolite. Supplement to Appendix No. 1856 -61. [Instrumentation.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1860 - 36. Pp. 361-391. Formulae for computing latitudes, longitudes, and aximuths, with an example as used in the Coast Survey office, and tables for each minute of latitude from 23o to 50o. [Computations; Geodesy.]

Peirce, B., Appendix No. 1861 - 16. Pp. 182-195. Report upon the determination of the longitude of America and Europe from the solar eclipse of July 28, 1851. Discussion of observations of the solar eclipse of July, 1851; observations of the total phase; European observations, of which the beginning and the end, both observed at the same place, have been admitted into the computation; American observations; method of computation. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Longitude; Computations.]

Peirce, B., Appendix No. 1861 - 17. Pp. 196-221. Report of Professor Benjamin Peirce on an example for the determination of longitudes by occultations of the Pleiades. [Geodesy; Geodetic Astronomy; Longitude; Computations.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1861 - 17. Pp. 196-221. Report on the determination of longitude by occultation of the Pleiades, with an example showing the mode of computation; Greenwich, Cambridge (England,) Ashurst, Washington City, Philadelphia, and Boston observatories computed; solutions of the equations for the correlation of the moon's place and of the longitude. [Geodetic Astronomy; Longitude; Computations.]

Gould, B.A., Appendix No. 1861 - 18. Pp. 221-232. Longitude of Albany, New York. Abstract of a report on the determination by telegraph of difference of longitude between New York City and Albany; table of instrumental corrections; collimation and azimuth correction, and hourly clock rate; personal equations; comparative table of longitude results at the two stations. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Longitude.]

Peirce, B., Appendix No. 1862 - 12. Pp. 155-156. On the computations of the occultations of the Pleiades for longitude. Longitude of America from Europe. On the result from occultations of the Pleiades. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Longitude; Computations.]

Peirce, B., Appendix No. 1862 - 13. Pp. 157-158. Upon the tables of the Moon used in the reduction of the Pleiades. Lunar tables used in reducing observations of the Pleiades for longitude. On their progressive improvements. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Longitude.]

Gould, B.A., Appendix No. 1862 - 14. Pp. 158-160. Longitudes in Maine, Alabama, and Florida. On progress in computing results from telegraphic observation. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Longitude.]

Hilgard, J.E., Appendix No. 1862 - 26. Pp. 248-255. Base- measuring apparatus. Results of experiments for determining the length and rate of expansion by heat of the six-metre standard bar, with the table of comparisons of standard bar with six metres. [Base Line Measurement; Instrumentation.]

Peirce, B., Appendix No. 1863 - 17. Pp. 146-154. Occultations of the Pleiades in 1841-'42. On computations for longitude, Nos. I, II, and V; records of Edinburgh, Washington, and Cambridge observations; ephemeris; stereographic coordinates of the moon referred to Alcyone; equations for corrections of the moon's place and of the longitude; solutions. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Longitude; Computations.]

Gould, B.A., Appendix No. 1863 - 18. Pp. 154-156. On computations connected with the telegraphic method. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Longitude; Computations.]

Dean, G.W., Appendix No. 1863 - 23. P. 205. Induction time in relay magnets. Report on experiments made to determine their relative power. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Longitude; Instrumentation.]

Peirce, B., Appendix No. 1864 - 11. P. 114. Longitude. On the method of determining longitude by occultations of the Pleiades. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Longitude.]

Gould, B.A., Appendix No. 1864 - 12. Pp. 115-116. On results by telegraphic method. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Longitude.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1864 - 13. Pp. 116-119. Problem in geodesy. -- Determining a position by angles observed from it on any number of stations. Solution by Gauss, with example, communicated by C. A. Schott. [Computations; Geodesy; Triangulation.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1864 - 14. Pp.120 - 144. Epping base line. Report on the methods of computation and resulting connection with the primary triangulation. [Geodesy; Base Line Measurement; Triangulation; Computations.]

Dean, G.W., Appendix No. 1864 - 20. Pp. 211-220. Eduction time of relay magnets, deduced from experiments. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Longitude; Instrumentation.]

Peirce, B., Appendix No. 1865 - 12. Pp. 138-146. Report on progress of determining longitude from occultations of the Pleiades, continued from previous reports. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Longitude.]

Peirce, B., Appendix No. 1865 - 13. Pp. 146-149. Method of determining longitude from the occultations of the Pleiades continued from previous reports. Corrections of lunar semidiameter, mean place, ellipticity of orbit; longitude of perihelion, coefficient of annual parallax, and longitude of Europe and America; example. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Longitude.]

Gould, B.A., Appendix No. 1865 - 14. Pp. 150-151. Report on the results of determining longitude by telegraphic methods. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Longitude.]

Gould, B.A., Appendix No. 1865 - 15. Pp. 152-154. Report, with tables, on the declinations and proper motions of standard time stars. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Time.]

Gould, B.A., Appendix No. 1865 - 16. Pp. 155-159. Report, with tables, of the positions and proper motions of the four polar stars. [Geodesy; Astronomy.]

Gould, B.A., Appendix No. 1865 - 17. Pp. 160-165. Report on the latitude of Cloverden station in Cambridge. [Geodesy; Astronomy.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1865 - 21. Pp. 187 - 203. Results of the primary triangulation of the coast of New England, from the northeastern boundary to the vicinity of New York. Length and accuracy of the Fire Island base line, Massachusetts base line, and Epping base line; the geodetic connection of the three primary base lines in Maine, Massachusetts, and New York; their degree of accordance and resulting accuracy of the intervening primary triangulation, etc. [Geodesy; Base Line Measurement; Triangulation.]

Hilgard, J.E., Appendix No. 1865 - 26. Pp. 248-255. Base- measuring apparatus. Results of experiments for determining the length and rate of expansion by heat of the six-metre standard bar, with the table of comparisons of standard bar with six metres. [Geodesy; Base Line Measurement; Instrumentation.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1866 - 8. Pp. 49 -54. Primary triangulation of the Atlantic coast. Geodetic connection of the New and Kent Island base lines, their degree of accordance and accuracy of the intervening primary triangulation, etc. [Geodesy;Base Line Measurement; Triangulation; Computations.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1866 - 8. Supplement. P. 140. Length of the Kent Island base line. [Geodesy; Base Line Measurement; Computations.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1866 - 9. Pp. 55-71. The transit instrument, description, use, adjustment, and method of observation. [Instrumentation; Geodesy; Astronomy.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1866 - 10. Pp. 72-85. Latitude by zenith telescope. (1) General remarks on Talcott's method; (2) modification of instrument; (3) description; (4) adjustment; (5) selection of stars for observing; (6) directions for observing; (7) off the meridian; (8) general expression for the latitude; (9) determination of the value of a division of the micrometer; (10) of level; (11) correction for differential refraction; (12) reduction to the meridian; (13) record of the observations; (14) reduction of the observations; (15) discussion of the results; (16) combinations of the results by weight. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Latitude.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1866 - 11. Pp. 86-99. Astronomical azimuth. (1) Principal methods; (2) astronomical azimuth; (3) geodetic azimuth; (4) primary and secondary azimuths; (5) time; (6) instruments used; (7) azimuth marks; (8) errors eliminated; (9) circumpolar stars used; (10) high stars; (11) sets of observations; (12) method of recording and reducing; (13) observations of a close circumpolar star at its elongation; (14) at any hour angle; (15) computation by fundamental trigonometrical formula; (16) by Napier's analogies; (17) by a development into a series; (18) at equal intervals before and after culmination; (19) observation of sun for azimuth; (20) examples of records and reductions. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Azimuth.]

Walker, S.C., Appendix No. 1866 - 12. Pp. 99-100. Reprint of Appendix No. 1846 - 10. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Longitude.]

Walker, S.C., Appendix No. 1866 - 13. Pp. 100-102. Reprint of Appendix No. 1846 - 11. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Longitude.]

Walker, S.C., Appendix No. 1866 - 14. Pp. 102-105. Longitude. Difference of longitude between New york, Cambridge, and Greenwich. (From Report of 1848.) [Geodesy; Astronomy; Longitude.]

Walker, S.C., Appendix No. 1866 - 15. Pp. 106-108. Reprint of Appendix No. 1850 - 13. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Longitude.]

Walker, S.C., Appendix No. 1866 - 16. Pp. 109-111. Reprint of Appendix No. 1851 - 25. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Longitude.]

Walker, S.C., Appendix No. 1866 - 17. Pp. 111-112. Reprint of Appendix No. 1851 - 26. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Longitude.]

Gould, B.A., Appendix No. 1867 - 6. Pp. 57-133. On the longitude between America and Europe from signals through the Atlantic cable. (1) Origin of the Coast Survey expeditions in 1865 and 1866; (2) previous determinations of transatlantic longitudes from eclipses and occultations; from moon culminations; from chronometers transported from Boston to Liverpool; (3) history of the expedition of 1866; programme of transatlantic-longitude campaign; (4) observations at Valencia; table of equatorial intervals; table of observations, October 25 to November 16, 1866; (5) observations at Newfoundland, October 25 to December 16, 1866; (7) longitude signals between Foilhommerum and Hearts Content; clock corrections, transatlantic longitude and transmission time, October 25 to November 9, 1866; (8) longitude signals between Hearts Content and Calais; tables of Newfoundland and Calais signals; tables of longitude and times of transmission; (9) personal error in noting signals; (10) personal equation determining time; (11) final results for longitude; (12) velocity of transmission; cables of 1865 and 1866; tables of comparison. [Geodesy; Longitude.]

Davidson, G.O., Appendix No. 1867 - 8. Pp. 138-139. New meridian instrument for time, latitude, and azimuth.[Geodesy; Astronomy.]

Hilgard, J.E., Appendix No. 1867 - 9. Pp. 140-144. Railways, on the use of, for geodetic surveys. Wheel records; linear measurement; rectification of curves; reduction of the measured lines and angles to a simpler system. [Geodesy; Triangulation.]

Hilgard, J.E., Appendix No. 1867 - 10. P. 145. Reflector. Description of a new form of geodetic signals. [Instrumentation.]

Cutts, R.D., Appendix No. 1868 - 7. Pp. 109-139. Memoranda relating to the field work of a secondary triangulation. Selection of stations; names of stations; signals; tripods and scaffolds; underground station marks; surface station marks; observations and records; number of observations; limit of error; probable error; reduction to center; correction for phase; correction for eccentricity; spherical excess; distribution of error; trigonometrical leveling; coefficient of refraction; three-point problem; rectangular coordinates; full explanation of the different successive operations connected with the measurement of a subsidiary base line; records, duplicates, and computations. [Geodesy; Triangulation;Base Line Measurement;Computations.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1868 - 8. Pp. 140-146. Method of adjustment of the secondary triangulation of Long Island Sound. Example of reduction of angular measure of Shelter Island and proof of correctness. [Geodesy; Triangulation; Computations.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1868 - 9. Pp. 147-153. Results of the measurement of an arc of the meridian. Length of the arc by four methods; accuracy of the preceding results; table and diagram; determination of the astronomical latitudes; recapitulation of results. [Geodesy; Arc Measurement;Triangulation; Astronomy.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1868 - 10. Pp. 154-165. Addenda to Appendix No. 1866 - 9, on the determination of time by means of the transit instrument. Specimen table of local times of elongation and culminations of four circumpolar stars for 1873, latitude 40o N., longitude 6 hr. west of Greenwich, correction for altered dates and latitudes. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Azimuth; Time.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1869 - 6. Pp. 105-112. Connection of the primary base lines on Kent Island, Md., and on Craney Island, Va., and on the degree of accuracy of the intervening primary and sub-primary triangulation. [Geodesy; Base Line Measurement; Triangulation; Computations.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1869 - 7. Pp. 113-115. Local deflections of the zenith in the vicinity of Washington City. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Geophysics; Gravity.]

Hilgard, J.E., Appendix No. 1869 - 12. Pp. 226-232. On the use of the zenith telescope for observations of time, with an example of observation. [Geodesy; Astronomy.]

Lindenkohl, A., Appendix No. 1869 - 14. P. 235. Solution of the three-point problem, by determining the point of intersection of a side of the given triangle with a line from the opposite point to the unknown point. [Geodesy; Triangulation; Computations.]

Cutts, R.D., Appendix No. 1870 - 7. Pp. 75-76. Report on the leveling operations between Keyport, on Raritan Bay, and Gloucester, on the Delaware River, to determine the heights above mean tide of the primary stations Beacon Hill, Disboro, Stony Hill, Mount Holly, and Pine Hill. [Geodesy; Leveling; Oceanography; Tides; Instrumentation.]

Cutts, R.D., Appendix No. 1870 - 8. Pp. 77-89. Report on the results of barometrical observations made in connection with the line of spirit leveling from Raritan Bay to the Delaware River. [Geodesy; Leveling; Instrumentation.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1870 - 12. P. 100. Results of telegraphic determination of longitude of San Francisco, Cal. [Geodetic Astronomy; Longitude.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1870 - 13. Pp. 101-106. Abstracts of results for difference of longitude between Harvard Observatory, Mass., the Coast Survey station Seaton, and the Naval Observatory, Washington, D.C., as determined by means of the electric telegraph in 1867 by the U. S. Coast Survey, with the cooperation of Prof. Joseph Winlock, Director of Harvard Observatory, and Commodore B. F. Sands, U.S.N., Superintendent Naval Observatory. [Geodetic Astronomy; Longitude.]

Davidson, G.O., Appendix No. 1870 - 17. Pp. 178-179. Changes of elevation and azimuth caused by the action of the sun at station Dominguez, Cal. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Leveling; Azimuth.]

Davidson, G.O., Appendix No. 1870 - 22. Pp. 226-227. Azimuth and apparent altitude of Polaris. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Azimuth.]

Davidson, G.O. and Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1871 - 11. Pp. 154-170. Comparison of the methods of determining heights by means of leveling, vertical angles, and barometric measures from observations at Bodega Head and Ross Mountain, California.[Geodesy; Leveling; Instrumentation.]

Appendix No. 1871 - 15. Pp. 185-188. Report on the adaptation of triangulations to various conditions of configuration and character of the surface of the country and other causes. [Geodesy; Triangulation; Topography.]

Cutts, R.D., Appendix No. 1871 - 12. Pp. 171-175. Report on the leveling operations between Keyport, on Raritan Bay, and Gloucester on the Delaware River, to determine the height above mean tide of the primary stations Beacon Hill, Disboro, Stony Hill, Mount Holly, and Pine Hill. [Geodesy; Leveling; Oceanography; Tides.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1871 - 15. Pp. 185-188. Report on the adaptation of triangulations to various conditions of configuration and character of the surface of the country and other causes. [Geodesy; Triangulation; Topography.]

Lane, J.H., Appendix No. 1871 - 16. Pp. 189-192. New form of mercurial horizon. Directions for setting up and using. [Geodesy; Instrumentation.]

Cutts, R.D., Appendix No. 1872 - 8. Pp. 75-172. Reports of the astronomical and meteorological observations made at Sherman, Wyoming. Part I, report of R.D. Cutts. Latitude and longitude of Sherman; terrestrial magnetism; meteorology; Table I, difference of reading of observers; Table II, daily means; Tables III and IV, hourly means; aneroid barometer; solar radiation; Table V, amount of solar radiation; Table VI, solar radiation; altitude of the sun; atmospheric electricity; Table VIII, altitude of the astronomical station; spirit level; barometer; Tables IX, X, XI, boiling-point apparatus; Table XII, temperature of boiling water at Sherman, Wyoming; Table XIII, height of Long's Peak, etc.; atmosphere and climate of Sherman; meteorological register. Part II, report of Professor C.A. Young. Spectrum of the chromosphere; catalogue of bright lines in the spectrum of the chromosphere, 1872; table showing the number of coincidences between the bright lines observed in the spectrum of the chromosphere and those in the spectrum of the chemical elements; spectra of sun spots; catalogue of lines affected in the spot-spectrum between B and b; solar eruptions and other disturbances. [Astronomy; Geodesy; Latitude; Longitude; Geophysics; Magnetism; Solar Activity.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1872 - 12. Pp. 222-226. Determination of weights to be given to observations for determining time with portable transit instrument, recorded by the chronographic method. [Computations; Geodesy; Astronomy.]

Hilgard, J.E., Appendix No. 1872 - 13. Pp. 227-234. Preliminary report on the determination of transatlantic longitudes. Brest, Greenwich, Paris; results of observations for personal equation; longitudes: Brest-Greenwich, Brest-Paris, Greenwich-Paris, Brest-St. Pierre, Harvard Observatory-Greenwich, Washington-Greenwich, Washington-Paris. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Longitude.]

Eimbeck, W., Appendix No. 1872 - 18. P. 266. Improvement on the Hipp chronograph. [Geodesy; Instrumentation; Longitude.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1873 - 12. Pp. 123-131. Peach Tree Ridge base, near Atlanta, Ga. [Geodesy; Base Line Measurement; Computations.]

Hunt, E.B., Appendix No. 1873 - 12. Pp. 132-136. Description of the compensation base apparatus of the United States Coast Survey. (This is a reprint of Appendix No. 1854 - 35. Major Edward Bissell Hunt died during the Civil War as the result of an accident occurring in the testing of a torpedo-like weapon called the "Sea Miner" in 1863. If not for this accident, Hunt most assuredly would be better known within the American science and history communities as he still would have had many productive years ahead of him.) [Geodesy; Base Line Measurement; Instrumentation.]

Hilgard, J.E., Appendix No. 1873 - 13. P. 137. Note on intervisibility of stations. [Geodesy; Reconnaissance.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1873 - 14. P. 138. List of stars for latitude observations. [Geodesy; Astronomy; List.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1874 - 10. Pp. 131-133. Transit of Venus, 1769. Results of observations for determining positions occupied in Lower California and Philadelphia. [Astronomy; Geodesy; Longitude; History.]

Hilgard, J.E., Appendix No. 1874 - 17. Pp. 156-159. Two forms of personal equation apparatus for transit observations. Examples of observations; observations for absolute personal equation; etc. [Geodesy; Computations; Astronomy.]

Hilgard, J.E., Appendix No. 1874 - 18. Pp. 163-242. Transatlantic longitudes. (This appendix is a full report on the transatlantic telegraphic longitude determinations of 1866, 1870, and 1872. As such, this is the first official report of accurate non-ambiguous differences of longitude between the European continent and North America. This report is the culmination of a quarter century of effort beginning with the early 1840's transatlantic chronometer expeditions instituted by the Bond's of Harvard Observatory and Superintendent Alexander Dallas Bache of the Coast Survey.) [Geodesy; Astronomy; Longitude; Computations; Error Analysis.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1875 - 9. Pp. 139-156. Telegraphic longitude of Key West. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Longitude; Instrumentation; Computations; Error Analysis.]

Davidson, G.O., Appendix No. 1875 - 13. Pp. 222-239. Transit of Venus, Japan, 1874. Station near Nagasaki, Japan; observers; telegraphic longitude work; details of observations of the transit; photographic work; observations at great elevations. [Geodesy; Longitude; Astronomy.]

Smith, E., Appendix No. 1875 - 14. Pp. 231-248. Transit of Venus, Chatham Island, 1874. Station; foundation; instruments; observations; photography; day of transit; work after the transit; computations and results; latitude observations; mean places of stars observed for latitude; results for latitude; magnetic observations; declination; dip; horizontal intensity; results. [Astronomy; Geodesy; Latitude; Longitude; Geophysics; Magnetism.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1875 - 17. Pp. 279-292. The closing of a circuit of triangulation. (Doolittle listed as second author.) [Geodesy; Triangulation; Computations.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1875 - 19. Pp. 315-368. Formulae and factors for the computation of geodetic latitudes, longitudes, and azimuths. [Computations; Geodesy.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1876 - 7. P. 83-129. A catalogue of stars for latitude observations. [Geodesy; Astronomy.]

Davidson, G.O., Appendix No. 1876 - 16. Pp. 338-353. Reprint of Appendix No. 1871 - 11. [Geodesy; Leveling; Instrumentation.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1876 - 17. Pp. 355-367. Observations of atmospheric refraction. Determination of several heights by the spirit level, and measures of refraction by zenith distances; also, observations of the barometer at Ragged Mountain, Maine by F. W. Perkins. Results of spirit level operations near the entrance of Penobscot Bay in 1874; results of observations of zenith distances at Ragged Mountain for atmospheric refraction; meteorological observations at Ragged Mountain, Mount Desert, and at White Head Light; two short simultaneous sets; resulting differences of height. [Geodesy; Leveling; Meteorology.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1876 - 18. Pp. 368-387. Atmospheric refraction and adjustment of hypsometric measures. Determination of the coefficient of refraction from zenith distances observed in northern Georgia, by Assistants C.O. Boutelle and F. P. Webber, in 1873 and 1874, and adjustment of different heights by the method of least squares. [Geodesy; Leveling; Computations.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1876 - 19. Pp. 388-390. Hypsometric formulae, based upon thermodynamic principles. [Geodesy; Leveling; Computations.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1876 - 20. Pp. 391-399. On the adaptation of triangles to various conditions, with notes on modes of observing horizontal angles and directions. [Geodesy; Triangulation.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1877 - 6. Pp. 84-95. The Pamplico-Chesapeake arc of the meridian and its combination with the Nantucket and the Peruvian arcs for a determination of the figure of the earth from American measures. Combination of arcs for determining the figure of the earth; Bessel 1841, Clarke 1866, and Coast Survey 1877. [Geodesy; Arc Measurement; Base Line Measurement; Latitude; Azimuth; Computations.]

Hilgard, J.E., Appendix No. 1877 - 11. Pp. 114-147. An examination of three new 20-inch theodolites. [Instrumentation.]

Davidson, G.O., Appendix No. 1877 - 13. P. 182-183. Improved open vertical clamp for telescopes of theodolites and meridian instruments. [Instrumentation.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1878 - 8. Pp. 92-120. Adjustment of the primary triangulation between the Kent Island, Maryland, and Atlanta, Georgia, base lines. (Includes paper by M. A. Doolittle.) [Geodesy; Triangulation.]

Davidson, G.O., Appendix No. 1879 - 7. Pp. 103-109. Description of the Davidson meridian instrument. (First description in Appendix 1867 - 8.) [Instrumentation.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1879 - 8. Pp. 110-123. Comparisons of local deflection of the plumb line. Determination of the standard geodetic latitude; table of systematic apparent deflections in the meridian; determination of the standard geodetic azimuth; table of systematic deflection at right angles to the meridian resulting from observed azimuths; determinations of the standard geodetic longitude; exhibition of the apparent local deflections of the vertical with reference to the Bessel and Clarke spheroids; table of comparison of effect of apparent local deflection of the vertical in latitude for the Bessel and Clarke spheroids; table of same for deflections in azimuth; in longitude. Appendix A, Table I, astronomical latitudes of the oblique arc along the Atlantic; comparison of the register latitudes, apparent deflections in the meridian. Appendix B, Table I, astronomical azimuths of the oblique arc along the Atlantic; comparison of the register azimuths, apparent deflections in the meridian. Appendix C, astronomical (telegraphic) longitudes of the oblique arc along the Atlantic; comparison of the register longitudes, apparent deflections in longitude, and corresponding apparent deflections in the prime vertical. [Geodesy; Arc Measurement; Astronomy; Gravity; Longitude; Latitude; Azimuth.]

Tittmann, O.H., Appendix No. 1879 - 15. Pp. 202-211. Instruments and methods used in precise leveling in the Coast and Geodetic Survey. Description of level, rods, and target; simultaneous double leveling in one direction; leveling in opposite directions; method of observing river crossings; bench marks; degree of precision; records and computations; curvature and refraction; temperature correction; table of curvature and refraction; form of record; form of computation; form of abstract of results. [Geodesy; Leveling; Computations; Error Analysis.]

Braid, A., Appendix No. 1879 - 16. Pp. 212-213. Refraction on lines passing near a surface of water, from observations at different elevations across the Potomac River. [Geodesy; Leveling.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1880 - 6. Pp. 81-92. Telegraphic longitudes. Report on the results of telegraphic longitudes determined by the Coast and Geodetic Survey up to 1880, and preliminary adjustment by least squares. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Longitude; Computations; Error Analysis.]

Smith, E., Appendix No. 1880 - 7. Pp. 93-95. Explanation of apparatus used for observation of telegraphic longitude; description; adjustments; interchange of signals. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Longitude; Instrumentation.]

Boutelle, C.O., Appendix No. 1880 - 8. Pp. 96-109. Geodetic night signals. (Charles O. Boutelle was the first to use artificial lights at night for triangulation angle measurement.) [Geodesy; Instrumentation; Triangulation.]

Braid, A., Appendix No. 1880 - 11. Pp. 135-144. Geodetic leveling on the Mississippi River. Bench marks; instrument; rods; method of observing; specimen record; probable and mean error; abstract of results. [Geodesy; Leveling; Computations; Error Analysis.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1880 - 14. Pp. 201-286. Determination of time, longitude, latitude, and azimuth. (1)Telegraphic determination of longitude; (2) Personal equation; specimen of record of results for difference of longitude; variability of personal equation; (3) weights to transit observations recorded on the chronograph; weights depending on the star's declination; weights to incomplete transits; reduction of observations for time; (4) disposition of telegraphic instruments in the observatory; (5) concluding remarks. ( The designated pages fall within a larger appendix detailing Coast Survey methods in virtually all aspects of Geodesy; Astronomy. See following entry.) [Geodesy; Astronomy; Longitude: Error Analysis; Computations.]

Hilgard, J.E., Appendix No. 1880 - 17. Pp. 341-345. Base apparatus. An account of a perfected form of the contact slide apparatus used in the Coast and Geodetic Survey. [Instrumentation.]

Ferrel, W., Appendix No. 1881 - 10. Pp. 225-268. Meteorological researches, Part III. Barometric hypsometry and reduction of the barometer to sea level. The theory of barometric hypsometry; practical applications of the theory; reduction of the barometer to sea level; hypsometrical tables. [Geodesy; Leveling; Meteorology.]

Tittmann, O.H., Appendix No. 1881 - 13. Pp. 357-358. On a method of readily transferring the underground mark at a base monument. [Geodesy; Triangulation.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1882 - 7. Pp. 107-138. Description and construction of a new compensation base apparatus, with a determination of the length of two 5-metre standard bars. [Geodesy; Instrumentation; Base Line Measurement.]

Davidson, G.O., Appendix No. 1882 - 8. Pp. 139-149. Report of the measurement of the Yolo base, Cal. [Geodesy; Base Line Measurement.]

Cutts, R.D., Appendix No. 1882 - 9. Pp. 151-197. Field work of the triangulation, third edition. [Geodesy; Triangulation.]

Boutelle, C.O., Appendix No. 1882 - 10. Pp. 199-208. On the construction of observing tripods and scaffolds. [Geodesy;Triangulation; Instrumentation.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1882 - 11. Pp. 209 & 517-556. Results of the transcontinental line of geodetic spirit leveling near the parallel of 39o. First part from Sandy Hook, N.J., to St. Louis, Mo. Field work executed by Assistant Andrew Braid. Descriptions of bench marks; route; establishment of mean tidal level at Sandy Hook; instrumental constants; probable error of results from geodetic spirit leveling. (This appendix reported on the first half of the first precise line of levels run across the North American continent.) [Geodesy; Leveling; Error Analysis; Oceanography; Tides.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1883 - 11. Pp. 273-278. Results for the length of the primary base line in Yolo County, Cal. Measurement in 1881 by Assistant George Davidson. Computation and discussion of results. [Geodesy; Base Line Measurement; Computations.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1883 - 12. Pp. 289-321. Results of observations for atmospheric refraction on the line Mount Diablo to Martinez, California, in connection with hypsometric measures by spirit level, the vertical circle, and barometer, made in March and April, 1880, by Assistant George Davidson. [Geodesy; Leveling; Meteorology; Computations; Error Analysis.]

Davidson, G.O., Appendix No. 1883 - 18. Pp. 383-471. Field catalogue of 1278 time and circumpolar stars; mean places for 1885.0. [Geodesy; Latitude; Longitude; Astronomy.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1884 - 7. Pp. 323-375. Formulae and factors for the computation of geodetic latitudes, longitudes, and azimuths. (Third edition.) [Computations; Geodesy.]

Davidson, G.O., Appendix No. 1884 - 8. Pp. 377-385. The run of the micrometer. Explanation of the expression in reference to an astronomical or geodetic instrument, etc. [Geodesy; Instrumentation.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1884 - 9. Pp. 387-390. Connection at Lake Ontario of the primary triangulation of the Coast and Geodetic Survey with that of the Lake Survey. Observations by Charles O. Boutelle. Discussion by Charles A. Schott. [Geodesy;Triangulation.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1884 - 10. Pp. 391-405. Results of a trigonometrical determination of the heights of stations forming the Davidson quadrilaterals. Observations by Assistant George Davidson, 1876-1882. [Geodesy; Leveling; Computations; Error Analysis.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1884 - 11. Pp. 407-430. Longitudes deduced in the Coast and Geodetic Survey from determinations by means of the electric telegraph between the years 1846 and 1885. Second adjustment. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Longitude; Error Analysis; Computations.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1885 - 9. Pp. 441-467. Results deduced from the geodetic connection of the Yolo base line with the primary triangulation of California; also a reduction and adjustment of the Davidson quadrilaterals, forming part of that triangulation. [Geodesy; Triangulation; Base Line Measurement; Computations.]

Boutelle, C.O., Appendix No. 1885 - 10. Pp. 469-481. On Geodetic Reconnaissance. (This refers to site selection for triangulation points and base lines. Although titled "reconnaissance," the subject matter is significantly different than the reconnaissances of geographic areas accomplished as a first look prior to beginning of major operations. This work is basically Boutelle's suggestions for improving the efficiency of geodetic operations through better network design and optimizing locations of survey points.) [Geodesy; Triangulation; Base Line Measurement.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1887 - 9. Pp. 185-205. Heights from spirit levelings of precision between Mobile, Ala., and Carrollton (New Orleans), La. Executed by Assistant J. B. Weir in 1885-1886. [Geodesy; Leveling; Computation; Error Analysis; Instrumentation.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1887 - 14. Pp. 275-300. Report of the results of spirit leveling of precision about New York Bay and vicinity in 1886 and 1887. Observations by Assistant John B. Weir and Sub-assistant John E. McGrath. [Geodesy; Leveling; Computations.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1888 - 10. Pp. 409-426. Heights from spirit leveling of precision between Mobile, Ala., and Okolona, Miss. Field work by Assistant John B. Weir and Sub-assistant John E. McGrath in 1884, 1886, and 1887. [Geodesy; Leveling.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1888 - 11. Pp. 427-453. Heights from spirit leveling of precision between New Orleans, La., and Arkansas City, Ark. Field work between New Orleans and Greenville, Miss., by Assistants Otto H. Tittmann and Andrew Braid, and by Sub-assistant John B. Weir in the years 1879-1881; and between Greenville, Miss, and Arkansas City, by the Mississippi River Commission in 1880 and 1881. [Geodesy; Leveling.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1888 - 12. Pp. 454- 464. Heights from spirit leveling of precision between Arkansas City, on the Mississippi River, and Little Rock, Ark. Field work by Sub-assistant John E. McGrath in 1887 and 1888. [Geodesy; Leveling.]

Preston, E.D., Appendix No. 1888 - 13. Pp. 465-470. Differential method of computing the apparent places of stars for determinations of latitude. [Geodesy; Astronomy.]

Preston, E.D., Appendix No. 1888 - 14. Pp. 471-563. Determinations of latitude and gravity for the Hawaiian Government. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Latitude; Geophysics; Gravity.]

Preston, E.D., Appendix No. 1889 - 7. Pp. 199-208. The need of a remeasurement of the Peruvian arc. [Geodesy; Arc Measurement; History.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1889 - 8. Pp. 209-212. Telegraphic determination of the longitude of a station on Mount Hamilton., Cal., and its trigonometrical connection with the Lick Observatory. Field work by Assistant C.H. Sinclair and Sub-assistant R.A. Marr. (Also published in Bulletin No. 13, 1889.) [Geodesy; Astronomy; Longitude.]

Smith, E., Appendix No. 1889 - 9. Pp. 213-216. Description of two new portable transits for longitude work. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Instrumentation.]

Davidson, G.O., Appendix No. 1889 - 10. Pp. 217-231. Report on the measurement of the Los Angeles base line, Los Angeles and Orange counties, Cal. [Geodesy; Base Line Measurement.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1889 - 15. Pp. 461-466. Result of spirit leveling between tide water at Annapolis, Md., and the Capitol bench mark at Washington, D.C., from observations made by Assistant Frank Wally Perkins in 1875. [Geodesy; Leveling.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1889 - 17. Pp. 479-491. Report on the resulting length and probable uncertainty of five principal base lines, measured with the Bache-Wurdemann compensation base apparatus between 1847 and 1855. [Geodesy; Base Line Measurement; Computations; Error Analysis.]

Davidson, G.O., Appendix No. 1889 - 18. Pp. 493-503. Report of George Davidson, assistant, appointed by the President of the United States as the Delegate to the Ninth Conference of the International Geodetic Association held at Paris, October, 1889. [Geodesy; Miscellaneous.]

Kummel, C.H. and Merriman, M., Appendix No. 1890 - 13. Pp. 685-687. On an approximate method of computing probable error - by C. H. Kummel, Computing Division. On the determination by least squares of the relation between two variables - by Professor Mansfield Merriman, late Acting Assistant. [Computations; Error Analysis.]

Davidson, G.O., Appendix No. 1890 - 17. Pp. 721-733. Address to the Ninth Conference of the International Geodetic Association. [Geodesy; Miscellaneous.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1891 - 1. Pp. 7 - 13. Approximate times of culminations and elongations, and of the azimuths at elongation of Polaris for the years 1889-1910. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Azimuth.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1891 - 2. Pp. 15-19. On the determination of an azimuth from micrometric observations of a close circumpolar star near elongation by means of a meridian transit, or by means of a theodolite with eyepiece micrometer. Observations by A. T. Mosman. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Azimuth.]

Preston, E.D., Appendix No. 1891 - 13. Pp. 479-485. On observations for the variations of latitude, made near Honolulu, Oahu, Hawaiian Islands, in cooperation with the work of the International Geodetic Association, and on the determination of gravity and magnetic elements. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Latitude; Geophysics; Gravity; Magnetism.]

Reid, H.F., Appendix No. 1891 - 14. Pp. 487-501. Report of an expedition to Muir Glacier, Alaska, with determinations of latitude and the magnetic elements at Camp Muir, Glacier Bay. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Geophysics; Magnetism.]

Mendenhall, T.C., Schott, C.A., and Smith, E., Appendix No. 1892 - 1. Pp. 1-51. On the variation of latitude at Rockville, Md., as determined from observations in cooperation with the the International Geodetic Association. Part I: Description ot the station, instruments, and methods of observing, by Edwin Smith. Part II: Reductions of the observations and discussion of the results, by C.A. Schott. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Latitude.]

Preston, E.D., Appendix No. 1892 - 2. Pp. 53-159. On the variation of latitude at Waikiki, near Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands, as determined from observations made in 1891 and 1892 in cooperation with the International Geodetic Association. [Geodesy; Astronomy.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1892 - 3. Pp. 161-203. On the results of spirit leveling of precision between Okolona, Miss., and Odin, Ill., from observations made by Assistant John B. Weir, Sub-assistants Isaac Winston and P. A. Welker, and Aid F. A. Young. [Geodesy; Leveling.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1892 - 4. Pp. 205-234. On the results of spirit leveling of precision between Corinth, Miss., Memphis, Tenn., from observations made in 1890 and 1891 by Subassistant Isaac Winston and Aid F. A. Young. [Geodesy; Leveling.]

Mendenhall, T.C., Mosman, A.T., Woodward, R.S., and Tittmann, O.H., Appendix No. 1892 - 8. Pp. 329-503. On the measurement of the Holton base, Holton, Ripley County, Ind., and the St. Albans base, Kanawha County, W. Va. Prefatory remarks by T.C. Mendenhall. Part I: extracts from the records and the reports of A.T. Mosman. Part II: The iced bar and base tape apparatus and results of measures made with them on the Holton and St. Albans bases. - by R.S. Woodward. Part III: The new secondary base apparatus of the Coast and Geodetic Survey as used in the measurement of the Holton base, Indiana. - by O.H. Tittmann. [Geodesy; Base Line Measurement.]

Davidson, G.O., Appendix No. 1892 - 9. Pp. 505-513. Measure of the irregularity in one turn of the micrometer screw, and the relative value of each turn. [Instrumentation.]

Kummel, C.H., Appendix No. 1892 - 12. Pp. 535-552. On the direct synthetic method of adjusting a triangulation. [Computations; Geodesy; Triangulation.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1893 - 2. Pp. 19-36. Heights from geodetic leveling between St. Louis and Jefferson City, Mo., 1882-1888. Executed by Assistants Andrew Braid and Gershom Bradford and by Sub-Assistant Isaac Winston. [Geodesy; Leveling.]

Jaderin, E., Appendix No. 1893 - 5. Pp. 125 - 164. On the measurement of base lines with steel tapes and with steel and brass wires. Translated by: J.H. Gore. [Base Line Measurement; Instrumentation.]

Hodgkins, W.C., Appendix No. 1893 - 8. Pp. 177-222. I, a historical account of the boundary line between Pennsylvania and Delaware. II, Detailed account of work on the Pennsylvania and Delaware boundary by W.C. Hodgkins. [Geodesy; History.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1893 - 9. Pp. 223-424. Proceedings of the Geodetic Conference held at Washington, D.C., January 9 - February 24, 1894. General report; proceedings of the conference. Reports of committees on: reconnaissance; base lines; triangulation; geodetic astronomy; hypsometry; Alaska, including proposed triangulation scheme, base lines, gravity experiments, etc.; instruments; office and field relations; geodetic arcs; magnetics; gravity; equipment. Supplement including several letters from Coast and Geodetic Survey field and office personnel. [Geodesy; Base Line Measurement; Triangulation; Instrumentation; Geophysics; Magnetics; Gravity.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1893 - 11. Pp. 440-508. On the variation of latitude at San Francisco, Cal., from observations made in concert with the International Geodetic Association, 1891 and 1892. - Observations by George Davidson. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Latitude.]

Preston, E.D., Appendix No. 1893 - 12. Pp. 509-638. Determinations of latitude, gravity, and magnetic elements at stations in the Hawaiian Islands, including a result for the mean density of the earth, 1891, 1892. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Geophysics; Gravity; Magnetism.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1894 - 5. Pp. 101-116. The length of the Holton base line, Indiana, with related experimental measures, during part of July, August, September, and October,1891. [Geodesy; Base Line Measurement; Computations.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1894 - 6. Pp. 117-123. The length of the St. Albans base line, West Virginia, measured in October, 1892. [Geodesy; Base Line Measurement; Computations.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1894 - 9. Pp. 277-348. Formulae and tables for the computation of geodetic positions. (Fourth edition.) Prefatory remarks; formulae and factors for the computation of geeodetic latitudes, longitudes, and azimuths; form for primary triangulation; form for subordinate triangulation; form for inverse problem; table of corrections to longitude for differences of arc and sine; table of values of log. sec. (Delta Phi) ; tables for converting meters to feet and feet to meters; tables for converting kilometers to statute miles, and statute miles to kilometers; formulae and tables for computing the spherical excess of triangles; tables for M, computed for the Clarke spheroid; table of logarithms of factors A, B, C, D, E, F, based upon the Clarke spheroid of 1866 and the metric system, between latitudes 18o and 72o. [Computations; Geodesy.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1894 - 10. Pp. 349-615. Geographic positions of trigonometric points in the State of Massachusetts, determined by the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey between the years 1843 and 1894, and including those determined by the Borden survey in the years 1832 to 1838. [Data Report; List; Geographic Positions; Geodesy; Triangulation.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1895 - 2. Pp. 321-346. Abstract of resulting latitudes of some prominent stations in Alaska and adjacent parts as astronomically determined during 1889-1895. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Latitude.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1895 - 3. Pp. 333-344. Abstract of resulting longitudes of some prominent stations in Alaska and adjacent parts, as astronomically determined during 1889-1895. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Longitude.]

Winston, I., Appendix No. 1895 - 8. Pp. 381-382. Description of leveling rods designed and constructed for use in geodetic leveling operations. [Geodesy; Leveling; Instrumentation.]

Putnam, G.R., Appendix No. 1895 - 10. Pp. 393-398. Tables of azimuth and apparent altitude of Polaris at different hour angles for the years 1889-1910. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Azimuth.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1896 - 2. Pp. 237-246. Resulting heights from spirit leveling between Old Point Comfort and Richmond, Va., from observations made by Sub-assistant John B. Weir in 1884 and Assistant Isaac Winston in 1891 and 1892. [Geodesy; Leveling.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1896 - 3. Pp. 247-264. Resulting heights from spirit leveling between Richmond, Va., and Washington, D.C., from observations made by Sub-assistant John B. Weir in 1883 and 1884, with releveling by Subassistant Weir between Richmond and Fredericksburg in 1886, and verification leveling between the two cities by Isaac Winston in 1895. [Geodesy; Leveling.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1896 - 4. Pp. 261-264. Resulting heights from spirit leveling between Washington, D.C., and Hagerstown, Md., from observations made by Sub-assistant John B. Weir in 1883. [Geodesy; Leveling.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1896 - 5. Pp. 265-284. Resulting heights from spirit leveling between Jefferson City, Mo., and Holliday, Kans., from observations by Assistant Isaac Winston and Aid F. A. Young, in 1891. [Geodesy; Leveling.]

Preston, E.D., Appendix No. 1896 - 6. Pp. 285-291. Establishment of the United States Naval Observatory Circle, and the determination of the geographical position of the center of the clock room. [Geodesy; Astronomy.]

Kummel, C.H., Appendix No. 1896 - 7. Pp. 293-298. A new solution of the geodetic problem. [Computations; Geodesy; Triangulation.]

Putnam, G.R., Appendix No. 1896 - 9. Pp. 347-352. Field method of reducing portable transit time observations. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Time; Geophysics; Gravity.]

Preston, E.D., Appendix No. 1896 - 10. Pp. 353-371. Determination of the constant of aberration from latitude observations with the zenith telescope at Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands, and San Francisco, Cal. [Geodesy; Latitude; Astronomy.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1897 - 2. Pp. 197-258. The telegraphic longitude net of the United States and its connection with that of Europe, 1866-1896. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Longitude.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1897 - 3. Pp. 259-268. Resulting longitudes of Kadiak (Kodiak), Unalaska, and Unga, as determined chronometrically for Sitka in 1896, by the party of Fremont Morse, Assistant. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Longitude.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1897 - 4. Pp. 269-284. Resulting heights from spirit-leveling between Holliday and Salina, Kansas, from observations by I. Winston, between July 11 and October 28, 1895. [Geodesy; Leveling.]

Eimbeck, W., Appendix No. 1897 - 11. Pp. 737-752. The new duplex base apparatus of the Coast and Geodetic Survey. [Geodesy; Base Line Measurement; Instrumentation.]

Eimbeck, W., Appendix No. 1897 - 12. Pp. 753- . Report on the measurement of the Salt Lake Base Line. [Geodesy; Base Line Measurement.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1898 - 1. Pp. 183-198. Resulting heights from spirit leveling between Salina and Ellis, Kansas, from observations by Isaac Winston, Assistant, Coast and Geodetic Survey, between July 2 and September 9, 1896. Instruments; method of observing; computations; results; description of bench marks. [Geodesy; Leveling; Instrumentation; Computations.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1898 - 2. Pp. 199-218. Resulting heights from spirit leveling between Ellis, Kansas, and Hugo, Colorado, from observations by Isaac Winston, Assistant, Coast and Geodetic Survey, between June 11 and November 17, 1897. Instruments; method of observing; computations; results; description of bench marks; list of railroad stations whose elevations were determined. [Geodesy; Leveling; Instrumentation; Computations.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1898 - 3. Pp. 219-230. Resulting heights from spirit leveling between Hugo, Colorado, and Colorado Springs, Colorado, from observations by Isaac Winston, Assistant, Coast and Geodetic Survey, between April 20 and July 8, 1898. Instruments; method of observing; computations; results; description of bench marks; list of railroad stations whose elevations were determined. [Geodesy; Leveling; Instrumentation; Computations.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1898 - 4. Pp. 231-236. Inquiry into the relative value and need of a check of the Peruvian arc of 1736-1743. [Geodesy; Arc Measurement.]

Preston, E.D., Appendix No. 1898 - 6. Pp. 247-260. Report on the proceedings of the International Geodetic Association Conference at Stuttgart, Germany, October 3 to 12, 1898, and on geodetic operations in the United States. a)The general conference; International Latitude Service; gravity measures; figure of the Earth; Peruvian arc; longitude of Paris, Greenwich; scientific institutions at Berlin, Potsdam, Paris, Sevres, Southampton. b) Geodetic operations in the United States; introduction; triangulations and arcs; astronomical work; miscellaneous operations; present and future operations; work of the United States Engineers. [Geodesy; Conference.]

Hayford, J.F., Appendix No. 1898 - 7. Pp. 261-408. Determination of time, longitude, latitude, and azimuth. Part I. Determination of time by means of the transit instrument. Part II. The determination of the difference of longitude of two stations. Part III. The determination of latitude by means of the zenith telescope. Part IV. The determination of the astronomical azimuth of a direction. [Geodesy; Time; Longitude; Latitude; Azimuth; Instrumentation; Computations; Error Analysis.]

Preston, E.D., Appendix No. 1899 - 3. Pp. 245-272. The International Geodetic Association for the Measurement of the Earth. Preface. I. Origin and growth including Russian and German work, first organization, list of general conferences. II. International Geodetic Convention; III. administrative and scientific activity; IV. Proceeding of the Twelfth General Conference. [Geodesy; Conference.]

Winston, Isaac, Appendix No. 1899 - 5. Pp. 285-298. Resulting elevations from spirit leveling between Denver, Colorado, and Rock Creek, Wyoming, from observations by Isaac Winston, Assistant, between May and October, 1899. [Geodesy; Leveling.]

Tilton, B.E., Appendix No. 1899 - 6. Pp. 299-320. Resulting elevations from spirit leveling between Abilene, Kansas, and Norfolk, Nebraska, from observations by A.L. Baldwin, Assistant, and B.E. Tilton, Aid, between May 8 and October 17, 1899. [Geodesy; Leveling.]

Ferguson, O.W., Appendix No. 1899 - 7. Pp. 321-350. Resulting elevations from spirit leveling between Gibraltar, Michigan, and Cincinatti, Ohio, from observations by O. W. Ferguson, Assistant, between June 3 and November 28, 1899. [Geodesy; Leveling.]

Hayford, J. F., Appendix No. 1899 - 8. Pp. 351-886. Precise leveling in the United States. Introduction; Vicksburg, Mississippi, to Meridian, Mississippi, line; Little Rock, Arkansas, to Holliday, Kansas, line; Colorado Springs, Denver, and Limon, Colorado, line; line across Florida. Direct results of observations; acknowledgements; instruments and methods previous to 1899 in Coast and Geodetic Survey; instruments and methods, 1899, Coast and Geodetic Survey; instruments and methods, United States Engineers; other instruments and methods. The level net, general adjustment; preliminary and final adjustments; observational errors including systematic error in "old" Coast and Geodetic surveying leveling; computations for elimination of systematic errors; elevations of principal points; index of bench marks; list of precise elevations; descriptions of bench marks (this is the single largest section of this report,) new instruments to be used in 1900 and justification of changes in methods and instruments. [Geodesy; Leveling; Instrumentation; Computations; Error Analysis; Data Report.]

Sinclair, C.H., Appendix No. 1900 - 3. Pp. 263-484. The oblique boundary line between California and Nevada. Formation of California and Nevada. Early surveys bearing on the eastern boundary of California; Sitgreaves, 1852; Goddard, 1855; Joseph C. Ives, 1858-1861; D.J. F. Houghton and Butler Ives, 1863; J.S. Lawson and W. McBride, (Coast Survey) 1865; examination of archives in California and Nevada by Assistant F.W. Edmonds; D.G. Majors, 1868; A. W. Von Schmidt, 1872-73; longitude of Verdi, one hundred and twentieth meridian, George Davidson (Coast Survey). United States Coast and Geodetic Survey Line, 1893-1899; instructions to George Davidson; location of Colorado River terminus, 1893; Lake Tahoe terminus, 1893; field operations of 1894-'99; the corrected line; change of area; maps; statistics of work; appropriations, cost of survey, etc., description of the Califonia and Nevada oblique boundary; altitudes. Tables showing results in detail; description of astronomic transits; appendix; descriptions of stations on the random and corrected lines. [Geodesy; Geodetic Astronomy; Latitude; Longitude; Azimuth; Computations; Data Report; History; Boundaries.]

Schlesinger, F. and Smith, E., Appendix No. 1900 - 5. Pp. 501-524. The latitude service at Gaithersburg, Md., and Ukiah, Cal., under the auspices of the International Geodetic Association. Variations of latitude considered with special reference to the program of the International Geodetic Association; Euler's theory; early observations; recent investigations; discussion of Chandler's law; the work of the International Geodetic Association; program of observations. Description of stations, instruments, methods, etc., at Gaithersburg; location of station; the buildings; the instruments; installation of instruments and method of using; the method of observing latitude; the program of observing; the work accomplished. [Geodesy; Geodetic Astronomy; Latitude; Instrumentation.]

Baldwin, A.L., Appendix No. 1901 - 3. Pp. 229-302. On the measurement of nine base lines along the Ninety-eighth Meridian. Preface; plans for the base measures; the Massachusetts Institute Tape Apparatus. Time table; unit of length; Shelton comparator; Sequin comparator; duplex bars; thermometer corrections; field trestles in use with the duplex apparatus; discussion of results with duplex measures. Steel tape apparatus; field procedure with steel tapes; method of determining the length of steel tapes; coefficients of expansion; adopted equations of tapes. The Shelton Base; the Page Base; the Anthony Base; the El Reno Base; the Bowie Base; the Stephenville Base; the Lampasas Base; the Alice Base; the Sequin Base; summary of results. Cost of base-line measurements; speed attained with with bars and tapes; errors of duplex measures; various tape errors and corrections; conclusions. [Geodesy; Base Line Measurement; Instrumentation; Error Analysis.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1901 - 4. Pp. 303-340. Extension of tables for the computation of geodetic positions to the equator. General statement; formulae; example of computations; table of corrections to longitude for difference in arc and sine; table of log sec delta phi; formula and table for computing the spherical excess; constants; table of factors A,B,C, D, E, F. [Geodesy; Computations.]

Hayford, John F., Appendix No. 1901 - 6. Pp. 357-422. Triangulation northward along the Ninety-eighth Meridian in Kansas and Nebraska. General statement; methods and instruments used in the measurement of the horizontal angles; program of occupation of stations; adjustments; corrections to directions; accuracy as indicated by corrections to angles and closures of triangles; accord of bases and accuracy of lengths; accuracy and economy; explanation of positions, lengths, and azimuths, and of the United States Standard Datum. Index to positions, azimuths, and lengths; descriptions of stations; determination of elevations; computation, adjustment, and accuracy of the elevations; table of elevations. [Geodesy; Triangulation; Instrumentation; Computations; Error Analysis; Leveling.]

Hayford, J.F., Appendix No. 1902 - 3. Pp. 211-294. Triangulation in Kansas. General statement; methods and instruments used in the measurement of horizontal angles; program of occupation of stations; statement of adjustments; condition equations; accuracy as indicated by corrections to observed directions; accuracy as indicated by corrections to angles and closures of triangles; the accord of bases; accuracy and economy; explanation of positions, lengths and azimuths, and of the United States Standard Datum; index of positions, descriptions and elevations; table of positions, azimuths and lengths; descriptions of stations; general statement in regard to the determination of stations; computation, adjustment, and accuracy of elevations; table of elevations. [Geodesy; Triangulation; Base Line Measurement; Leveling; Computations; Instrumentation.]

Morse, F., Appendix No. 1902 - 4. Pp. 295-300. The hypsograph. [Instrumentation; Geodesy; Leveling.]

Hayford, John F., Appendix No. 1903 - 3. Pp. 189-810. Precise leveling in the United States, 1900-03, with a readjustment of the level net and resulting elevations. The new precise level; rods and rod supports; instructions for precise leveling; examples of record and computation; correction tables; statistics of new Coast and Geodetic Survey lines. Various C&GS level lines throughout the U.S.; United States Geological Survey lines; Lake Survey lines; lines fitted to the net in New York; condensed statement of direct results of observations; tests of adjustment of 1899; circuit closures; the level net adjustment of 1903; observation equations; adopted elevations of junction points; corrections applied in 1903; comparison of various adjustments; speed, cost, and accuracy of leveling with the new instrument; index to elevations and descriptions; elevations; description of bench marks; corrections to descriptions published in Appendix No. 8, Report for 1899. [Geodesy; Leveling; Instrumentation; Computations.]

Hayford, J.F., Appendix No. 1903 - 4. Pp. 811-930. Triangulation southward along the Ninety-eighth Meridian in 1902. General statement; the party of 1902; the methods of 1902; the new acetylene signal lamps; the light-keepers; the signal code; signals and their construction; the framing of the scaffold; raising the scaffold; designs of signals of various heights; advantages of the slender type of signal; list of tools; the building party of 1902; program of occupation of stations; statement of adjustments; condition equations; accuracy as indicated by corrections to observed directions; accuracy as indicated by corrections to angles and closures of bases; the accord of bases; a study of errors; accuracy and economy; explanation of positions, lengths, and azimuths, and of the United States Standard Datum; index to positions, descriptions, and elevations;table of positions, azimuths, and lengths; descriptions of stations; computation, adjustment, and accuracy of elevations; table of elevations. [Geodesy; Triangulation; Base Line; Error Analysis; Computations.]

Smith, E., Appendix No. 1904 - 4. Pp. 257-312. Telegraphic longitudes. The Pacific arcs from San Francisco to Manila, 1903-04, completing the circuit of the earth. General statement; descriptions of stations; the automatic record of cable signals; instrumental outfit; personal equation; determination of instrumental constants and chronometer corrections; San Francisco-Honolulu results of observations; Guam-Manila results of observations; Midway-Guam results of observations; Honolulu-Midway results of observations; resulting longitudes; previous determinations of longitude. (Thus finished the great work begun in the Coast Survey under Alexander Dallas Bache in the 1840's of tying the longitude of Europe to America, thence the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the United States, and with the adoption of telegraphic longitude methods by other nations, ultimately the tying together of the whole earth by a telegraphic web.) [Geodesy; Longitude; Geodetic Astronomy; Error Analysis.]

Hayford, J.F., Appendix No. 1904 - 6. Pp. 401-430. Precise leveling from Red Desert, Wyoming, to Owyhee, Idaho, 1903. Instruments and rods; results and their accuracy; various lines; rail elevations; statistics of lines; use of railroad rail as a rod support; comments on the leveling; descriptions of bench marks. [Geodesy; Leveling.]

Hayford, J.F., Appendix No. 1904 - 7. Pp. 431-450. Precise leveling from Holland to New Braunfels, Texas, 1903. Instruments and rods; results and their accuracy; results of the leveling; rail elevations; statistics of the line; comments on the leveling; descriptions of bench marks. [Geodesy; Leveling.]

Hayford, J.F., Appendix No. 1904 - 8. Pp. 451-488. A test of a transit micrometer. Theory of the transit micrometer; short history of the transit micrometer; description of the Coast and Geodetic Survey transit micrometer; principal direct results; relative personal equation; accuracy as shown by the residuals in time sets; accuracy of bisection of a star; most favorable speed of driving heads; number of records needed for each star; influence of errors of right ascension; number of nights necessary for the required degree of accuracy; summary of conclusions; literature of the transit micrometer. [Geodesy; Instrumentation; Geodetic Astronomy.]

Baldwin, A.L., Appendix No. 1904 - 9. Pp. 489-763. Triangulation in California - Part I. General statement; the primary triangulation; the unit of length; the Los Angeles base line; statement of adjustments; abstract of horizontal directions; condition equations; accuracy as indicated by corrections to observed directions; accuracy as indicated by corrections to angles and closure of triangles; the accord of the bases; treatment of the subordinate triangulation; accuracy of the subordinate triangulation; explanation of the positions, lengths and azimuths, and of the United States Datum; descriptions of stations; computation, adjustment, and accuracy of stations; table of elevations; index to positions, descriptions, and elevations. [Geodesy; Triangulation; Base Line Measurement; Computations.]

Hayford, J.F., Appendix No. 1905 - 4. Pp. 193-242. Precise leveling from Red Desert, Wyoming, to Seattle, Washington, 1903-1904. General statement; instrument and rods; first connection between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans by precise leveling; results and their accuracy; various sections of line; rail elevations; statistics of lines; comments on leveling; descriptions of bench marks. (The Coast and Geodetic Survey was instrumental in both advocating and providing the framework for the United States to adopt mean sea level as its vertical datum. The first connection from sea to sea was a milestone in this effort.) [Geodesy; Leveling.]

Hayford, J.F., Appendix No. 1905 - 5. Pp. 243-282. Triangulation along the Ninety-eighth Meridian, Lampasas to Seguin, Texas. (Although the west coast had long segments of north south triangulation which was primarily designed for controlling hydrography, the Ninety-eighth Meridian survey was the first great north-south arc designed specifically for geodetic purposes in the western hemisphere. Ultimately, it became an international effort and was completed through the United States, continued north through Canada to the Arctic Ocean and south through Mexico to the Pacific Ocean.) [Geodesy; Triangulation; Arc Measurement.]

Hayford, J.F., and Baldwin, A.L., Appendix No. 1907 - 3. Pp.67-104. The earth movements in the California earthquake of 1906. General statement; extent of new triangulation; the old triangulation; permanent displacements produced by the earthquakes of 1868 and 1906. Tables of displacements: Group I, northern part of triangulation; Group II, southern end of San Francisco Bay; Group III, vicinity of Colma; Group IV, Tomales Bay; Group V, Vicinity of Fort Ross; Group VI, Point Arena; Group VII, Southern part of primary triangulation. Summary of distribution of earth movement; discussion of assumptions; changes in elevation. (Although the Coast Survey had made many incidental measurements in the earth-quake prone region of California before and after major earthquakes including the Fort Tejon earthquake of 1857, this represented the first time that it conducted a geodynamic study solely for the purpose of determining regional earth movements.) [Geodesy; Triangulation; Geophysics; Seismology.]

French, O. B., Appendix No. 1907 - 4. Pp. 105-156. General statement; party organization; time table; apparatus; invar tapes; comparator at the Bureau of Standards; determination of length of iced bar; methods of standardization of tapes at the Bureau of Standards; coefficients of expansion of tapes; lengths of invar tapes; Point Isabel comparator; Royalton comparator; methods of field standardization; lengths of steel tapes; check field determinations of invar tapes; field procedures; Point Isabel base line; Willamette base line; Tacoma base line; Stephen base line; Brown Valley base line; Royalton base line; summary of results; cost of base measurement; speed attained; errors of tape measures, temperature errors; conclusions. (This paper continues tracing the evolution of distance measuring devices from the cumbersome base bar apparatuses of Hassler, Bache, Eimbeck, etc., through steel tapes and invar tapes. Steel tapes, which were introduced in the late 1800's for precise geodetic surveying, had high coefficients of expansion and were used during the more stable night-time temperature hours for base line measurement. Invar was a material with a very low coefficient of expansion which allowed the measurement of bases during the day. Distance measurement techniques did not experience another major improvement until post-World War II with the modification of electronic aircraft navigation systems for precise distance measurement.) [Geodesy; Base Line Measurement; Instrumentation; Methods.]

Bowie, W., Appendix No. 1910 - 4. Pp. 143-172. Primary base lines at Stanton, Texas, and Deming, New Mexico. General statement; methods used; standardization of tapes. Stanton and Deming base lines: size of parties; divisions of the bases; apparatus used; setting stakes and measuring; wind effect on tapes; equations of tapes;reduction to sea level; results of the measurement; probable errors; cost of the bases. Summary of tape values; conclusions. [Geodesy; Base Line Measurement; Instrumentation; Error Analysis.]

Duvall, C.R., and Baldwin, A.L., Appendix No. 1910 - 5. Pp. 173-430. Triangulation in California, Part II. General statement; primary and secondary triangulation executed in 1906-1907; tertiary triangulation in the vicinity of Colma, Tomales Bay, Fort Ross, and Point Arena -- 1906-1907. Old triangulation and the earthquake of 1906; earthquake of 1868; triangulation from Monterey Bay to San Francisco Bay, 1851-1895; triangulation from Golden Gate to Point Arena, 1854-1891; triangulation from Point Arena to Shelter Cove, 1870-1897; triangulation from Shelter Cove to Trinidad Head, 1854-1872. Inland peaks and astronomic stations; adjustment of the subordinate triangulation; United States Standard Datum; lengths; tables of geographic positions, azimuths, and lengths; latitudes, longitudes, azimuths, and lengths corrected for the 1906 earthquake; positions corrected for earthquake movements; descriptions of stations; elevations; index to geographic positions, descriptions, sketches, and elevations. [Geodesy; Triangulation; Data Report; Geophysics; Seismology.]

Bowie, W., Appendix No. 1911 - 4. Pp. 159-342. Triangulation along the Ninety-eighth Meridian, Nebraska to Canada, and connection with the Great Lakes. General statement; reconnaissance; progress of observing; light keepers; general instructions to chiefs of observing parties; methods of observing; program of occupation of stations; statement of costs; adjustments in latitude, longitude, and azimuth. Condition equations; accuracy as indicated by corrections to observed directions; accuracy as indicated by corrections to angles and closures of triangles; accord of bases; accord of azimuths. Study of errors; accuracy of primary triangulation in the United States; explanation of positions, lengths, and azimuths, and of the United States Standard Datum; tables of positions; descriptions of stations; computation, adjustment, and accuracy of elevations; elevations; index to positions, descriptions, sketches, and elevations; sketches. [Geodesy; Triangulation; Base Line Measurement; Latitude; Longitude; Azimuths; Computations; Error Analysis.]

Baldwin, A.L., Appendix No. 1911 - 5. Pp. 343-414. Triangulation along the Ninety-eighth Meridian, Sequin to Point Isabel, Texas. General statement; program of observations; adjustments; condition equations; accuracy as indicated by corrections to observed directions, as indicated by corrections to angles, and as indicated by closures of triangles; the accord of bases; accord in azimuth; errors; cost; explanation of positions, lengths, and azimuths, and of the United States Standard Datum; tables of positions; descriptions of stations; computation, adjustment, and accuracy of elevations; elevations; index to positions, descriptions, sketches, and elevations; sketches. [Geodesy; Triangulation; Base Line Measurement; Latitude; Longitude; Azimuths; Computations; Error Analysis.]

Mitchell, H. C., Appendix No. 1911 - 6. Pp. 415-579. Triangulation along the east coast of Florida, and on the Florida Keys. General statement; the triangulation; adjustment of triangulation; the United States Standard Datum; tables of positions, azimuths, and lengths; descriptions of stations; index to positions, descriptions, and sketches; sketches. [Geodesy; Triangulation; Base Line Measurement; Latitude; Longitude; Azimuth; Computations; Error Analysis.]

GEOLOGY

Agassiz, L., Appendix No. 1851 - 10. Pp. 145-160. Florida reefs, keys, and coast. Topography of Florida; mode of formation of the reef; animal life; the keys; coral reefs; ship channel; the mainland; coast survey; physical changes in the Gulf Stream; changes in ages to come. [Geology; Topography; Marine Biology; Hydrography.]

Blake, W.P., Appendix No. 1855 - 65. Pp. 376-398. Geological report, western coast. Observations on the physical geography and geology of the coast of California, from Bodega Bay to San Diego; physical geography of the mountain ranges adjoining the coast; geology of the principal bays and ports from Point Reyes to San Diego. [Geology; Geographic Exploration.]

Gibbs, W., Appendix No. 1856 - 64. Pp. 318-319. Analysis of sands from base-sites near east and south coasts of Florida. Examination of specimens of sand taken from the base-sites at Cape Florida and Cape Sable. [Geology; Miscellaneous.]

Lieber, O.M., Appendix No. 1860 - 42. Pp. 402-408. Geology of the coast of Labrador. [Geology.]

Agassiz, L., Appendix No. 1866 - 19. Pp. 120-130. Florida reefs, keys, and coast. Topography of Florida; mode of formation of the reef; animal life; the keys; coral reefs; ship channel; the mainland; coast survey; physical changes in the Gulf Stream; changes in ages to come. [Geology; Topography; Marine Biology; Hydrography.]

Agassiz, L., Appendix No. 1867 - 17. Pp. 183-186. Geological and zoological researches; their relations and general interests in the development of coastal features. [Geology; Marine Biology; Topography; Hydrography.]

Shaler, N.S., Appendix No. 1870 - 19. Pp. 182-189. On the phosphate beds of South Carolina. [Geology.]

Mitchell, H., Appendix No. 1877 - 8. Pp. 98-103. Alleged changes in the relative elevations of land and sea. Salt marshes; rocks; Perce Rock, Isle Perce; Green Ledge; Mary Ann Rocks; Bulwark Shoal; Drunken Ledge; Brazil Rock; Jig Rock; Trinity Ledge; Harding's Ledge; Great Ledge. [Geology; Oceanography; Hydrography; Topography; Shoreline Changes.]

Little, G., Appendix No. 1880 - 12. Pp. 145-171. Blue clay of the Mississippi River. List of authorities; geological history of the Mississippi River; southern drift; bluff or loess; loess or loam; the Mississippi bottoms; Port Hudson; water; soils I to V, analysis; summary; Sections 1 to 44; formations, sections, and localities tabulated. [Geology.]

GEOPHYSICS

Gerdes, F.H., Appendix No. 1845 - 3. Pp. 41-43. Remarks on the currents in Mississippi Sound and changes in the magnetic variation. [Oceanography; Currents; Magnetism]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1854 - 43. Pp. 142-145. Table of magnetic declination. Results of Coast Survey magnetic observations at 136 stations along the coast of the United States. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report.]

Trowbridge, W.P., Appendix No. 1855 - 34. Pp. 223-227. Report on the tidal and magnetic observations under his charge on the Western coast. [Oceanography; Tides; Geophysics; Magnetism.]

Bache, A.D. and Hilgard, J.E., Appendix No. 1855 - 47. Pp. 295-306. Table of magnetic declinations in geographical order from Coast Survey observations. Discussion of magnetic declination: (1) Northern part of the Gulf of Mexico; (2) Atlantic coast; (3) Pacific coast. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1855 - 48. Pp. 306-337. (1717-1855) Secular variation in the magnetic declination. Discussion of the secular change in the magnetic declination at sixteen locations on the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of the United States and Havana, Cuba. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report; History.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1855 - 49. P. 337. (1855) Magnetic observations. Results for declination, dip, and horizontal intensity, at sixteen eastern stations, July to September, 1855. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1855 - 51. Pp. 342-346. Earthquake waves, Pacific Ocean. Notice of earthquake waves observed on newly installed self-registering tide gauges on the western coast of the United States; December 23 and 25, 1854; computation of ocean depth. (This remarkable appendix derives a relatively accurate oceanic depth between Japan and the Pacific coast of the United States. Bache computed tsunami velocities as well as depth of the ocean. Without the new technology of the self-registering tide gauge, the necessary observations would not have been made.) [Oceanography; Tides; Geophysics; Seismology.]

Bache, A.D.and Hilgard, J.E., Appendix No. 1856 - 28. Pp. 209-225. (1839-1855.) Terrestrial magnetism. A. D. Bache and J.E. Hilgard. Discussion relative to its distribution in the United States. Methods and sources used; corrections for secular variation; construction of maps; comparison of maps for declination, dip, and intensity; supplementary note on Mexican observations; Table I, Atlantic Gulf and Pacific coast sections; Table II, near parallel 35o, Whipple's expedition; III, from various new sources -- lakes, territories, Panama; IV, residual differences between the Coast Survey observations, reduced to 1850, and the values obtained from the accompanying map. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1856 - 29. P. 226. Magnetic observations. Methods used in observations of the present year; Magnet H. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Instrumentation.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1856 - 30. P. 227. (1856.) Magnetic elements. Results of observations for declination, dip, and intensity at stations in Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1856 - 31. Pp. 228-235. (1792-1855.) Secular change of declination; Western coast. List of magnetic declinations observed on the western coast from the earliest to the present ones, arranged in order of geographical latitudes. Annual change at San Diego, San Pedro, Monterey, San Francisco, Cape Mendocino, and Cape Disappointment. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report; History.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1856 - 32. Pp. 235-245. (1780-1855.) Secular change of inclination; at eleven Atlantic coast locations from Cambridge, Massachusetts, to Baltimore, Maryland. Also includes data from Toronto, Canada. Includes: geographical positions and number of dip observations; formula for each station; probable error, epoch of minimum dip, and annual variation in current year. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report; Error Analysis; Computations; History.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1856 - 33. Pp. 246-249. (1790-1855.) Secular change of inclination; Western coast. Approximate determination of the secular change of inclination determined at San Diego, San Pedro, Monterey, San Francisco, Cape Mendocino, and Cape Disappointment. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report; History.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1857 - 32. Pp. 334-342. Magnetism. Reports upon the gradual loss of magnetism of the several magnets in use in the Survey of the Coast. Account of magnets: S 8, C 32, C 9, D, C 6, H, and Smithsonian magnet used in 1855. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Instrumentation.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1858 - 24. Pp. 191-192. Magnetic elements. Continuation of Appendix No. 1856 - 28. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1858 - 25. Pp. 192-195. (1680-1850.) Secular variation of magnetic declination at Hatboro, Pa. Discussion and development of an intermediate period. Table of declinations from 1680 to 1850. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1858 - 26. Pp. 195-197. (1809-1857.) Secular variation at Washington, D.C. Declination from 1809 to 1857. Dip from 1839 to 1858. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1859 - 16. Pp. 172-175. Variation of the compass. General table for the use of navigators. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1859 - 22. Pp. 278-295. Discussion of the magnetic and meteorological observations made at the Girard College Observatory, Philadelphia, in 1841, 1842, 1843, 1844, and 1845. Part I. Investigation of the eleven-year period in the amplitude of the solar-diurnal variation and of the disturbances of the magnetic declination; Introduction; separation of disturbances and establishment of normal readings of the declinometer; analytical expressions of the regular solar-diurnal variation of the declination; inequality of the amplitude due to the eleven (or ten) year period; discussion of the number of disturbances of the declination and their annual inequality; diurnal inequality of the number of disturbances of the declination; deflections by disturbances with their mean annual and diurnal amount, and effect of the eleven (or ten) year period; Connection of the frequency of solar spots with the changes in the amplitude of the diurnal variation of the declination. (Over the next five years, Bache would publish a total of twelve reports on the observations of the Girard College Magnetic Observatory. Bache's observatory at Girard College was the first permanent magnetic observatory in the United States.) [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1859 - 23. P. 296. (1859.) Declination, dip, and intensity. Results of observations made by Schott in Canada, Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, and Connecticut. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1859 - 24. Pp. 296-305. (1680-1860.) Secular change in declination. Variation of the needle on the coasts of the United States for every tenth year since 1680; formulas expressing secular change, used for calculating the tabular values for stations between Portland, Maine, and Williamsburg, Virginia, with table of observations made between 1680 and 1860; southern and western coast stations -- record of all observed declinations made use of and not previously published in Coast Survey reports. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Computations; Data Report.]

Schott, C.A. and Goodfellow, E., Appendix No. 1860 - 21. Pp. 268-271. (1860.) Edward Goodfellow and Charles A. Schott. Eclipse expedition to Aulezavik Island, Labrador. Report on the determination of the magnetic elements by Edward Goodfellow, Assistant, with notes by Charles A. Schott, Assistant. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1860 - 23. Pp. 293-312. Discussion of the magnetic and meteorological observations made at the Girard College Observatory, 1841-1845. Part II, investigation of the solar-diurnal variation in the magnetic declination, and its annual inequality; the solar-diurnal semi-annual inequality; analytical and graphical exhibition of the solar-diurnal variation for each month, summer, winter, and year; maxima and minima, and times of average value of declination; diurnal range; annual variation of the declination. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1860 - 24. Pp. 312-324. Discussion of the magnetic and meteorological observations made at the Girard College Observatory, 1841-1845. Part III, investigation of the influence of the moon on the magnetic declination; lunar influence on the declination with tabular results according to the moon's hour angle; comparison of lunar-diurnal variation for three epochs; resulting lunar-diurnal variation; inequality in the lunar-diurnal variation; investigation of deflections depending upon lunar phases, variation in declination and in parallax. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1860 - 25. Pp. 324-326. Solar spots. Report of Assistant C. A. Schott on the results of observations made during the first seven months of the year 1860. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Solar Activity.]

Trowbridge, W.P., Appendix No. 1860 - 26. Pp. 326-349. Key West magnetic station. Description of instruments and plan of magnetic observatory; with results. Declinometer, recording cylinder and clock; vertical force magnetometer; adjustments; mean daily range of temperature for each month, 1851, 1852, and monthly range for four years; mean monthly temperature for fourteen years; lamps; scale measurements; temperature coefficients of the horizontal and vertical forces of magnets; photographic arrangements; magnet H -- axis and intensity; dip; scale values for intensity magnets -- tables and computation; experiments for temperature coefficients of horizontal-force magnet, with hot water and ice. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Instrumentation; Meteorology.]

Pourtales, L. F. , Appendix No. 1860 - 27. Pp. 350-351. Eastport station, Maine. General description of magnetic station. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Instrumentation.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1860 - 28. Pp. 351-352. Declination, dip, and intensity at various stations. Supplementary to Appendix No. 1856 - 30 and Appendix No. 1858 - 24. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1860 - 29. P. 352. Declination, dip, and intensity, determined in 1860 on the coasts of Massachusetts, Long Island, and New Jersey. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1861 - 22. Pp. 242-251. Secular change of intensity. Discussion of observations made on the Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific coasts of the United States; intensity statistics; notes; table of annual changes for Atlantic and Pacific groups. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1861 - 23. Pp. 251-256. New discussion of the distribution of the magnetic declination on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico, with a chart of the isogonic curves for 1860. [Geophysics; Magnetism.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1861 - 24. Pp. 256-259. New discussion of the distribution of the magnetic declination on the coasts of Virginia, South Carolina, and Georgia, with a chart of the isogonic curves for 1860. [Geophysics; Magnetism.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1861 - 25. Pp. 259-261. Solar spots. Abstract of observations made at the Coast Survey office, Washington, D.C.; table from August 1860, to December 1861, and monthly relative numbers compared to Wolf's revised numbers; spotless days. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Solar Activity.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1862 - 15. Pp. 161-185. Discussion of the magnetic and meteorological observations made at the Girard College Observatory, 1841-1845. Part IV, investigation of the eleven (or ten) year period and of the disturbances of the horizontal component of the magnetic force. Instrumental notice; correction for readings for changes of temperature; scale values; correction for progressive instrumental change; hourly normals for each month; horizontal intensity, absolute value, effect of the loss of magnetism of the bar, secular change; separation of the large disturbances; corrected normals; investigation of the eleven (or ten) year period , from changes of amplitude of the solar-diurnal variation; eleven (or ten) year inequality as indicated by the disturbances; analysis of the disturbances, annual and diurnal variation; classification of the disturbances according to their magnitude. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1862 - 16. Pp. 186-200. Discussion of the magnetic and meteorological observations made at the Girard College Observatory, 1841-1845. Part V, investigation of the solar-diurnal variation and of the annual inequality of the horizontal component of the magnetic force. Preparation of hourly normals foreach month; regular solar-diurnal variation; semiannual inequality in the diurnal variation; analysis of the solar-diurnal variation; epochs of maxima and minima, amplitude, epochs of averagevalue; annual variation of the force. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1862 - 17. Pp. 202-212. Discussion of the magnetic and meteorological observations made at the Girard College Observatory, 1841-1845. Part VI, influence of the moon on the magnetic horizontal force. Number of observations for lunar discussion and their distribution according to western and eastern hour angles of the moon, differences for monthly normals, arranged for moon's hour angles; lunar-diurnal variation for two periods; lunar-diurnal variation in summer and winter; analysis of the lunar-diurnal variation; investigation of the horizontal force in reference to lunar phase; influence of the moon's changes of ceclination; influence of the moon's distance. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1862 - 18. P. 212. Results for declination, dip, and horizontal intensity in Pennsylvania, the District of Columbia, and in New York. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1862 - 19. Pp. 212-229. Abstract of results of a magnetic survey of Pennsylvania and parts of adjacent states in 1840 and 1841, with some additional results of 1843 and 1862. Declinations observed by Bache in 1840 and 1841; tabular comparison of secular changes in 1840, 1841, and 1862; chronometric results for longitude; geographical positions; distribution of cdeclination for 1842.0; general table of results referred to common epoch, 1842.0; comparison of observed and computed values;distribution of dip and isoclinal lines for 1842; correction to epoch; comparison of observed and computed dip; horizontal intensity and isodynamic lines for 1842; tabular formation of groups for the analytical expression of the distribution of horizontal force referred to 1842.0; comparison of obseved and hypothetical computed values; representation of the total force. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report; Computations.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1862 - 20. Pp. 230-231. Declination, dip, and intensity at various stations (supplementary to lists given in Annual Reports of 1856, 1858, and Appendix 1860 - 28.) [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Reports.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1862 - 21. Pp. 231-232. Solar spots. Abstract of observations made at the Coast Survey office from January to August, 1862. Supplementary to those published in 1861. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Solar Activity; Data Report.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1862 - 22. Pp. 232-235. Bessel's periodic functions developed for periods frequently occurring in magnetic and meteorological investigations, with examples. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Meteorology; Computations.]

Hilgard, J.E., Appendix No. 1862 - 23. Pp. 236-238. Dipping needle. Description of a new form of axis, changeable in position. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Instrumentation.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1862 - 24. Pp. 238-241. Earthquake waves. Reprinted from Appendix No. 1855 - 21. [Oceanography; Seismology.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1863 - 19. Pp. 156-183. Discussion of the magnetic and meteorological observations made at the Girard College Observatory, 1841-1845. Part VII, investigation of the eleven-year period and of the disturbances of the vertical component of the magnetic force, with a supplement on the effect of auroral lights. Instrumental notice; determination of the effect of changes of temperature , scale values, reduction of observations to a uniform temperature; recognition and separation of the larger disturbances; the eleven year period investigated relative to changes in the amplitude of the diurnal variation; investigation of eleven year period from changes in the disturbances and their general analysis; annual inequality in the number and amount of disturbances; diurnal inequality of the disturbances; classification of the disturbances according to their magnitude; effect of the aurora borealis on the declination, the horizontal and vertical force. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report; Instrumentation.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1863 - 20. Pp. 183-195. Discussion of the magnetic and meteorological observations made at the Girard College Observatory, 1841-1845. Part VIII, investigation of the solar-diurnal variation and of the annual irregularity of the vertical component of the magnetic force. Preparation of hourly normals for each month and year; regular solar diurnal variation; analysis of the diurnal variation; maxima and minima, ranges, epochs of average force; annual inequality of the vertical force. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1863 - 21. Pp. 196-204. Discussion of the magnetic and meteorological observations made at the Girard College Observatory, 1841-1845. Part IX, investigation of the influence of the moon on the magnetic vertical force. Number of observations for lunar discussion, distribution according to eastern and western hour-angles, differences from monthly normals arranged for moon's hour-angles; lunar diurnal variation in summer and winter; analysis of the lunar diurnal variation of the vertical force; lunar effect upon inclination and total force. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report.]

Schott, C.A. and Dean, G.W., Appendix No. 1863 - 22. P. 204. Results for the magnetic declination, dip, and intensity, from observations by C. A. Schott and G. W. Dean in Maine, Connecticut, and the District of Columbia. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1864 - 16. Pp. 183-190. Discussion of the magnetic and meteorological observations made at the Girard College Observatory, 1841-1845. Part X, analysis of the disturbances of the dip and total force. Formation of table of disturbances of the two component parts and their combination for dip and total force; analysis of disturbances of the inclination; annual inequality in amount and number; eleven-year inequality in amount and number; diurnal inequalities, amount and number; analysis of disturbances of total force; amount and number of annual inequalities and eleven -year inequalities; diurnal inequalities in amount and number; classification of disturbances in total force. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1864 - 17. Pp. 191-199. Discussion of the magnetic and meteorological observations made at the Girard College Observatory, 1841-1845. Part XI, solar diurnal variation and annual inequality of the inclination and total force. Combination of the diurnal normals of the two components for dip and total force; solar diurnal variation of the inclination and its semi-annual inequality; analysis of the solar diurnal variation of the dip; maxima and minima, ranges and epochs of average value; solar diurnal variation of the total force and its semi-annual inequality; analysis of the solar diurnal variation of the total force; annual inequality of the dip and total force. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1864 - 18. Pp. 199-204. Discussion of the magnetic and meteorological observations made at the Girard College Observatory, 1841-1845. Part XII, discussion of the magnetic inclination and table of absolute values of the declination, inclination, and intensity between 1841 and 1845. Discussion of the magnetic inclination; abstract of observation of dip and monthly means; collection of dip observations at Philadelphia; analytical expression of secular change of dip normal; absolute values of the magnetic declination, dip, horizontal, vertical, and total force for five epochs, and the mean epoch, January, 1843. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report; Computations.]

Appendix No. 1864 - 18. Pp. 205-206. Index to Girard College observations. (This is an addenda to Appendix No. 1864 - 18. Apparently, this appendix was the last professional work of Alexander Dallas Bache prior to developing the debilitating illness that led to his death in early 1867.) [Geophysics; Magnetism; Index.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1864 - 19. Pp. 207-210. Results of magnetic observations made in the United States by Professor J.N. Nicollet between 1832 and 1836. (Nicollet made expeditions to the upper Great Plains with John Charles Fremont during this period. He was also a personal friend of Ferdinand Hassler, first superintendent of the Coast Survey.) [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report; History.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1865 - 18. Pp. 166-174. Results of magnetic observations made at Eastport, Maine, between 1860 and 1864. Diurnal range of declination; annual inequality; epochs of greatest diurnal deflection; mean monthly values of declination between August, 1860, and July, 1864; annual effect of the secular change; annual inequality of the declination; comparison to similar data at Toronto observatory. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1865 - 19. Pp. 174-176. Report on the distribution of the magnetic declination on the coast and parts of the interior of the United States. Isogonic chart for 1870. [Geophysics; Magnetism.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1869 - 9. Pp. 199-207. Report on the results from the observations made at the magnetic observatory on Capitol Hill, Washington, D.C., between 1867 and 1869. Magnetic instruments; scheme of observing; instrumental constants; results; declination on Capitol Hill; turning epochs; dip; horizontal force; tabular synopsis of magnetic elements observed in the District of Columbia. [ Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report; Instrumentation.]

Hilgard, J.E., Appendix No. 1869 - 13. Pp. 233-234. Abstract of a paper read before the National Academy of Sciences, April 16, 1869, on the earthquake wave of August 18, 1868. [Geophysics; Seismology.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1870 - 14. Pp. 107-110. New investigation of the secular changes in the declination, dip, and intensity of the magnetic force at Washington, D.C. [Geophysics; Magnetism.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1870 - 15. Pp. 111-114. Results of the observations for daily variation of the magnetic declination, made at Fort Steilacoom, Washington Territory, in 1866 and at Camp Date Creek, Arizona, in 1867, by David Walker, acting assistant surgeon, U.S.A., and discussed and reported by Assistant C.A. Schott. [Geophysics; Magnetism.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1872 - 14. Pp. 235-254. Magnetic observations by means of portable instruments. (1) Determination of the magnetic declination; adjustment of the declinometer; example of scale reading; magnetic declination; example; (2) absolute and relative measures of the magnetic force; the magnetometer; observations of deflections; horizontal intensity; deflections; form 1; magnetometer with attached theodolite; deflecting magnet in the magnetic prime vertical: form 2; theodolite magnetometer; deflecting and deflected magnets at right angles to each other; observations of oscillations; example; calculation; example of observation of deflections; (3) determination of the magnetic declination; reversal of poles of dipping needles; magnetic dip; specimen of record for finding magnetic meridian; magnetic dip; computation. Appendix includes ordinary adjustments of theodolite. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Instrumentation; Computations.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1874 - 8. Pp. 72-108. Secular change of magnetic declination in the United States and other parts of North America; new discussion. Collection of magnetic declinations from over fifty locations from York Factory on Hudson's Bay to Panama, thence to Alaska and the Kamchatka Peninsula in Asia; table of empirical expressions for magnetic declination; comparison of magnetic declination observed and computed; table of number of observations at each location; table of decennial values of the magnetic declination. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1874 - 9. Pp. 109-130. Magnetic observations, Key West, Florida. Monthly results for magnetic declination, 1860-1866; annual effect of the secular change of declination; annual variation of the declination; observed annual variation of the declination at stations near the Atlantic seaboard; monthly values for magnetic dip at Key West; annual effect of the secular change in dip; monthly values of horizontal intensity at Key West; annual effect of secular change in horizontal intensity; annual variation in the horizontal intensity; general table of results from absolute measures of the magnetic declination, dip, and intensity; differential measures of changes in magnetic declination from the Brooke magnetographs at Key West, 1860-1866; monthly means of hourly readings from the photographic traces of the fixed declination at Key West; monthly means of declinometer readings; permanency of detorsion in the suspension skein; discussion of the disturbances of the magnetic declination; monthly normals of the hourly reading of the declinometer at Key West; mean monthly normals of hourly readings from observations extending over six years; number of disturbances during six successive years; distribution of disturbances in the yearly period; in the daily period; average magnitude of disturbances during successive years; in the yearly period; in the daily period; solar diurnal variation in the magnetic declination at Key West for the epoch 1863.3; the same between 1860 and 1866; the same at Philadelphia for the epoch 1842.5; characteristic features of the daily variation; eleven-year inequality in the solar diurnal variation; mean annyual normals of hourly readings of the declinometer for six years, 1860-1866, at Key West; mean annual normal deflections at each hour. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report; Instrumentation.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1875 - 16. Pp. 254-278. Terrestrial magnetism. Instructions for magnetical observations. Reprinted from Appendix No. 1872 -14. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Instrumentation; Computations.]

Appendix No. 1876 - 15. Pp. 292-337. Measurements of gravity at initial stations in America and Europe. Stations: Geneva, Paris, Berlin, Kew, Hoboken; instruments; observations of the duration of an oscillation; corrections 1 to 12; correction for rate of timekeeper; Paris meridian clock; Stand und Gang von Serffert, 1876, April 15 - June 16; Kew; comparison of chronometers; Hoboken; table of instrumental constants; comparison of chronometers; instrumental constants; rates of chronometers; correction for arc; tables showing times of reading half amplitudes; table of decrement of arc from 1o 10'; diminution of arc; decrement of pendulum arc, Hoboken, N.J., times of reaching different amplitudes; reduction to a vacuum; coefficient of expansion; comparison of meters "A" and "49"; correction for wearing of knife-edges; correction for slip of the knife-edges; correction for shorter length with heavy end up; for flexure of the support; length of the pendulum; on the tenths of millimeters at the end of the United States Coast Survey pendulum meter, and on the screw revolutions of the Repsold vertical comparator; value of the screw revolutions of the upper microscope; of the lower microscope; results of observations of length; summary of results of comparison of lengths between the standard meter "49" and others; comparison of Prussian and United States pendulum standards, 1875; concluded length of the pendulum; center of mass; periods of oscillation and values of gravity; length of seconds pendulum at Geneva; tables of experiments, Paris, 1876, Berlin, Kew, Hoboken, N.J. (This paper established Charles S. Peirce as a scientist of note and the United States as a leader in gravity research.) [Geophysics; Gravity; Error Analysis; Instrumentation; Computations.]

Appendix No. 1876 - 15. P. 410-416. Addendum to Appendix No. 15. Tables showing the modes of reducing the experiments. [Geophysics; Gravity.]

Hilgard, J.E., Appendix No. 1876 - 21. P. 400-401. Chart of magnetic declination in the United States, 1875. [Geophysics; Magnetism.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1877 - 7. Pp. 96-97. Magnetic observatory at Madison, Wisconsin. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Instrumentation.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1879 - 9. Pp. 124-174. Secular change of magnetic declination in the United States and at some foreign stations. (Fourth edition. Contains many more stations in the interior of North America than earlier works.) [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report; History.]

Peirce, B., Appendix No. 1879 - 14. P. 201. Internal constitution of the earth. [Geophysics.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1880 - 19. Pp. 412-417. Variations of the compass off the Bahama Islands at the time of the landfall of Columbus in 1492. Remarks on the early use of the compass; at the time of Columbus; reckoning time; notes on the voyages of Columbus; line of no variation; corrections to the agonic line; track of Columbus across the Atlantic in 1492 in tabular form. [Geophysics; Magnetism; History.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1881 - 8. Pp. 126-158. Directions for magnetic observations with portable instruments. (Third and enlarged edition, with 4 plates.) Introductory remarks; selection of stations; I, determination of the magnetic declination; definition; finding the true meridian; adjustment of the theodolite and alt-azimuth instrument; formulae for determining azimuth and time; examples of record, and reductions from sun observations and from observations on Polaris; adjustment of the declinometer and magnetometer; observations for magnetic axis and scale values, with examples; table of solar diurnal variation of the declination at Toronto, Canada, at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and at Key West, Florida; tables of times and azimuths of Polaris at elongation, for the use of surveyors in determining the true meridian; observations for magnetic declination; II, determination of magnetic inclination; description of the instrument; adjustment of the dip circle; reversal of poles of dipping needles; observations for inclination or dip, with example; observations for dip by means of a loaded needle (the Mayer Method), with example of record and reduction; determination of the total relative intensity by means of the dip circle in connection with deflecting weights, as devised by Rev. H. Lloyd, with formulae and example; determination of relative total intensity by means of the dip circle, combining deflections by gravity and magnetism, by Dr. Lloyd's method, with formulae and example; III, absolute and relative measures of the magnetic force; units of measure of the magnetic force; description and use of the magnetometer; observations of deflections, with examples of record and deductions; determination of magnetic constants; observations of oscillations, with example of record and reduction; corrections for inequality of temperature; example of observations of deflection for value of q (temperature coefficient); introduction of absolute for relative values of the horizontal force, as determined by oscillations alone; concluding remarks; formulas for total force; constants for the conversion of intensity into different units; list of standard works on magnetism; illustrations of the different forms of magnetometers, and of the Kew dip circle. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Instrumentation; Computations.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1881 - 9. Pp. 159-224. Terrestrial magnetism. Collection of results for declination, dip, and intensity, from observations made by the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey between 1833 and 1882. Introductory remarks; explanation of the tables of magnetic results; tables of magnetic results arranged by States and Territories in alphabetical order, with a table headed "Foreign Countries," ending with a description of stations, arranged in the same order. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report.]

Peirce, C.S., Appendix No. 1881 - 14. Pp. 359-441. On the flexure of pendulum supports. [Geophysics; Gravity; Error Analysis.]

Peirce, C.S., Appendix No. 1881 - 15. Pp. 442-456. On the deduction of the ellipticity of the earth, from pendulum experiments. [Geodesy; Geophysics; Gravity.]

Peirce, C.S., Appendix No. 1881 - 16. Pp. 457-460. On a method of observing the coincidence of vibrations of two pendulums. [Geophysics; Gravity; Instrumentation.]

Peirce, C.S., Appendix No. 1881 - 17. Pp. 461-463. On the value of gravity at Paris. [Geophysics; Gravity.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1882 - 12. Pp. 211-276. On the secular variation of the magnetic declination in the United States and at some foreign stations. (Fifth Edition, November, 1882.) Introductory remarks; solar-diurnal variation; annual variation; lunar inequalities; secular variation; magnetic disturbances; historical note; the declination; isogonic charts; the secular variation of the declination; analytical expression of the secular variation of the magnetic declination; collection of magnetic declinations, observed at various places in the United States and at some foreign stations, from the earliest to the present time; Table I, formulae expressing the magnetic declination at various places and for any time within the limits of observation, deduced from the preceding results; Table Ib, expressions for the magnetic declination at subordinate stations; Table II, comparison of observed and computed magnetic declinations; Table III, annual change of the declination and other data; graphic representations of secular variation at San Francisco, Baltimore, and Paris; showing the position of the agonic line for 1790 and 1885, and annual change of the magnetic declination for the epoch 1885; chart of the secular change in the position of the agonic line of the North Atlantic between 1500 and 1900; Table IV, decennial values of the magnetic declination. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report; Computations; History.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1882 - 13. Pp. 277-328. Distribution of the magnetic declination in the United States at the epoch, January, 1885, with three isogonic charts and one plate. Prefatory remarks; method of forming tables of observed magnetic declinations and corresponding values referred to epoch, January, 1885; a chart showing disturbed isogonics; table of results for Alaska, formed with a view of expressing the declination to 1885 in a function of the latitude and the longitude; dixcussion by Lloyd's formula; table of magnetic declinations, for the most part observed in the present century, reduced to the epoch, January 1, 1885, which forms the basis for the construction of three isogonic charts of the United States. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report.]

Blair, H.W., Appendix No. 1882 - 14. Pp. 329-426. Records and results of magnetic observations made at the charge of the 'Bache Fund" of the National Academy of Sciences, from 1871 to 1876. Executed under the direction of J. E. Hilgard; data collected and abstract prepared by H. W. Blair. Prefatory remarks; magnetic survey 1871-'76; description of stations; declinations for 1871-'76; table of declinations; horizontal intensity for 1871-'76; method of observing; tables of results for horizontal intensity; table of general results for dip, declination, and intensity; summary of results for 1871-1876. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1882 - 22. Pp. 503-516. Report of a conference on gravity determinations. [Geophysics; Gravity.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1883 - 13. Pp. 323-365. Account and results of magnetic observations made under the direction of the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Signal Office, at the U.S. Polar Station, Ooglaamie, Point Barrow, Alaska, Lieutenant P. Henry Ray, Army Signal Office, commanding post. Part I, introduction; instructions and notes for the guidance of observers to be stationed at Point Barrow, Alaska, and at Lady Franklin Bay, north of Smith Sound, Arctic Ocean, with a plan for magnetic house for Point Barrow; memorandum furnished Point Barrow relief party, with plan for new observatory; notes on the mounting; the adjustment and the determination of instrumental constants of the Brooke differential magnetometers; (1) the declination or unifilar magnetometer, (2) the horizontal force or bifilar magnetometer, (3) the vertical force or balance magnetometer; geographical position of Ooglaamie. Alaska; Part II, absolute measures; monthly values of themagnetic declination, dip, and intensity at Ooglaamie, December, 1881, to August, 1883; Part III, differential measures; hourly variations of the declination, horizontal, and vertical intensities, with bi-monthly term-day readings, December, 1881, to August, 1883; adjustments of the Brooke declinometer; solar -diurnal variation of the declination, inclusive of the disturbances, with a graphical representation; separation of the larger magnetic variations or so-called disturbances and their discussion; the bifilar magnetometer. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report; Instrumentation.]

Preston, E.D., Appendix No. 1883 - 17. Determinations of gravity and other observations made in connection with Solar Eclipse Expedition, May, 1883, to Caroline Island. [Geophysics; Gravity; Astronomy.]

Peirce, C.S., Appendix No. 1883 - 19. Pp. 473-486. Determinations of gravity at Allegheny, Ebensburg, and York, Pa, in 1879 and 1880. [Geophysics; Gravity.]

Smith, E., Appendix No. 1884 - 14. Pp. 439-473. Determinations of gravity with the Kater pendulums at Auckland, New Zealand; Sidney, New South Wales; Singapore, British India; Tokio, Japan; San Francisco, Cal.; and Washington, D.C. [Gravity; Instrumentation.]

Peirce, C.S., Appendix No. 1884 - 15. Pp. 475-482. On the use of the noddy for measuring the amplitude of swaying in a pendulum support. [Geophysics; Gravity; Instrumentation.]

Peirce, C.S., Appendix No. 1884 - 16. Pp. 483-485. Note on the effect of the flexure of a pendulum upon its period of oscillation. [Geophysics; Gravity; Instrumentation.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1885 - 6. Pp. 129-274. The geographical distribution and secular variation of the magnetic dip and intensity in the United States. Preface; introduction; Part I, explanation of the general table; Table I, observed magnetic dips and horizontal and total magnetic intensities in the United States and adjacent regions, arranged alphabetically; Part II, secular variation of the magnetic dip in the United States; discussion of dip by least squares; Table II, annual values of observed magnetic dip at prominent stations and comparison of observed and computed dips; two groups of stations exhibiting for every fifth year change in dip, from 1830 to 1885, to be used in connection with secular variations of the horizontal component of the force, and of the total force; type curves of the secular variation of the dip; PartIII, secular variation of the horizontal component of the magnetic force and of the total intensity of the United States; Table III, annual values of observed magnetic horizontal force at prominent stations; three type curves showing secular variation of the horizontal intensity -- first for the northeastern part of the United States; second, for the eastern part of the United States; third for the western coast; secular variation of the total intensity of the magnetic force; secular variation of the direction of a freely-suspended magnetic needle, with a type curve, for the New England States, from 1820 to 1885; construction of isomagnetic maps of the United States, showing the distribution of the dip, and of the horizontal component and total value of the earth's magnetic intensity, for the epoch, January 1, 1885. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report; Computations; History.]

Davidson, G.O., Appendix No. 1885 - 7. Pp. 275-284. Collection of some magnetic variations off the coast of California and Mexico, as observed by Spanish navigators in the last quarter of the eighteenth century. Prefatory letter; table of results obtained during the voyage of the frigate SANTIAGO for discovery of north coast of California; table of results obtained by frigate SANTIAGO and schooner SONORA; table of results obtained by Sr. Virey and Antonio Bucareli, commanding two frigates in the expedition of 1779; table of results obtained during the voyage of 1788, in vessels PRINCESSA and SAN CARLOS, northern coast of California; table of results obtained during the voyage of the SAN CARLOS and PRINCESSA from Unalaska to San Blas; table of results of voyage from San Blas to Nootka Sound, 1790; record of the packet PHILIPINO, commanded by Fidalgo in voyage of discovery from Nootka to Prince William Sound and Cooks River, thence to Monterey in 1790; record of the sloop PRINCESSA ROYAL commanded by Don Manuel Quimper from Santa Cruz to the Straits of Juan de Fuca in 1790. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report; History.]

Peirce, C.S., Appendix No. 1885 - 15. Pp. 503-508. Note on a device for abbreviating time reductions. [Geodesy; Astronomy; Time; Geophysics; Gravity; Instrumentation.]

Peirce, C.S., Appendix No. 1885 - 16. Pp. 509-510. On the influence of a noddy on the period of a pendulum. [Geophysics; Gravity; Instrumentation.]

Peirce, C.S., Appendix No. 1885 - 17. Pp. 511-512. On the effect of unequal temperature upon a reversible pendulum. [Geophysics; Gravity; Instrumentation; Error Analysis.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1886 - 12. Pp. 291-407. The secular variation of the magnetic declination in the United States and at some foreign stations. (Sixth edition, greatly enlarged. See Appendix 1887 - 7.) [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report; History.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1887 - 10. Pp. 207-210. The magnetic work of the Greely Arctic Expedition. A short historical account of the expeditions sent out in command of Lieutenant Greely and Lieutentant Ray; astronomical and magnetic work of Sergeant Israel; magnetic observatory at Fort Conger; determination of latititude, longitude, and azimuth; the number of magnetic observations and scheme for observing the declination; solar-diurnal variation; annual variation; hourly observations; term-day and term-hour observations; observations of oscillations; observations for dip; dates of aurora displays; tables of magnetic results derived from the work of other Arctic explorers; annual change in declination in the the region; importance of a redetermination of the American pole of dip. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report; History.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1888 - 6. Pp. 167-176. Part I. The value of the "Arcano del Mare" with reference to our knowledge of the magnetic declination in the earlier part of the seventeenth century. (This refers to the classic atlas published posthumously by Sir Robert Dudley.) Part II. Historical review of the work of the Coast and Geodetic Survey in connection with terrestrial magnetism. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Cartography; History.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1888 - 7. Pp. 177-312. The secular variation of the magnetic declination in the United States and at some foreign stations. (Seventh edition, June, 1889.) Introduction; the magnetic declination; the solar-diurnal variation; the annual variation; the variation depending on the solar rotation; the lunar inequalities; the secular variation; plate showing secular variation of the magnetic needle at Paris, France; magnetic disturbances or storms; historical note; the declination; isogonic charts; the secular variation of the declination; analytical expression of the secular variation of the magnetic declination;collection of observed magnetic declinations suitable for the investigation of the secular variation; Group I. -- Series of magnetic stations mainly on the Atlantic coast and in the region east of the Appalachian range; list of stations and explanation of tables; Group I. -- Collection of observed magnetic declinations, eastern series; results for Group I; comparison of observed and computed magnetic declinations; Group II. -- Series of magnetic stations mainly in the central United States between the Appalachian and Rocky Mountain ranges; results for Group II; comparison of observed and computed magnetic declinations; Group III. -- Collection of magnetic declinations from the earliest to the present time, observed on or near the Pacific coast of the United States and west of the Rocky Mountains, and extending over the region from the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Mexico, northward to the Bering Strait, and the Arctic Ocean coast of Alaska; map showing isogonic lines for the year 1783, constructed from observations made by Spanish navigators between 1774 and 1790, San Blas, Mexico, to Vancouver Island; results for Group III; comparison of observed and computed magnetic declinations; graphical illustration of the secular variation and of the annual change; secular variation and the position of the agonic line of the North Atlantic and of America between the epochs 1500 and 1900 A.D.; plate showing agonic lines of 1700-1750 A.D.; progressive change in the secular variation; early attempts to locate the North American magnetic pole. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report; History.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1889 - 11. Pp. 233-402. The distribution of the magnetic declination in the United States for the epoch of 1890. Retrospective view of work done by the Coast and Geodetic Survey relating to magnetic declinations; theory and effect of local disturbances in the distribution of the declination, dip, and intensity; collection and tabular arrangement of magnetic declinations; general distribution of the data in the States, Territories, and other geographical divisions; table of observed declinations and values reduced to the year 1890; construction of the isogonic curves for the United States (exclusive of Alaska) ; distribution of the declination in Alaska and adjacent regions; establishment of an analytical expression for the distribution in Alaska; construction of isogonic curves for Alaska; definition of magnetic meridians and parallels; constuction of magnetic meridians for the United States (exclusive of Alaska). [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1890 - 8 . Pp. 199-241. Terrestrial magnetism. Results of the observations recorded at the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Magnetic Observatory at Los Angeles, California, in charge successively of Marcus Baker, Acting Assistant; Carlisle Terry, Jr., Subassistant, and Richard E. Halter, Assistant, between the years, 1882-1889. Part I. Results of the absolute measures of the direction and intensity of the earth's magnetic force. (Part II is found in Appendix 1890 - 9; Part III is found in Appendix No. 1891 -4; and Part IV is found in Appendix No. 1892 - 7.) [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1890 - 9. Pp. 243-457. Terrestrial magnetism. Results of the observations recorded at the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Magnetic Observatory at Los Angeles, California, in charge successively of Marcus Baker, Acting Assistant; Carlisle Terry, Jr., Subassistant, and Richard E. Halter, Assistant, between the years, 1882-1889. Part II. Results of the differential measures of the magnetic declination, with hourly readings of the unifilar traces. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report.]

Preston, E.D., Appendix No. 1890 - 12. Pp. 625-684. Results of observations made to determine gravity and the magnetic elements in connection with the U.S. Scientific Expedition at stations on the west coast of Africa and on some islands in the North and South Atlantic, 1889-90. [Geophysics; Gravity; Magnetism.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1891 - 3. Pp. 21-39. The secular variation and annual change of the magnetic force at stations occupied by E.D. Preston, Assistant, U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, in connection with the U.S. Eclipse Expedition to the west coast of Africa in 1889-1890, in charge of Professor, D.P. Todd. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1891 - 4. Pp. 41-267. Results of the observations recorded at the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Magnetic Observatory at Los Angeles, California, in charge successively of Marcus Baker, Acting Assistant; Carlisle Terry, Jr., Subassistant, and Richard E. Halter, Assistant, between the years, 1882-1889. Part III. Results of the differential measures of the horizontal intensity. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1891 - 5. Pp. 269-273. On the magnetic observations made during Bering's first voyage to the coasts of Kamchatka and Eastern Asia in the years 1725-1730. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report; History.]

Mendenhall, T.C., Appendix No. 1891 - 15. Pp. 503-564. Determinations of gravity with the half-second pendulums of the Coast and Geodetic Survey at stations on the Pacific coast, in Alaska, and at the base stations, Washington, D.C., and Hoboken, N.J. [Geophysics; Gravity.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1892 - 7. Pp. 253-327. Results of the observations recorded at the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey Magnetic Observatory, Los Angeles, California, 1882-1889. Part IV, results of the differential measures of the vertical force component and the variations of dip and total force. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1892 - 11. Pp. 529-533. Results of magnetic observations at stations in Alaska and in the Northwest Territory of the Dominion of Canada. Observations at five stations in Alaska by J.E. McGrath and J.H. Turner in the years 1889, 1890, and 1891. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report.]

Putnam, G.R. and Gilbert, G.K., Appendix No. 1894 - 1. Pp. 7-55. Relative determination of gravity, with half-second pendulums, and other pendulum investigations by G.R. Putnam, Assistant; and a report on a geological examination of some Coast and Geodetic Survey gravity stations by G.K. Gilbert, Geologist, United States Geological Survey. General plan of campaign; position and description of stations; instruments; determination of instrumental constantsl method of observation; rating of chronometers; reduction of observations; reduction to sea level; summary of results; mean density of the earth from Pikes Peak pendulum observations; observations with quarter-second pendulums and special pendulum observations; description of quarter-second pendulums; comparison or results with different pendulums; experiments with knife-edges of different angles; variation of period at different arcs; use of penulum apparatus for investigating chronometers. Telegraphic comparison between base stations in Washington, D.C. Summary of the connections between American and European gravity stations by means of relative pendulum observations and the reduction of absolute determinations of gravity to Washington. Anomalies in the force of gravity on the North American continent by Commandant Defforges (translation). Report on a geologic examination of some Coast and Geodetic Survey gravity stations by G.K. Gilbert. [Geophysics; Gravity; Instrumentation; Computations; Geology.]

Preston, E.D., Appendix No. 1894 - 2. Pp. 57-70. Telegraphic determination of the force of gravity at Baltimore, Md., from simultaneous pendulum observations at Washington and Baltimore. [Gravity.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1894 - 4. Pp. 87-100. Distribution of the magnetic declination in Alaska and adjacent waters for the year 1895, and construction of an isogonic chart for the same epoch. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1895 - 1. Pp. 167-320. The secular variation in direction and intensity of the earth's magnetic force in the United States and in some adjacent countries. (Eighth edition.) [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1896 - 1. Pp. 147-235. Terrestrial magnetism. Distribution of the magnetic declination in the United States for the epoch January 1, 1900. (Third edition.) Introduction; table of the most recent magnetic declinations observed in the United States and adjacent regions; the isogonic chart of the United States for the epoch January , 1900; construction of the lines of equal declination; table of the most recent magnetic declinations observed in the United States and adjacent regions, and referred to the epoch, January 1, 1900. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1897 - 1. Pp. 157-196. Distribution of the magnetic dip and magnetic intensity in the United States for the epoch January, 1890. [Geophysics; Magnetism.]

Putnam, G.R., Appendix No. 1897 - 5. Pp. 285-296. Results of magnetic observations made in connection with the Greenland Expedition of 1896 under Professor A.E. Burbon. [Geophysics; Magnetism.]

Putnam, G.R., Appendix No. 1897 - 6. Pp. 297-312. Results of pendulum observations made in 1895 and 1896. [Geophysics; Gravity.]

Putnam, G.R., Appendix No. 1898 - 5. Pp. 237-246. Physical observations made in connection with the Pribilof Islands expedition of 1897. Magnetic irregularities on St. George Island; sea-water densities in the northeast Pacific and Bering Sea; determination of the force of gravity on St. Paul Island, Bering Sea. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Gravity; Oceanography; Geographic Exploration.]

Smith, E., Appendix No. 1899 - 4. Pp. 273-284. Determinations of gravity at Worcester, Massachusetts, and New York City. [Geophysics; Gravity.]

Baylor, J.B. and Hazard, D.L., Appendix No. 1899 - 9. General report on the magnetic survey of North Carolina. Introduction; historical sketch of the fundamental phenomena of the Earth's magnetism; general account of the magnetic survey of North Carolina ; magnetic instruments and methods; variations of the magnetic declination; secular variation of the magnetic declination in North Carolina; table of magnetic declinations at the county seats from 1750 to 1900; distribution of the magnetic declination in North Carolina; directions to surveyors concerning the use of the county meridians; description of the magnetic stations. [Geophysics; Magnetism.]

Bauer, L. A., Appendix No. 1899 - 10. Pp. 943 - 951. The magnetic work of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey. Past work; isogonic charts published by the Coast and Geodetic Survey; isoclinic and isodynamic charts; magnetic observatories; magnetic work in the polar regions. Present and future work; secular variation investigations; magnetic survey of the country; state magnetic surveys; magnetic survey of ocean areas; magnetic observatories. [Geophysics; Magnetism.]

Putnam, G.R., Appendix No. 1901 - 5. Pp. 341-356. Determination of relative value of gravity in Europe and the United States in 1900. General statement; descriptions of stations; instruments and methods of observation; rates of chronometers; reduction of observations; summary of corrected periods; results. [Geophysics; Gravity; Instrumentation; Computations.]

Bauer, L.A. and Fleming, J.A., Appendix No. 1902 - 5. Pp. 303-332. The magnetic observatories of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey in operation on July 1, 1902. Selection of sites of the magnetic observatories: Cheltenham, Maryland; Sitka, Alaska; Honolulu, Hawaii; and Baldwin. Construction of the magnetic observatories at Cheltenham, Sitka, and Honolulu. Equipment of the magnetic observatories at Cheltenham, Sitka, Honolulu, and Baldwin. Geographic positions and magnetic elements of the magnetic observatories. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Instrumentation.]

Hazard, D.L.and Bauer, L.A., Appendix No. 1902 - 6. Pp. 333-366. Results of magnetic dip and intensity observations made by the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey between January, 1897, and June, 1902. Preface; introduction; summary of results; results from other sources; magnetic observatories; instruments; methods of observing; comparisons of dip circles; corrections to dip circles; accuracy of results; arrangement of the table; table of results of dip and intensity observations. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Computations; Instrumentation; Data Report.]

Bauer, L.A., Appendix No. 1903 - 5. Pp. 931-1004. Results of magnetic observations made by the Coast and Geodetic Survey between July 1, 1902, and June 30, 1903. Introduction; geographic distribution of stations; summary of results; special investigations; instruments and methods of observing; accuracy of results; comparison of instruments; corrections to dip circles; reduction of the observations; arrangement of the tables; results of observations made during the year; description of stations in various states, territories, the District of Columbia, and three foreign countries. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Instrumentation.]

Bauer, L.A., Appendix No. 1904 - 3. Pp. 183-256. Results of magnetic observations made by the Coast and Geodetic Survey between July 1, 1903, and June 30, 1904. Introduction; observations on land and their distribution; observations at sea and their distribution; general methods of observing; accuracy of results; comparison of instruments; reduction of the observations; arrangement of the tables; results of observations on land and at sea for the past year; descriptions of stations observed in 24 states and territories including Porto Rico (Puerto Rico), the Philippines, Guam, and Alaska; observations in the Bahamas and Canada. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report.]

Bauer, L.A., Appendix No. 1905 - 3. Pp. 105-192. Results of magnetic observations made by the Coast and Geodetic Survey between July 1, 1904, and June 30, 1905. Introduction; observations on land and their distribution; secular change of magnetic declination; observations at sea and their distribution; general methods of observing; accuracy of results; comparison of instruments; reduction of the observations; arrangement of the tables; results of observations on land and at sea for the past year; descriptions of stations observed in 40 states and territories including Porto Rico (Puerto Rico), the Philippines, Guam, and Alaska; observations in the Canal Zone and Jamaica. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report.]

Bauer, L.A., Appendix No. 1906 - 3. Pp. 105-210. Results of magnetic observations made by the Coast and Geodetic Survey between July 1, 1905, and June 30, 1906. Introduction; observations on land and their distribution;observations at sea and their distribution; general methods of observing; accuracy of results; comparison of instruments; reduction of the observations; arrangement of the tables; results of observations on land and at sea for the past year; descriptions of stations observed in 40 states and territories including Porto Rico (Puerto Rico) and foreign countries. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report.]

Bauer, L.A., Appendix No. 1906 - 4. Pp. 211-226. Distribution of the magnetic declination in the United States for January 1, 1905, with isogonic chart and secular change table. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report.]

Hayford, J.F., and Baldwin, A.L., Appendix No. 1907 - 3. Pp.67-104. The earth movements in the California earthquake of 1906. General statement; extent of new triangulation; the old triangulation; permanent displacements produced by the earthquakes of 1868 and 1906. Tables of displacements: Group I, northern part of triangulation; Group II, southern end of San Francisco Bay; Group III, vicinity of Colma; Group IV, Tomales Bay; Group V, Vicinity of Fort Ross; Group VI, Point Arena; Group VII, Southern part of primary triangulation. Summary of distribution of earth movement; discussion of assumptions; changes in elevation. (Although the Coast Survey had made many incidental measurements in the earth-quake prone region of California before and after major earthquakes including the Fort Tejon earthquake of 1857, this represented the first time that it conducted a geodynamic study solely for the purpose of determining regional earth movements.) [Geodesy; Triangulation; Geophysics; Seismology.]

Faris, R.L., Appendix No. 1907 - 5. Pp. 157-230. Results of magnetic observations made by the Coast and Geodetic Survey between July 1, 1906, and June 30, 1907. Introduction; observations on land and their distribution; observations at sea and their distribution; general methods of observing; accuracy of results; comparison of instruments; reduction of the observations; arrangement of the tables; results of observations on land and at sea for the past year; descriptions of stations observed in 37 states and territories including Porto Rico (Puerto Rico). [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report.]

Faris, R.L., Appendix No. 1908 - 3. Pp. 69-165. Results of magnetic observations made by the Coast and Geodetic Survey between July 1, 1907, and June 30, 1908. Introduction; observations on land and their distribution; secular change of the magnetic declination; observations at sea and their distribution; general methods of observing; accuracy of results; comparison of instruments; reduction of the observations; arrangement of the tables; results of observations on land and at sea for the past year; results of magnetic observations made by the EXPLORER on a cruise from the Atlantic to the Pacific; descriptions of stations observed in 34 states and territories including Porto Rico (Puerto Rico) and the Philippines, and foreign countries. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report.]

Faris, R.L., Appendix No. 1909 - 3. Pp. 75-150. Results of magnetic observations made by the Coast and Geodetic Survey between July 1, 1908, and June 30, 1909. Introduction; observations on land and their distribution; secular change of the magnetic declination; observations at sea and their distribution; methods of observing; accuracy of results; comparison of instruments; reduction of the observations; arrangement of the tables; results of observations on land and at sea for the past year; descriptions of stations observed in 34 states and territories including Porto Rico (Puerto Rico) and foreign countries. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report.]

Faris, R.L., Appendix No. 1909 - 4. Pp. 151-176. Distribution of the magnetic declination in Alaska and adjacent regions for 1910. Introduction; secular change of declination. Table of magnetic declinations: Washington state; British North America adjacent to Alaska; Southeastern Alaska; Yakutat Bay to Sannak Islands; Aleutian Islands; Bering Sea and Arctic Ocean; Yukon River; results from reconnaissance surveys in the interior; observations on shipboard. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report.]

Faris, R.L., Appendix No. 1910 - 3. Pp. 73-142. Results of magnetic observations made by the Coast and Geodetic Survey between July 1, 1909, and June 30, 1910. Introduction; observations on land and their distribution; secular change of the magnetic declination; observations at sea and their distribution; methods of observing; accuracy of results; instrumental corrections; reduction of the observations; arrangement of the tables; results of observations on land and at sea (Atlantic Coast, Pacific Coast, and the Philippine Islands) for the past year; descriptions of stations observed in 38 states and territories including Alaska and Porto Rico (Puerto Rico) and foreign countries. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report.]

Burger, W.H., Appendix No. 1910 - 6. Pp. 431-449. The measurement of the flexure of pendulum supports with the interferometer. Description of the interferometer; method of observing; specimen of record and computation; program of observing; adjustment of fringes; temperature control; sodium light, wave length, etc.; independent support for the interferometer; mounting and adjustment of the interferometer; determination of the coefficient of flexure; interferometer as a field instrument; comparison of the static with the interferometer method; peculiar features of the flexure of the pendulum support. [Geophysics; Gravity.]

Faris, R.L., Appendix No. 1911 - 3. Pp. 77-158. Results of magnetic observations made by the Coast and Geodetic Survey between July 1, 1910, and June 30, 1911. Introduction; observations on land and their distribution; secular change of the magnetic declination; observations at sea and their distribution; methods of observing; accuracy of results; instrumental corrections; reduction of the observations; arrangement of the tables; results of observations on land and at sea (Atlantic Coast, Pacific Coast, and the Philippine Islands) for the past year; descriptions of stations observed in 41 states and territories and British Columbia. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Data Report.]

HYDROGRAPHY

Ammen, D., Appendix No. 1848 - 7. Pp. 89-90. Report on survey of Cashes Ledge and Tippanny's Bank. [Hydrography.]

Porter, D.D., Appendix No. 1848 - 12. Pp. 97-100. Report on the dangers in Hell Gate and the improvement of the passage. [Hydrography; Commerce.]

Porter, D.D., Appendix No. 1848 - 13. Pp. 100-101. Extracts from a report on the examination of Buttermilk Channel into the inner harbor of New York. (Includes comments on characteristics of the steamer JEFFERSON.) [Hydrography; Ship.]

Boutelle, C.O. and Neilson, J.C., Appendix No. 1848 - 16. Pp. 106-107. Extracts from letters relating to the formation of new inlets across Bodie's Island, North Carolina. [Hydrography; Topography.]

McBlair, C.H., Appendix No. 1849 - 3. Pp. 71-72. Letter in relation to the discovery of four shoals in the main ship channel over the Nantucket Shoals. [Hydrography.]

Davis, C.H., Appendix No. 1849 - 6. Pp. 78-79. Report on the determination of the position of Cashes Ledge, off the coast of New England. [Hydrography.]

Patterson, C.P., Appendix No. 1849 - 16. Pp. 91-92. Extracts from report on the hydrography of the head of Mobile Bay, including a description of Dog River Bar, and of Southwest and South Apalacha Bars, and of Blakely River Bar. [Hydrography.]

Pendleton, A.G., Appendix No. 1850 - 8. Pp. 80-81. Encroachment of the sea on the south side of Long Island. [Hydrography; Topography; Shoreline Changes.]

Woodhull, M., Appendix No. 1850 - 10. Extracts from report in relation to Princes and Diamond reefs, New York Harbor. [Hydrography.]

Jenkins, T. A. and Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1850 - 15. Report to Secretary of Treasury on Hatteras Shoals. [Hydrography.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1850 - 16. Report to the Secretary of the Treasury in relation to changes in Hatteras Inlet, North Carolina. [Hydrography.]

Maffitt, J.N., Appendix No. 1850 - 18. Letter to Superintendent in relation to examination in the vicinity of St. Helena Sound, South Carolina. [Hydrography.]

Rodgers, J. and Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1850 - 19. Letter of the Superintendent to the Secretary of the Treasury on the reconnaissance of St. Andrews Shoals, coast of Georgia. [Hydrography.]

Rodgers, J. and Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1850 - 24. Letter of the Superintendent to the Secretary of the Treasury on the reconnaissance of Cape Canaveral Shoals, Florida. [Hydrography.]

Rodgers, J., Appendix No. 1851 - 32. Extracts from report of a reconnaissance of Mosquito Inlet. [Hydrography.]

Bartlett, W. A., Appendix No. 1851 - 56. Pp. 553-558. Hell Gate Channel. Examination of reefs and changes produced by blasting. [Hydrography.]

Bartlett, W.A., Appendix No. 1852 - 8. P. 84. On Pot Rock, Hell Gate. [Hydrography.]

Rodgers, J., Appendix No. 1852 - 10. P. 85. Discovery of Isaac Shoal, near Rebecca Shoal, Florida. [Hydrography.]

Rodgers, J., Appendix No. 1852 - 11. P. 86. Discovery of Legare harbor of refuge, under Triumph reef, Florida. [Hydrography.]

Gerdes, F.H., Appendix No. 1852 - 13. Pp. 95-97. On the reconnaissance of St. Marks, Florida. [Hydrography.]

Totten, J.B., Appendix No. 1852 - 14. Pp. 97-98. Screw-pile signals along the Florida reef. [Hydrography; Signals.]

Gilbert, S.A., Appendix No. 1852 - 15. Pp. 99-100. Report on the survey of Milneburg Harbor, Louisiana. [Hydrography.]

Sands, B.F., Appendix No. 1852 - 16. P. 100. Report on Horn Island Passage, Mississippi. [Hydrography.]

Alden, J.M., Appendix No. 1852 - 19. P. 107. Report on the reconnaissance of Shoal Water Bay, Oregon. [Hydrography.]

Cutts, R.D., Appendix No. 1852 - 20. P. 107. Letter discussing channels of Columbia River and Lieut. Cmdg. McArthur's survey. [Hydrography.]

Stellwagen, H.S., Appendix No. 1853 - 11. P. 45. Extracts from a letter in relation to a rock in the harbor of Gloucester Harbor, Massachusetts. [Hydrography.]

Stellwagen, H.S., Appendix No. 1853 - 12. P. 46. Extracts from a report in relation to soundings near Fippennies Ledge. [Hydrography.]

Almy, J.J., Appendix No. 1853 - 16. P. 49. Report upon the determination of two shoals at the entrance into Chesapeake Bay. [Hydrography.]

Gerdes, F.H., Appendix No. 1853 - 21. P. 51. Extracts from the report on the survey of Isle Derniere and Ship Shoal, coast of Louisiana. [Hydrography.]

Gerdes, F.H., Appendix No. 1853 - 22. P. 54. Extracts from the report in relation to the channels of trade of Attakapas Plantations, Louisiana. [Hydrography.]

Alden, J.M., Appendix No. 1853 - 24. P. 55. Extracts from the report upon the determination of the position of Cortez Bank, off the coast of southern California. [Hydrography.]

Hunt, E.B., Appendix No. 1853 - 37. Pp. 93-94. Hunt's aligning reflector or interranger. [Hydrography; Instrumentation.]

Stellwagen, H.S. and Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1854 - 9. Pp. 17-18. Stellwagen's Bank entrance of Massachusetts Bay, concerning its importance and priority of discovery. [Hydrography.]

Davis, C.H. and Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1854 - 10. Pp. 18-19. Rocks in Boston Harbor. The position of three dangerous rocks in the channel-way, and ranges for avoiding them. (Commander Charles H. Davis was head of the Nautical Almanac Office at the time of his positioning these rocks. Prior to this, he had served seven years on the Coast Survey. A brother-in-law of Benjamin Peirce, Davis was a favorite of Bache and remained a life-long friend and defender of the Coast Survey.) [Hydrography.]

Davis, C.H. and Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1854 - 11. P. 19. Letter communicating notice of a dangerous sunken ledge in the vicinity of Minot's Ledge, approaches to Boston Bay. [Hydrography.]

Almy, J.J. and Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1854 - 12. P. 20. Letter communicating the discovery of New Point Shoal and the description of York Spit, Chesapeake Bay. [Hydrography.]

Craven, T.A.M. and Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1854 - 13. Pp. 20-21. Letter communicating the results of reconnaissance of Wimble Shoals, coast of North Carolina. [Hydrography.]

Maffitt, J.N., Appendix No. 1854 - 14. Pp. 21-23. Beaufort Harbor, North Carolina. Its capacity, changes, and improvements. [Hydrography.]

Craven, T.A.M. and Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1854 - 15. Pp. 23-24. Letter communicating discovery of Turtle Harbor, a harbor of refuge near Carysfort Reef, coast of Florida. [Hydrography.]

Craven, T.A.M. and Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1854 - 16. P. 24. Letter communicating a safe and convenient passage across the Florida reef at Indian Key. [Hydrography.]

Wright, H.G.and Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1854 - 17. P. 24. Letter communicating the discovery of a three-fathom shoal, near the entrance of Garden Key Channel, Florida. [Hydrography.]

Sands, B.F. and Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1854 - 18. P. 25. Letter on search for an alleged twenty-fathom shoal in N. Lat. 270, W. Long. 890, in Gulf of Mexico. [Hydrography.]

Davis, C.H., Appendix No. 1855 - 10. Pp. 152-153. Rocks in Boston Harbor. Letter giving information on and on questions touching the accuracy of hydrographic surveys. [Hydrography.]

Rodgers, C.R.P.and Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1855 - 11. P. 153. Letter communicating discovery of shoals south of Nantucket light-boat. [Hydrography.]

Craven, T.A.M. and Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1855 - 12. Pp. 153-154. Letter communicating discovery and position of shoal in New York Harbor. [Hydrography.]

Almy, J.J. and Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1855 - 13. P. 154. Letters communicating the discovery and character of a shoal on York Spit, Chesapeake Bay. [Hydrography.]

Wainwright, R., Appendix No. 1855 - 14. P. 155. Report on character of bars on Rappahannock River. [Hydrography.]

Maffitt, J.N., Appendix No. 1855 - 15. Letter with comparative chart of his survey of Maffitt's Channel, Charleston Harbor. [Hydrography.]

Totten, J.B., Appendix No. 1855 - 16. Pp. 157-160. Florida reef screw-pile beacons. Description of signals. [Hydrography; Lighthouse.]

Sands, B.F., Appendix No. 1855 - 17. P. 160. Report on examination and changes of channel between Pelican and Dauphine Islands, west of Mobile Entrance. [Hydrography.]

MacRae, A. and Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1855 - 18. P. 160-161. Letter on the determination of the position of a dangerous rock on Cortez Bank, southern California. [Hydrography.]

MacRae, A., and Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1855 - 19. P. 161-162. Letter with position, etc., of rock on which the ship UNCLE SAM struck. [Hydrography.]

Alden, J.M. and Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1855 - 20. P. 162. Letter communicating discovery of red sand inside the bar of San Francisco Entrance. (This was a very important discovery, as it allowed mariners to position themselves while entering or departing the Golden Gate even in very poor visibility.) [Hydrography; Marine Geology.]

New York Commissioners, Appendix No. 1855 - 24. Pp. 165-171. Documents relating to the resurvey of New York Harbor for the Commissioners on Harbor Encroachments: resolutions and correspondence; description of manuscript chart of New York Harbor, Bay, and approaches; Boschke's remarks on New York Harbor surveys at different times. [Hydrography; Topography; Oceanography; Social Issues.]

Boschke, A., Appendix No. 1855 - 24. Pp. 170-171. Remarks on surveys made at different periods in New York Harbor. [Oceanography; Topography; Shoreline Changes.]

Portland Harbor Commissioners, Appendix No. 1855 - 31. Pp. 200-219. First report of commissioners to regulate the shoreline; second report, concerning inner and outer harbor, plans and recommendations; the commercial importance of Portland Harbor (Maine). [Hydrography; Topography; Oceanography; Social Issues.]

Sands, B.F., Appendix No. 1855 - 60. Pp. 365-366. Sand's hydrographic signal. Description and drawing of his gas-pipe signal used in the breakers at Dog Island Bar. [Hydrography; Signals.]

Trenchard, S.D., Appendix No. 1856 - 9. Pp. 113-114. Report on position of rock struck on by Steamer DANIEL WEBSTER in Casco Bay, Maine, and recommendation for buoy. [Hydrography; Lighthouse.]

Stellwagen, H.S., Appendix No. 1856 - 10. P. 114. Letter communicating the discovery of Stellwagen Reef and detached rocks in Massachusetts Bay. [Hydrography.]

Stellwagen, H.S., Appendix No. 1856 - 11. P. 115. Letter communicating discovery of new shoals off Nantucket and recommendation for buoy. [Hydrography; Lighthouse.]

Rodgers, C.R.P., Appendix No. 1856 - 12. Pp. 115-116. Letter communicating the result of a minute examination of Edwards Shoal and sand ridges near Great Point. [Hydrography.]

Maffitt, J.N., Appendix No. 1856 - 14. P. 118. Re-examination of North Edisto Bar, South Carolina. [Hydrography.]

Maffitt, J.N., Appendix No. 1856 - 15. P. 118. Letter communicating notice of discovery of channel through Martins Industry Shoal, South Carolina. [Hydrography.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1856 - 16. P. 119. Letter communicating remarks by commanders of Pacific Coast Steamers on the services to navigation rendered by Commander James Alden in developing the extent of red sand as marking the locality of the San Francisco Bar. (Included in this appendix is a remarkable letter from Captain W.H. Dall detailing his navigation into San Francisco Bay in a period of extremely limited visibility.) [Hydrography.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1856 - 18. Pp. 133-137. Depths in channel entrances of harbors, rivers, ports, and anchorages on the coasts of the United States. [Hydrography; Coast Pilot.]

New York Commissioners, Appendix No. 1856 - 47. Pp. 280-281. Correspondence with the Commissioners on Harbor Encroachments, and resolutions adopted in reference to completion of the re-survey. [Hydrography; Topography; Oceanography; Social Issues.]

Trenchard, S.D., Appendix No. 1856 - 49. Pp. 282-283. Report on the results of hydrographic survey of Brunswick Harbor, Georgia. [Hydrography.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1856 - 50. P. 284. Letter communicating results of hydrographic survey of Fernandina Harbor, Florida. [Hydrography.]

Temple, W.G., Appendix No. 1857 - 9. P. 147. Temples Ledge, off Cape Small Point, Maine. Letter communicating its position and cross bearings. [Hydrography.]

Rodgers, C.R.P., Appendix No. 1857 - 11. P. 149. Letter relative to the gradual decrease in depth of Georges Bank, off Cape Cod peninsula. [Hydrography.]

Rodgers, C.R.P., Appendix No. 1857 - 12. P. 150. Letter communicating approximate position of shoal southwest of little Georges Bank. [Hydrography.]

Temple, W.G., Appendix No. 1857 - 13. Pp. 150-151. Depths at Hell Gate on several rocks determined by the method of sweeping. (This is a description of using a weighted spar suspended at set depths by ropes between two boats. The sweeping was done in Hell Gate, New York Harbor, in conjunction with blasting operations over Pot Rock and other obstructions. This is an early reference to the method that ultimately evolved into wiredrag and wiresweep.) [Hydrography; Instrumentation.]

Temple, W.G., Appendix No. 1857 - 14. P. 151. Report on wreck in New York Bay as a danger to navigation. [Hydrography.]

Muse, W.T., Appendix No. 1857 - 15. Pp. 151-152. Report on changes in the bars of Hatteras and Ocracoke Inlets, North Carolina. [Hydrography.]

Rodgers, C.R.P., Appendix No. 1857 - 16. Pp. 152-153. Beaufort Harbor, North Carolina. Present condition of bar and anchorage. [Hydrography.]

Maffitt, J.N., Appendix No. 1857 - 17. Pp. 153-155. Cape Fear entrances, North Carolina. Report showing the results of comparison between the surveys of 1851 and 1856. [Hydrography.]

Trenchard, S.D., Appendix No. 1857 - 18. P. 156. Report on development of shoal in Amelia River, Florida. [Hydrography.]

Davidson, G.O., Appendix No. 1857 - 19. P. 156-157. Report of discovery and approximate position of Allens Bank, Washington Territory. [Hydrography.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1857 - 21. Pp. 178-184. Depths in channel entrances of harbors, rivers, ports, and anchorages on the coasts of the United States. [Hydrography; Coast Pilot.]

Advisory Council to Commissioners of New York Harbor, Appendix No. 1857 - 37. Pp. 358-373. Report transmitting the comparative map of the harbor and bay, with extracts from a report of Mr. A. Boschke. [Hydrography; Topography; Oceanography; Social Issues.]

Boschke, A., Appendix No. 1857 - 38. Report on progress on Commissioners' Map of New York Harbor. [Hydrography; Topography.]

Hunt, E.B., Appendix No. 1857 - 47. Pp. 398-401. Sounding apparatus. (The described apparatus was a novel invention by E.B. Hunt that employed an India rubber bag that was lowered to the bottom. Pressure changes would determine depths which in turn were automatically recorded on paper. This was one of the earliest self-recording depth finding instruments and was one of the earliest to diverge from "line-and-sinker" technology.) [Hydrography; Instrumentation.]

Temple, W. G., Appendix No. 1857 - 48. Pp. 401-402. Experimental soundings made with Hunt's sounding apparatus. (Experiments were made with Edward Bissell Hunt's pressure sounding apparatus. This instrument was an example of an early attempt to devise an operational sounding device that did not employ "line and sinker" technology. It also employed an automatic recording device.) [Hydrography; Instrumentation.]

Murray, A., Appendix No. 1858 - 10. P. 148. Letter stating the position with ranges for clearing it while entering the harbor of a rock off Portsmouth, New Hampshire. [Hydrography.]

Temple, W.G., Appendix No. 1858 - 11. P. 149. Letter recommending a buoy to mark the sand spit south of Sunken Ledge, Boston Harbor. [Hydrography; Lighthouse.]

Temple, W.G., Appendix No. 1858 - 12. Letter stating the position, etc., of Luddington Rocks, southwest of the lighthouse near New Haven, Connecticut. [Hydrography.]

Huger, T.B., Appendix No. 1858 - 13. Pp. 150-151. Cape Fear entrances. Recent changes in hydrography. [Hydrography.]

Huger, T.B., Appendix No. 1858 - 15. P. 152. Letter communicating the results of the resurvey of Maffitts Channel, Charleston Harbor. [Hydrography.]

Duer, J.K., Appendix No. 1858 - 16. Pp. 152-153. Letter communicating the discovery and development of Dog Island Channel, St. Georges Sound, Florida. [Hydrography.]

Duer, J.K., Appendix No. 1858 - 17. Pp. 152-153. Letter communicating the positions of shoals located at the East and West Passes of St. Georges Sound, Florida. [Hydrography.]

Cuyler, R.M., Appendix No. 1858 - 18. Pp. 154-155. Letter giving the position and depth of Whiting's Rock and Contra Costa Reef, San Francisco Bay, California. [Hydrography.]

Batchelder, J.M., Appendix No. 1858 - 38. Pp. 247-248. Sounding apparatus and tide meter proposed by E.B. Hunt. (Notes on the principles and applications of this early pressure sounding device.) [Hydrography; Oceanography; Tides; Instrumentation.]

Wilkinson, J., Appendix No. 1859 - 9. P. 130. Letter giving position of rock off Seguin Island, Maine. [Hydrography.]

Wilkinson, J., Appendix No. 1859 - 10. P. 130. Letter furnishing ranges to Hussey Rock, Casco Bay, Maine. [Hydrography.]

Murray, A., Appendix No. 1859 - 11. P. 131. Letter developing position and character of rock off Ogunquit, Maine. [Hydrography.]

Wilkinson, J., Appendix No. 1859 - 12. P. 131. Report on position of rock in Hyannis Harbor, Massachusetts. [Hydrography.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1859 - 13. Pp. 132-134. Development and character of Battery Shoal, New York Harbor. [Hydrography.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1859 - 15. Pp. 168-171. Table of depths found in the channel-ways of harbors, rivers, and anchorages on the coasts of the United States. [Hydrography; Coast Pilot.]

Fauntleroy, C.M., Appendix No. 1859 - 30. P. 322. Letter reporting completion of the survey of Sapelo Sound, Georgia, with information relative to its character as a harbor. [Hydrography; Coast Pilot.]

Phelps, T.S., Appendix No. 1860 - 9. Pp. 126-127. Letter stating positions of rocks in Booth Bay and off Pemaquid Point, Maine. [Hydrography.]

Wilkinson, J.S., Appendix No. 1860 - 10. P. 127. Letter giving bearings and ranges to Corwin Rock, in Boston Harbor. [Hydrography; Coast Pilot.]

Phelps, T.S., Appendix No. 1860 - 11. P. 128. Letter communicating the development of Asia Rip and Phelps Bank, off Nantucket. [Hydrography.]

Fauntleroy, C.M., Appendix No. 1860 - 12. Pp. 128-129. Extracts from a report on the bars and channels of Ossabaw Sound, Georgia. [Hydrography; Coast Pilot.]

Fauntleroy, C.M., Appendix No. 1860 - 13. Pp. 129-130. Letter describing a new channel developed in Sapelo Sound, Georgia. [Hydrography; Coast Pilot.]

Wilkinson, J., Appendix No. 1860 - 14. P. 130. Dangers off Long Key and Grassy Key, Florida Reef. Letter relative to the position of Tennessee Shoal and of a wreck off Grassy Key. [Hydrography.]

Craven, T.A.M., Appendix No. 1860 - 15. P. 131. Letter stating the result of an examination of a shoal spot off Warrington Navy Yard, Florida. [Hydrography.]

Mitchell, H., Appendix No. 1860 - 39. P. 398. Mitchell's sounding apparatus for acquiring specimens in shallow water. [Hydrography; Instrumentation.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1861 - 7. P. 97. Letter giving the positions of three small shoals found by Lieut. Comdg. T.S. Phelps and further information on Phelps Bank on Nantucket Shoals. [Hydrography.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1861 - 8. Results of soundings taken by Lieut. Comdg. T.S. Phelps off False Cape, Virginia, on the site of a supposed shoal. [Hydrography.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1862 - 5. Pp. 86-92. Depths in channel entrances of harbors, rivers, ports, and anchorages on the coasts of the United States. [Hydrography; Coast Pilot.]

Mitchell, H., Appendix No. 1862 - 6. P. 93. Notice of positions and directions for clearing dangerous rocks discovered in 1862 in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island. [Hydrography; Coast Pilot.]

Phelps, T.S. and Cordell, E., Appendix No. 1863 - 5. P. 81. Bearings and distances of rocks at the entrance to Portland Harbor, Maine. [Hydrography; Coast Pilot]

Phelps, T.S., Appendix No. 1863 - 6. P. 81. Report on examination of reported shoal eastward of Winter Quarter Shoal, Virginia. [Hydrography.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1863 - 7. P. 82. Letter communicating the approximate position of a shoal off Cape Lookout, North Carolina. [Hydrography.]

Cordell, E., Appendix No. 1863 - 8. P. 82. Extracts from report on Florida Reef between Rodriquez Key and Alligator Reef. [Hydrography.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1863 - 11. P. 84. Position of the wreck of the ship FLYING DRAGON in San Francisco Bay, California. [Hydrography.]

Phelps, T.S., Appendix No. 1864 - 5. P. 56. Results of reconnaissance at Cape Lookout Shoals, North Carolina. [Hydrography.]

Cordell, E., Appendix No. 1864 - 6. P. 57. Beaufort Harbor. Development of changes at the bar and in the channel. [Hydrography.]

Cordell, E., Appendix No. 1864 - 7. Pp. 57-58. Report relative to the depth of water, tides, etc., at Core Sound, North Carolina. [Hydrography; Oceanography; Tides.]

Junken, C., Appendix No. 1865 - 4. P. 45. Report on the hydrographic development of Cape Lookout Shoals, North Carolina. [Hydrography.]

Bradford, J.S., Appendix No. 1865 - 5. P. 45. Entrance to Cape Fear River, North Carolina. Hydrographic changes. [ Hydrography.]

Mitchell, H., Appendix No. 1867 - 14. Merrimack River, Massachusetts. Surveys respecting its navigation, with tables. [Hydrography.]

Mitchell, H., Appendix No. 1869 - 15. Pp. 236-259. Reports concerning Marthas Vineyard and Nantucket. -- H. L. Whiting and H. Mitchell. Edgartown Harbor, changes; Vineyard Haven its character as a port of refuge and present condition; Tables of exposures of anchorages in: Provincetown Harbor; Vineyard Haven; Great Woods Hole; Tarpaulin Cove; Old Stage Harbor; New Bedford Harbor and Quicks Hole; Plymouth Harbor; Boston Harbor and Hull Bay, President Roads, Georges Roads; Marblehead Harbor; Salem Harbor; Gloucester Harbor; Upper and Lower Bay, New York Harbor; anchorage room and average exposure in respective harbors. Surveys; physical aspects and peculiarities; Edgartown tides; Nantucket tide tables; elements of the field work. [Topography; Hydrography; Coast Pilot; Oceanography; Tides; Currents.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1874 - 7. Pp. 66-71. Depths in channel entrances of harbors, rivers, ports, and anchorages on the coasts of the United States. [Hydrography; Coast Pilot.]

Mitchell, H., Appendix No. 1875 - 11. Pp. 189-193. Recent observations at South Pass Bar, Mississippi River. [Hydrography.]

Mitchell, H., Appendix No. 1876 - 9. Pp. 143 - 146. Changes in the harbor of Plymouth, Mass. Comparisons to Champlain, 1605, and Blaskowitz, 1774. General conclusions and remarks. [Cartography; Hydrography; Shoreline Changes.]

Mitchell, H., Appendix No. 1876 - 12. Pp. 190-191. Review of the characteristics of South Pass, Mississippi. [Hydrography; Oceanography; Tides; Currents.]

Marindin, H.L., Appendix No. 1880 - 9. Pp. 110-125. Comparison of the surveys of Delaware River in front of Philadelphia, 1843 and 1878. [Hydrography; Shoreline Changes.]

Marindin, H.L., Appendix No. 1880 - 10. Pp. 126-134. Comparison of surveys of Mississippi River in the vicinity of Cubitt's Gap. [Hydrography.]

Marindin, H.L., Appendix No. 1882 - 15. Pp. 427-432. Comparison of the survey of Delaware River of 1819, between Petty's and Tinicum Islands, with more recent surveys. Different cross-sections compared and changes noted. [Hydrography.]

Lull, E.P., Bradford, J.S., and Parsons, J.W., Appendix No. 1883 - 7. Pp. 137-237. A table of depths for the harbors of the coasts of the United States. Prepared in outline by Commander Edward P. Lull, U.S.N. Expanded and extended by Assistant J. S. Bradford and Mr. John W. Parsons. Tides; table of depths for Atlantic coast, Gulf Coast, Pacific coast, Alaska and Arctic coasts, and eastern coast of Asia. [Hydrography; Coast Pilot; Data Report.]

Marindin, H.L., Appendix No. 1884 - 12. Pp. 431-434. Physical hydrography of Delaware Bay and River. Comparison of surveys of 1881 and '82 with those of 1840 and'41. [Hydrography.]

Marindin, H.L., Appendix No. 1885 - 12. Pp. 487-488. Comparison of transverse sections in the Delaware River between Old Navy Yard and east end of Petty's Island, for the years 1819, 1843, and 1878. [Hydrography.]

Mitchell, H. and Boutelle, C.O., Appendix No. 1886 - 8. Pp. 255 - 261. A report on Monomoy and its shoals. Tonnage of the vessels navigating these water; dangers to navigation; comparison of Capt. Paul Pinkham's survey of 1784 and the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey chart of 1885, with a sketch of the two surveys. Also a report by Assistant Charles O. Boutelle concerning the earliest topographical survey of Monomoy, with sketch. [Hydrography; Topography; Shoreline Changes.]

Mitchell, H., Appendix No. 1886 - 10. Pp. 267-279. A report on the Delta of the Delaware. Joe Flogger Shoal; method of comparing old and new surveys; diagram showing cross-section of Joe Flogger Shoal; results of comparisons; table of comparative dimensions of Joe Flogger Shoal; tables for main channel and Blake's Channel near Joe Flogger Shoal. [Hydrography.]

Marindin, H.L., Appendix No. 1895 - 5. Pp. 347-354. Report on the changes in the depths on the bar at the entrance to Nantucket inner harbor, Mass., between the years 1888 and 1893. [Hydrography.]

Marindin, H.L., Appendix No. 1896 - 8. Pp. 305-346. Tables of cross sections on the north shores of Nantucket and Martha's Vineyard, Mass. [Hydrography; Topography; Shoreline Changes.]

Wainwright, D.B., Appendix No. 1903 - 6. Pp. 1005-1010. Channel and Harbor Sweep. (This technique, which was perfected within the Coast and Geodetic Survey as wiredrag, involved towing a long wire between two vessels suspended by buoys at a preset depth. If the wire encountered an obstruction, it would "hang" and as the boats progressed ahead the buoys would form a "V" pointing to the obstruction. Primitive forms of this method were mentioned as early as the 1850's in Coast Survey reports. See Appendix 1857 - 13. This method was first formulated by French hydrographers and further developed by the United States Lake Survey under the Army Engineers prior to adoption by the Coast and Geodetic Survey. Literally hundreds of unknown obstructions and dangers to navigation were discovered by this method prior to the development of reliable, highly accurate sidescan sonar systems. [Hydrography; Instrumentation.]

Wainwright, D.B., Appendix No. 1905 - 6. Pp. 283-288. Long wire sweep. A discussion of the continuing evolution of wiredrag technology. [Hydrography; Instrumentation.]

Heck, N.H., Appendix No. 1907 - 7. Pp. 547-562. Long wire drag. (This paper marks the advent of Nicholas Heck as a force in the development of wire drag. A NOAA vessel that was designed originally for wiredrag work is named for Heck. Heck went on to an illustrious career as an inventor, hydrographer, and geophysicist.) [Hydrography; Instrumentation.]

INDEX

Hunt, E.B., Appendix No. 1854 - (Not Numbered). Pp. 230-279. Consolidated alphabetical index of the annual Coast Survey Reports from 1844 to 1853 inclusive. [Index.]

Hunt, E.B., Appendix No. 1854 - (Not Numbered). Pp. 280-285. Index of sketches contained in the annual Coast Survey reports for 1844 to 1853 inclusive. [Index.]

Hunt, E.B., Appendix No. 1856 - 67. Pp. 325-330. Index of scientific subjects. Report of the plan adopted and progress made in its preparation. [Index.]

Hunt, E.B., Appendix No. 1856 - 68. Pp. 331-333. Abbreviations of scientific terms with suggestions for securing uniformity in scientific references. On systematizing the abbreviations of titles of periodicals, transactions, etc. [Index.]

Hunt, E.B., Appendix No. 1857 - 51. Pp. 404-414. Index of scientific references, progress made toward completion. [Index.]

Hunt, E.B., Appendix No. 1863 - 25. P. 207. Titles of scientific papers. (Published posthumously as Hunt had died in an accident while developing the "Sea Miner", a torpedo-like weapon. Major Edward Bissell Hunt would have been much better known had he survived the Civil War. He was possibly the most scientifically accomplished United States military officer of the mid-Nineteenth Century. Review of his works show him to be a futurist who understood that his work and the work of his civilian colleagues was not only for the moment, but for posterity.) [Index.]

Nes, F.F., Appendix No. 1864 - (Not Numbered). Pp. 227-308. Consolidated alphabetical index of the ten annual Coast Survey reports from 1854 to 1863, inclusive. [Index.]

Nes, F.F., Appendix No. 1864 - (Not Numbered). Pp. 309-315. Consolidated index of sketches embraced in the Coast Survey reports from 1854 to 1863 inclusive. [Index.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1871 - 17. Pp. 193-209. General index of professional and scientific papers contained in the Coast Survey reports from 1851 to 1870. [Index.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1871 - 18. Pp. 210-219. Errata in the Coast Survey reports from 1851 to 1870. [Index.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1876 - 23. Pp. 407-409. List of publications relating to the deep-sea investigations carried on in the vicinity of the coasts of the United States under the auspices of the Coast Survey. [Oceanography; Index.]

Sinclair, C.H., Appendix No. 1881 - 6. Pp. 91-123. General index of scientific papers, methods, and results contained in the Appendices to the Annual Reports of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, from 1845 to 1880, inclusive. [Index.]

Goodfellow, E., Appendix No. 1883 - 6. Pp. 121-135. Descriptive catalogue of publications relating to the Coast and Geodetic Survey and to standard measures. [Index.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1887 - 11. Pp. 211-215. Instructions and memoranda for descriptive reports to accompany original sheets. [Hydrography.]

Goodfellow, E., Appendix No. 1887 - 12. Pp. 217-268. General index to the progress sketches and illustrations, maps, and charts published in the Annual reports of the U.S. Coast Survey and U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, from 1844 to 1885, inclusive. [Index.]

Gore, J.H., Appendix No. 1887 - 16. Pp. 313-512. A bibliography of geodesy. [Index; Geodesy.]

Sinclair, C.H., Baylor, J.B., and Goodfellow, E., Appendix No. 1891 - 11. Pp. 365-474. Descriptive catalogue of publications relating to the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1807-1890, and to U.S. standards of weights and measures. Compiled by Edward Goodfellow, Cephas H. Sinclair; and J. B. Baylor. [Index; History.]

Gore, J.H., Appendix No. 1902 - 8. Pp. 427-787. A bibliography of geodesy, second edition. (This is one of the most complete bibliographies of Nineteenth Century and early Twentieth Century geodesy available.) [Index; Geodesy.]

LIGHTHOUSE / AIDS TO NAVIGATION

Goldsborough, J.R., Appendix No. 1847 - 4. Pp. 64-66. List of buoys, beacons, and spindles with markings in the vicinity of New London from Branford Reef to Montauk. Sailing directions for Long Island Sound and Fishers Island Sound with reference to buoys. [Coast Pilot; Lighthouse.]

Bache, G.M., Appendix No. 1847 - 5. P. 67. Extract from a report by the late Lieutenant George M. Bache, U.S. Navy, to the Hon. Levi Woodbury, Secretary of the Treasury, dated November 22, 1838. (Doc. No. 24, House of Representatives, 25th Congress, 3d session.) (This report, written while G.M. Bache was attached to the Coast Survey during the superintendency of Ferdinand Hassler, espouses a systematic mode of coloring and designating buoys. This suggestion was ultimately accepted by the Lighthouse establishment and resulted in the familiar coloring system of black and red buoys. Most sailors for the last 150 years learned early the concept of "Red Right Return." This was first suggested in the United States by George Bache while on Coast Survey duty.) [Lighthouse.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1847 - 6. Pp. 67-69. List of buoys placed in Delaware Bay, by Lieutenant Commanding Richard M. Bache, U.S.N., Assistant in the Coast Survey. Includes descriptions of buoys, positions of buoys, and sailing directions. [Lighthouse; Coast Pilot.]

Mussey, T. and Goldsborough, J.R., Appendix No. 1847 - 7. Communications relating to the coloring and placement of buoys at New London. (Thomas Mussey was a revenue collector at New London. He refers specifically to "Mr. Bache's mode of painting and setting buoys" which establishes the precedence of the Coast Survey in helping reform and standardize the buoy system used in United States waters.) [Lighthouse.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1847 - 8. Pp. 71-72. List of buoys in Delaware Bay and River,placed by the Coast Survey schooner NAUTILUS, Lieut Comdg. Bache, U.S.N., and Coast Survey Schooner WAVE, Lieut. Comdg. J.R. Goldsborough, Assistants in the Coast Survey. (This listing ended: "Vessels entering, keep to larboard of red buoys; to starboard of black; either side of cross striped, red and black. Black and white perpendicular stripes mark a channel buoy in best water. By direction of the superintendent of the United States coast survey.") [Lighthouse; Coast Pilot.]

Mitchell, W., Appendix No. 1848 - 2. P. 74. Extracts from a letter to Lieut. Comdg. C.H. Davis relating to the packet LOUIS PHILIPPE when off Nantucket in December, 1847. [Miscellaneous; Hydrography; Lighthouse.]

Davis, C.H., Appendix No. 1848 - 5. Pp. 84-87. On the expediency of a light at Sankaty Head, Nantucket. [Lighthouse.]

Davis, C.H., Appendix No. 1848 - 6. Pp. 87-89. On buoys, beacons, landmarks, etc., on Nantucket Shoals and at Boston Harbor. [Lighthouse; Hydrography.]

Davis, C.H., Appendix No. 1848 - 8. Pp. 90-91. Report relating to the necessity for a landmark on Long Island, Boston Harbor. [Lighthouse.]

Davis, C.H., Appendix No. 1848 - 9. Pp. 91-92. Letter relating to the invention of a cheap fog trumpet. [Lighthouse.]

Davis, C.H., Appendix No. 1848 - 11. Pp. 93-96. Report on examination of Hell Gate Channel. (At the end of this report Davis suggests the removal of rocks and reefs in Hell Gate Channel by blasting, a project that was adopted by the city of New York to make it more desirable for maritime traffic to use the port facilities of that city.) [Hydrography; Commerce.]

Lee, S.P., Appendix No. 1848 - 14. Pp. 101-102. Report on the expediency of placing two small lights on Sand Island, in the Chesapeake. [Lighthouse.]

McArthur, W.P., Appendix No. 1848 - 15. Pp. 104-105. Report on the utility of a light on Blackiston Island, in the Potomac River. [Lighthouse; Coast Pilot.]

Maffitt, J.N., Appendix No. 1849 - 13. P. 88. Report concerning a lighthouse at Bulls Bay, on the coast of South Carolina. [Lighthouse.]

Patterson, C.P., Appendix No. 1849 - 17. Pp. 92-93. Report on beacons and buoys on Dog River Bar and Choctaw Pass, head of Mobile Bay. [Lighthouse.]

Patterson, C.P., Appendix No. 1849 - 18. Pp. 93-95. Report on buoys and beacons at the entrance to Mobile Bay. [Lighthouse.]

Patterson, C.P., Appendix No. 1849 - 19. P. 96. Report on buoys for Cat and Ship Island Harbors. [Lighthouse.]

McBlair, Charles H., Appendix No. 1850 - 7. Recommendation in reference to buoys in the Vineyard Sound and Massachusetts Bay. [Lighthouse.]

Lee, S.P., Appendix No. 1850 - 14. Abstract of report to the Superintendent of the Coast Survey on lights, buoys, etc., in the Chesapeake, from the Potomac to the head of the bay. [Lighthouse.]

Jenkins, T. A., Appendix No. 1850 - 15, bis. Report recommending a bell beacon and buoy to be placed on Hatteras Shoals. [Lighthouse.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1850 - 20. Notice of surveying marks on the Florida reef. (Although initially used as surveying marks, these signals soon became used by mariners as beacons and served as the first navigational aids on the Florida reef.) [Lighthouse.]

Alden, J.M., Appendix No. 1850 - 21. Extract from a letter to the Superintendent in relation to a light house on Sea Horse Key, Florida. [Lighthouse.]

Patterson, C.P., Appendix No. 1850 - 25. Report to the Superintendent on buoys and beacons in Mobile Bay. [Lighthouse.]

Patterson, C.P., Appendix No. 1850 - 26. Report to the Superintendent on buoys and beacons at the entrance to Mobile Bay. [Lighthouse.]

Patterson, C.P., Appendix No. 1850 - 27. Report to the Superintendent on buoys for Cat and Ship Island Harbors. [Lighthouse.]

Bartlett, W.A., Appendix No. 1850 - 30. Report on the lights necessary for San Francisco Bay and its approaches. (Included in report of Lieutenant Commanding William P. McArthur to the Superintendent.) [Lighthouse.]

Bartlett, W.A., Appendix No. 1850 - 34. Report in relation to a light-house at Cape Hancock or Disappointment, entrance to Columbia River. [Lighthouse.]

McArthur, W.P., Appendix No. 1850 - 35. Report in relation to lights at Cape Flattery and New Dungeness, Oregon. [Lighthouse.]

Secretary of the Treasury, Appendix No. 1851 - 13. Letter to the Sup erintendent of the Coast Survey communicating the act of Congress requiring examinations to be made in relation to light-houses, light-boats, beacons, buoys, etc. [Lighthouse.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1851 - 14. Letter to the Secretary of the Treasury applying for information in regard to light-house matters referred to in the act of Congress. [Lighthouse.]

Secretary of the Treasury, Appendix No. 1851 - 14, bis. Letter to the Superintendent of the Coast Survey communicating reports from the Fifth Auditor in relation to light-house matters referred to in the act of Congress. [Lighthouse.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1851 - 15. Table showing the results of examinations for sites of light-houses, beacons, buoys, etc., referred to the Superintendent of the Coast Survey by the Secretary of the Treasury in accordance with the acts of Congress. [Lighthouse.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1851 - 16. Letter to the chiefs of hydrographic parties in the coast survey, enclosing a communication of the secretary of the Light-house Board asking for suggestions for the improvement and extension of the present light-house establishment; and extracts from their replies. [Lighthouse.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1851 - 17. Table of light-houses, beacons, buoys, etc., recommended by chiefs of hydrographic parties of the coast survey, for which no appropriations have been made. [Lighthouse.]

Bache, A.D. and Woodhull, M., Appendix No. 1851 - 19. Letter comunicating the results of an examination to determine the necessity for certain aids to navigation on the coast of Maine, in accordance with the act of Congress and instructions of the Treasury Department. [Lighthouse.]

Woodhull, M. and Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1851 - 20. Letters recommending placing lightboat on Shovelful Shoals. [Lighthouse.]

McBlair, C.H. and Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1851 - 21. Letter communicating a report on erecting a "bug" or harbor lights at Holmes Hole, Massachusetts. [Lighthouse.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1851 - 22. Letter to the Secretary of the Treasury recommending certain aids to navigation required by act of Congress and instructions of the Treasury Department. [Lighthouse.]

Gluck , J.B. and Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1851 - 23. Letter transmitting report on ranges in New York Harbor. [Lighthouse.]

Jenkins, T., Woodhull, M., and Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1851 - 24. Letter communicating the report of Jenkins and Woodhull. [Lighthouse.]

Almy, J.J. and Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1851 - 27. Report recommending a light-house at Fishing Battery, in Chesapeake Bay and a report by Almy. [Lighthouse.]

Maffitt, J.N., Appendix No. 1851 - 29. Report upon the necessity for certain aids to navigation in Beaufort Harbor, North Carolina. [Lighthouse.]

Maffitt, J.N., Appendix No. 1851 - 30. Report on the necessity for a light-house upon the Upper Jettee, Cape Fear, River. [Lighthouse.]

Rodgers, J. and Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1851 - 33. Letter of the Superintendent to the Secretary of the Treasury in regard to the expediency of placing buoys in Mosquito Inlet, Florida, and transmitting the report o Lieutenant Commanding John Rodgers. [Lighthouse.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1851 - 34. Report of the Superintendent upon the necessity for a light-house or permanent beacon on the Rebecca Shoal, between the Tortugas and Marquesas, coast of Florida. [Lighthouse.]

Patterson, C.P., Appendix No. 1851 - 35. Report to the Superintendent on buoys and beacons for entrances to Mobile Bay. [Lighthouse.]

Patterson, C.P., Appendix No. 1851 - 36. Report to the Superintendent on buoys for Cat and Ship Island Harbors. [Lighthouse.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1851 - 38. Report to the Secretary of the Treasury on light-houses in Galveston Bay. [Lighthouse.]

Craven, T.A.M., Appendix No. 1851 - 39. Report of examination of Aransas Pass included in report of Superintendent to the Secretary of the Treasury recommending a light-boat and buoys. [Lighthouse.]

Alden, J.M., Bartlett, W.A., and Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1851 - 57 and Appendix No. 1851 - 57 bis. Report upon an examination in reference to a light-house at Humboldt Harbor, California. [Lighthouse.]

Secretary of the Treasury, Appendix No. 1852 - 33. Letter directing examinations of sites for light-houses, beacons, buoys, etc. [Lighthouse.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1852 - 34 and Appendix No. 1852 - 34, bis. P. 135. Table of results of examinations of sites of light-houses, beacons, buoys, etc., by the Coast Survey. Table of examinations of sites of light-houses, beacons, buoys, etc., to be made by Coast Survey. [Lighthouse.]

Woodhull, M., Appendix No. 1852 - 35. Pp. 136-140. Light-house examinations of Herring Neck and Condon Point, or Pumpkin Island. [Lighthouse.]

McBlair, C.H., Appendix No. 1852 - 36. Pp. 140-142. Examination of Succonesset Shoal and Killpond Bar, as sites for light-boats. [Lighthouse.]

Bartlett, W.A., Appendix No. 1852 - 37. Pp. 142-143. Light-house examination of Mill Reef, New Jersey. [Lighthouse.]

Woodhull, M., Appendix No. 1852 - 38. Pp. 143-145. On placing of buoys in Fire Island Inlet. [Lighthouse.]

Hunt, M., Appendix No. 1852 - 39. Pp. 145-146. On examination of necessity of beacon in West Oyster Bed, Newark Bay, New Jersey. [Lighthouse.]

Almy, J.J., Appendix No. 1852 - 40. Pp. 147-148. Recommendation for placing spar-buoys in Metomkin Inlet, Virginia. [Lighthouse.]

Whiting, W.B., Appendix No. 1852 - 41. Pp. 148-150. Report on light-house examination of Jones Point, Alexandria, Virginia. [Lighthouse.]

Almy, J.J., Appendix No. 1852 - 42. Pp. 150-152. Lighthouse examination of Pungoteague Creek, Virginia. [Lighthouse.]

Wainwright, R.B., Appendix No. 1852 - 43. P. 152. Letter designating position of beacons, etc., in James River, Virginia. [Lighthouse.]

Craven, T.A.M., Appendix No. 1852 - 44. P. 153. Report on the trial of the Hatteras bell-beacon at Philadelphia. [Lighthouse.]

Craven, T.A.M., Appendix No. 1852 - 44, bis. Pp. 153-154. Report on the placing of the bell-beacon on outer Hatteras shoal. [Lighthouse.]

Maffitt, J.N., Appendix No. 1852 - 45. Pp. 154-157. Report on examination of Winyaw Bay, South Carolina with reference to location of a beacon-light. [Lighthouse.]

Craven, T.A.M., Appendix No. 1852 - 46. Pp. 157-159. Report on examination of Cape Roman Shoals, South Carolina, with reference to location of a bell-boat. [Lighthouse.]

Steele, Judge, Appendix No. 1852 - 47. P. 159. Letter on utility of a beacon on reef of Sea-Horse Key. [Lighthouse.]

Craven, T.A.M., Appendix No. 1852 - 48. P. 160. Letter in reference to Half-Moon shoal, Galveston. [Lighthouse.]

Alden, J.M., Appendix No. 1852 - 49-52. Pp. 160-167. Letter showing advantages of Point Bonita over Fort Point as the location of light-house. (San Francisco Bay entrance.) [Lighthouse.]

Woodhull, M., Appendix No. 1853 - 9. P. 43. Report on the location of surf-boats on the coast of Maine and New Hampshire. [Lighthouse; Lifesaving.]

Stellwagen, H.S., Appendix No. 1853 - 10. Report on the location of surf-boats on the coast of Massachusetts. [Lighthouse; Lifesaving.]

Secretary of the Treasury, Appendix No. 1853 - 46. P. 169. Letter directing surveys and examinations to be made with reference to the location of lights and other aids to navigation. [Lighthouse.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1853 - 47. P. 170. Table showing the results of re-examination of sites of light-houses, beacons, buoys, etc., referred to Superintendent by Secretary of the Treasury. [Lighthouse.]

Stellwagen, H.S., Appendix No. 1853 - 48. P. 170. Report on the lighthouse survey of Minot's Ledge, Cohasset Rocks, Boston Harbor. [Lighthouse.]

Woodhull, M., Appendix No. 1853 - 49. P. 171. Report upon the light-house examination of Deep Hole Rock, Vineyard Sound, Massachusetts. [Lighthouse.]

Woodhull, M., Appendix No. 1853 - 50. P. 172. Report upon the light-house survey of the "Sow and Pigs" Rocks, off Cuttyhunk, Massachusetts. [Lighthouse.]

Blunt, E., Appendix No. 1853 - 51. P. 173. Report upon the selection and marking of positions for range-beacons in New York harbor. [Lighthouse.]

Totten, J., Appendix No. 1853 - 52. Pp. 173-175. Report upon the results of his examinations of Coast Survey signals along the Florida reef. [Lighthouse.]

Sands, B.F., Appendix No. 1853 - 53. P. 175. Report upon the light-house examination and survey of the eastern entrance to Pascagoula River, Mississippi. [Lighthouse.]

Sands, B.F., Appendix No. 1853 - 54. P. 176. Report upon the light-house examination and survey of Ship Shoal, Louisiana. [Lighthouse.]

Wilkinson, J., Appendix No. 1853 - 55. P. 176. Report upon the selection of a site for a light-house at Sabine Pass, Texas; also aletter from Lieut. M. Hunt, U.S.N., light-house inspector. [Lighthouse.]

Stellwagen, H.S., Appendix No. 1853 - 56. P. 178. Report on the light-house examination of Aransas Pass, Texas. [Lighthouse.]

Cutts, R.D., Appendix No. 1853 - 57. P. 179. Report upon the light-house examination and survey of Point Bonita, California. [Lighthouse.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1854 - 63. Pp. 215-216. Table of recommendations in regard to aids to navigation. [Lighthouse.]

Woodhull, M., and Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1854 - 64. Pp. 216-217. Alden's Reef light-boat and fog-bell. Letters on the location of a light-boat and fog-bell near Alden's Reef, Portland, Maine. [Light-house.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1854 - 65. P. 217. Letter on an additional beacon for Romer Shoal, New York Harbor. [Lighthouse.]

Stevens, T.H., and Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1854 - 66. Pp. 218-219. Letters on an examination for a light-house site, Anacapa Island, California. [Lighthouse.]

Alden, J.M., Stevens, T.H., Harrison, A.M., and Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1854 - 67. Pp. 219-221. Letter relative to a light-house at Point Ano Nuevo or at Santa Cruz, California. [Lighthouse.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1854 - 68. Pp. 221-222. Table of results of examinations for sites of light-houses, beacons, buoys, etc., made by Coast Survey at the request of the Light-house Board. [Lighthouse.]

Craven, T.A.M., and Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1854 - 69. Pp. 223-224. Letters on examinations for light-house sites of Noddle's Island, Castine, Eggemoggin Reach, Isle au Haut Thoroughfare, Tenant's Harbor, and Dry Point, Damariscotta River, Maine. [Lighthouse.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1854 - 70. P. 224. Letter on light-house examination at Nubble of Cape Neddick, York Harbor, Maine. [Lighthouse.]

Stellwagen, H.S., and Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1854 - 71. Pp. 225-227. Letters on examinations of sites for light-houses at Westport, Massachusetts; Niantic, Black Point, and Southport, Connecticut; and Race Point and Horton's Point, New York. [Lighthouse.]

Stellwagen, H.S., and Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1854 - 72. P. 227. Letters on an examination of Pine Island and vicinity, Fishers Island Sound, relative to placing a fog signal there. [Lighthouse.]

Jenkins, T.A., Meade, G., and Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1854 - 73. Letters relative to the reconnaissance of Coffins Patches, Florida reef. [Lighthouse.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1855 - 70. Pp. 403-404. Aids to navigation recommended in reports of Coast Survey assistants. (List.) [Lighthouse.]

Almy, J.J., Appendix No. 1855 - 71. P. 404. Letter recommending a light or day-beacon on York Spit, Chesapeake Bay. [Lighthouse.]

Craven, T.A.M. and Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1855 - 72. P. 405. Letters on aids to navigation for the Eastern coast and reefs of Florida. [Lighthouse.]

De Haven, E.J. and Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1855 - 73. P. 406. Letters on aids to navigation in Matagorda Bay, Texas. [Lighthouse.]

Johnson, W.M. and Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1855 - 74. Pp. 406-407. Superintendent's letter on W.M. Johnson's report on the facilities and advantages of Pigeon Point for a light. [Lighthouse.]

Alden, J., Stevens, I.I., Hunt, J.M., and Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1855 - 75. Pp. 407-408. Letters on the necessity of a light at Point Wilson, Admiralty Inlet, Washington Territory. [Lighthouse.]

Davidson, G.O. and Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1855 - 76. Pp. 409-410. Letter of the Superintendent and report of George Davidson relative to light-houses and other aids to navigation on the western coast. [Lighthouse.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1855 - 77. Pp. 410-411. Results of examinations for light-houses, beacons, buoys, etc. [Lighthouse.]

Craven, T.A.M. and Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1855 - 78. Pp. 411-412. Letter of Superintendent with results of T.A.M. Craven on examination for light-house sites at Wood Island and Kennebunk, Maine. [Lighthouse.]

Woodhull, M. Appendix No. 1855 - 79. P. 412. Report on examination of Absecom Inlet, New Jersey, for the location of a bell-buoy. [Lighthouse.]

Sands, B.F. and Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1855 - 80. P. 413. Letters on the expediency of discontinuing the light at Vermilion Bay, Louisiana. [Lighthouse.]

Sands, B.F. and Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1855 - 81. Pp. 413-414. Letters on an examination made relative to the necessity of a light at the entrance of Calcasieu River, Louisiana. [Lighthouse.]

De Haven, E.J. and Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1855 - 82. Pp. 414-415. Letters on an examination relative to the expediency of a light at Gallinipper Point, Lavacca Bay, Texas. [Lighthouse.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1855 - 83. Pp. 415-417. Letter with results of examinations for light-house sites, California and Washington Territory coasts. [Lighthouse.]

MacRae, A. and Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1855 - 84. P. 417. Letter of Superintendent on the progress of the re-examination of Santa Cruz Island, California. [Lighthouse.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1855 - 85. P. 417-418. Letter with results of examinations for light-house sites at Crescent City and Trinidad Bay. [Lighthouse.]

Alden, J.M. and Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1855 - 86. P. 418. Letter of Superintendent with results of examinations relative to sites for light-houses on the Western Coast. [Lighthouse.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1856 - 78. P. 349. Table specifying recommendations by Assistants in the Coast Survey relative to aids to navigation, with dates of reference to the Light-House Board. [Lighthouse.]

Stellwagen, H.S. and Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1856 - 79. Letter of Superintendent transmitting recommendation for a buoy to mark a shoal north of Davis Bank on Nantucket Shoals. [Lighthouse.]

Craven, T.A.M. and Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1856 - 80. Letter of Superintendent communicating suggestions in regard to the designation of coastal buoys south of Savannah River entrance. [Lighthouse.]

Trenchard, S. and Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1856 - 81. P. 351. Letter of Superintendent communicating recommendation for buoys on St. Simons Bar, Georgia. [Lighthouse.]

Craven, T.A.M. and Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1856 - 82. P. 351. Letter of Superintendent communicating recommendation for a buoy between Cape Florida and Fowey Rocks. [Lighthouse.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1856 - 83. P. 352. Results of examinations directed from the Light-House Board, and made during the year. [Lighthouse.]

Rodgers, C.R.P. and Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1856 - 84. Pp. 353-354. Letter of Superintendent transmitting report on the result of examinations for light-house sites at Bowers Beach and Old Duck Creek, Delaware Bay. [Lighthouse.]

Berryman, O.H. and Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1856 - 85. Pp. 354-355. Letter of Superintendent communicating report in reference to aids for navigation on St. Andrews Bay, Florida. [Lighthouse.]

MacRae, A. And Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1856 - 86. Pp. 355-356. Letter of Superintendent transmitting report on examination for a light-house site on the coast at Santa Barbara Channel. [Lighthouse.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1857 - 55. P. 438. Tabular list of localities for light-house sites referred for examination. [Lighthouse.]

Rodgers, C.R.P. and Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1857 - 56. Pp. 438-439. Letter of Superintendent reporting the result of an examination made at the Point of Rocks, Westport, Massachusetts, for a light-house site. [Lighthouse.]

Alden, J.M. and Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1857 - 57. Pp. 439-440. Letter of Superintendent communicating the conclusions relative to the expediency of erecting a light on the adjacent main of Santa Barbara Channel, California. [Lighthouse.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1857 - 58. Pp. 440-441. Correspondence relative to the establishment of a light-house and fog-bell at Point Wilson; and fog-bells at Smith's Island, Rosario Strait, and New Dungeness, Strait of Fuca, Washington Territory. [Lighthouse.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1857 - 59. P. 442. Tabular list of recommendations made during the year by assistants in the Coast Survey relative to aids to navigation. [Lighthouse.]

Rodgers, C.R.P. and Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1857 - 60. P. 442. Letter of Superintendent communicating the recommendation for a buoy at Flat Ground, Cape Ann, Massachusetts. [Lighthouse.]

Almy, J.J. and Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1857 - 61. P. 443. Letter of Superintendent communicating the recommendation for a buoy at Middle Ground, near Cape Henry, Virginia. [Lighthouse.]

Rodgers, C.R.P. and Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1857 - 62. Pp. 443-444. Letter of Superintendent transmitting recommendations for buoys to mark a new channel at Beaufort Harbor, North Carolina. [Lighthouse.]

Trenchard, S.D. and Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1857 - 63. P. 444. Letter of Superintendent communicating recommendations for buoys at St. Simons Entrance and St. Marys River, Georgia. [Lighthouse.]

Trenchard, S.D. and Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1857 - 64. P. 445. Letter of Superintendent transmitting a recommendation for an additional buoy at the bar of the St. Marys River, Georgia. [Lighthouse.]

Craven, T.A.M. and Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1857 - 65. P. 445. Letter of Superintendent communicating a recommendation for a beacon at Looe Key, Florida reef. [Lighthouse.]

Alden, J.M., Appendix No. 1858 - 45. P. 459. Letter communicating the recommendation relative to a light-house site at Red Bluff, Washington Territory. [Lighthouse.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1858 - 46. P. 460. List of recommendations relative to aids to navigation made by Assistants in reports to the Superintendent of the Coast Survey. [Lighthouse.]

Temple, W.G., Appendix No. 1858 - 47. P. 460-461. Letter transmitting recommendations for a small light and fog-bell at Halfway Rock, Casco Bay, Maine. [Lighthouse.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1858 - 48. Pp. 461-462. Correspondence relative to the necessity for a beacon at "The Elbow", Florida reef. [Lighthouse.]

Duer, J.K., Appendix No. 1858 - 49. Pp. 462-463. Letter communicating recommendation for a permanent beacon at West Pass, St. Georges Sound, Florida. [Lighthouse.]

Cuyler, R.M., Appendix No. 1858 - 50. P. 463. Letter transmitting the recommendation for buoys south of Point San Mateo, San Francisco Bay, California. [Lighthouse.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1859 - 40. P. 369. Aids to navigation recommended in reports made to the Superintendent by Assistants in the Coast Survey. [Lighthouse.]

Murray, A., Appendix No. 1859 - 41. Pp. 369-370. Letter communicating recommendation for buoys at Fletchers Neck, Maine. [Lighthouse.]

Maffitt, J.N., Appendix No. 1859 - 42. P. 370. Letter relative to buoys in St. Helena Sound, South Carolina. [Lighthouse.]

Fauntleroy, C.M., Appendix No. 1859 - 43. P. 370. Letter transmitting recommendation for buoys to mark east channel of Port Royal Sound, South Carolina. [Lighthouse.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1860 - 43. P. 408. List of aids to navigation recommended by Assistants in the U.S. Coast Survey during the past surveying year. [Lighthouse; List.]

Fauntleroy, C.M., Appendix No. 1860 - 44. Pp. 408-409. Letter communicating recommendations for changing the buoys of Sapelo Sound, Georgia. [Lighthouse.]

Phelps, T.S., Appendix No. 1860 - 45. P. 409. Letter transmitting recommendations for buoys at Pensacola Harbor, Florida. [Lighthouse.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1861 - 34. Letter communicating the results of an examination for a light-house and the placing of buoys at Grays Harbor, Washington Territory. [Lighthouse.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1863 - 29. P. 217. Aids to navigation placed or recommended by Coast Survey Assistants, and referred for the information of the Light-House Board. [Lighthouse.]

Mitchell, H., Appendix No. 1864 - 23. Pp. 223-225. Aids to navigation recommended for Eastport Harbor and Penobscot Bay, Maine. [Lighthouse.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1864 - 24. P. 226. Buoys placed or recommended by parties of the Coast Survey to facilitate navigation. [Lighthouse.]

Mitchell, H., Appendix No. 1885 - 11. Pp. 483-485. A plea for a light on St. Georges Bank. Exact position unknown in early times; position now accurately known but unmarked; its position with reference to important surrounding points; benefit to be derived by European commerce and that of New York, New England, and New Brunswick from light-house; size of the fishing fleet on and crossing the bank; importance of light and horn as a guide to this fleet; great loss of life and vessels under present conditions; shoal directly on shortest route from New York to British Channel, and near routes of ocean commerce of Massachusetts Bay and Bay of Fundy; fishing fleet delayed for want of signal; loss of largest privateer of 1812 (the DART) on St. Georges Bank; suggestion that memorial be erected in form of lighthouse. [Lighthouse; Miscellaneous; History.]

MISCELLANEOUS

Totten, J.B., Appendix No. 1853 - 18. Pp. 50-51. Climate, soil, and general character of Florida Keys. [Geography; Geology; Topography; Meteorology.]

Tidball, J.C., Appendix No. 1854 - 32. Pp. 61-63. Description of the Congress Map. (This map was mandated by Act of Congress and was a primary means of keeping Congress informed of the progress and operations of the United States Coast Survey. It was a map of the United States that was updated each year and presented to Congress and put on display.) [Miscellaneous.]

Hilgard, J.E., Appendix No. 1854 - 55. P. 192. On the action of sea water on metals. On the action of sea water on metals used in the construction of instruments and on magnetic needles. (This short paper resulted from Hilgard's observation of the instruments submerged in sea water for approximately three weeks and then recovered following the sinking of the Coast Survey Schooner PHOENIX in Mississippi Sound in January, 1854. The PHOENIX was struck and sunk by a tornado. It was subsequently raised. Fortunately, no lives were lost in this disaster as the PHOENIX sunk in relatively shallow water and all hands clung to the mast and rigging of the PHOENIX until the storm abated. [Miscellaneous.]

Mathiot, G., Appendix No. 1854 - 56. Pp. 193-201. Mathiot's self-sustaining battery. Its principles and workings. [Miscellaneous; Electromechanics.]

Tidball, J.C., Appendix No. 1855 - 39. Pp. 253-255. Description of the Congress Map. [Miscellaneous.]

Mathiot, G., Appendix No. 1855 - 61. Pp. 366-368. Galvanic experiment. Time required to produce the maximum intensity of a voltaic current. [Miscellaneous; Electromechanics.]

Mathiot, G., Appendix No. 1855 - 63. Pp. 370-373. Mathiot's branch-circuit galvanometer. On a method of measuring galvanic currents of great quantity. [Miscellaneous; Electromechanics.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1856 - 59. Pp. 307-308. Probable error. Article from "Astronomische Nachrichten, No. 1034," translated by C.A. Schott. [Miscellaneous; Computations.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1856 - 72. P. 343. Correspondence concerning the transfer of Coast Survey parties from sections of the Florida Peninsula subject to Indian hostilities. [Miscellaneous.]

Trowbridge, W.P., Appendix No. 1858 - 40. Pp. 270-271. Foreign geodetic surveys. Review showing their cost and progress, and other data, for comparison with the results of the United States Coast Survey; trigonometrical surveys of England, Ireland, and Scotland; hydrography of England; analysis of report of the select committee appointed to consider the ordnance survey of Scotland, etc., 1856; France; India; Russia; Prussia; table of statistics of topographical maps in Europe; recapitulation; marine disasters -- United States vessels, 1855, 1856, and 1857; imports, exports, tonnage, etc.; Great Britain, 1852 to 1855; Gulf of Mexico shipping; Florida reef. [Miscellaneous.]

Trowbridge, W.P., Appendix No. 1858 - 41. Pp. 270-273. Progress of the United States Coast Survey. Ratio of results for consecutive periods of twelve years. [Miscellaneous.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1858 - 42. P. 274. List of papers which accompanied a report on Coast Survey progress made to the Treasury Department in December, 1857. (See also Senate Report No. 6; Thirty-fifth Congress, second session, volume 6. [Miscellaneous.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1860 - 37. Pp 392-396. Cauchy's interpolation formula with remarks by C.A. Schott. [Miscellaneous; Computations.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1864 - 21. Pp. 220-222. Trajectory of richochet shots from a 15-inch Rodman gun; notes on. [Civil War; Computations.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1864 - 22. P. 223. Determination of ranges of shot from 15- and 20- inch guns. [Civil War; Computations; Geodesy.]

Ballard, E., Appendix No. 1868 - 14. Geographical names on the coast of Maine. [History; Orthography.]

Peirce, C.S., Appendix No. 1870 - 21. Pp. 200-224. On the theory of errors of observation. [Miscellaneous; Computations; Error Analysis.]

Peirce, C.S., Appendix No. 1875 - 15. Pp. 249-253. Description of an apparatus for recording the mean of the times of a set of observations. [Instrumentation; Geodesy; Astronomy.]

Peirce, B., Appendix No. 1876 - 6. P. 81-82. A new system of Binary Arithmetic. [Miscellaneous.]

Peirce, C.S., Appendix No. 1876 - 14. Pp. 197-201. Note on the theory of economy in research. [Miscellaneous.]

Saegmuller, G.N., Appendix No. 1879 - 12. Pp. 192-198. Reconstruction of the dividing engine of the Coast and Geodetic Survey; table of corrected screw readings for every degree; residual errors of graduation for theodolites Nos. 5, 118, and 133. [Miscellaneous; Instrumentation.]

Blair, H.W., Appendix No. 1884 - 18. Pp. 489-493. Brief account of the exhibit made by the Coast and Geodetic Survey at the Southern Exposition, Louisville, Kentucky, 1883. [Miscellaneous.]

Fairfield, G.A., Appendix No. 1893 - 1. Pp. 1-18. State laws authorizing entrance upon lands within state limits for the purposes of the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. [Miscellaneous.]

Smith, E., Appendix No. 1894 - 8. Pp. 263-275. Notes on some instruments recently made in the Instrument Division of the Coast and Geodetic Survey Office. [Instrumentation.]

Duffield, W.W., Appendix No. 1896 - 12. P. 395. Logarithms, their nature, computation, and uses, with logarithmic tables of numbers and circular functions to ten places of decimals. [Computations.]

Fischer, E. G., Appendix No. 1900 - 6. Pp. 525-534. Description of precise levels Nos. 7 and 8, Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1900. Introduction; the material; the tripod; the instrument base and center; the supporting cylinder; the telescope; the levels; the level-reading device; the finish; the weight. [Instrumentation; Geodesy; Leveling.]

Smith, E., Appendix No. 1900 - 8. Pp. 701-709. The determination of the mean value of a micrometer screw. [Instrumentation.]

Alexander, W.D., Appendix No. 1902 - 7. Pp. 367-426. Hawaiian geographic names. Preface; list of Hawaiian geographic names organized by: islands; districts; channels; bays and harbors; capes and points; rivers and streams; ponds; elevations; lands; towns, villages, and hamlets. Meaning of Hawaiian geographic names; glossary; alphabetical list of Hawaiian geographic names. [Geography; Orthography.]

Putnam, G.R., Appendix No. 1903 - 7. Pp. 1011-1016. Geographic names in Alaska. Native names for localities on St. George Island, Bering Sea. [Orthography.]

OCEANOGRAPHY: BLUE-WATER

Bache, G.M., Appendix No. 1846 - 4. Pp. 46-53. Letters on the exploration of the Gulf Stream. (In these letters, Bache writes to his brother, Alexander, of discoveries in the Gulf Stream including the "Cold Wall." George M. Bache, while engaged in Gulf Stream explorations, was killed in the hurricane of September 8, 1846, along with ten of his crew on the Coast Survey Brig WASHINGTON.) They were among early martyrs to the cause of American science.) [Oceanography; Gulf Stream; Currents.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1847 - 11. P. 75. Table showing temperatures at depths below 700 fathoms, taken by Lieutenants Commanding C.H. Davis in 1845, George M. Bache in 1846, and Samuel Phillips Lee in 1847. [Oceanography; Gulf Stream.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1847 - 12. P. 76. Notice of the finding on the coast of Kerry, Ireland, of a bottle thrown from the brig WASHINGTON while in the Gulf Stream. [Oceanography; Gulf Stream.]

Page, J.W., Appendix No. 1849 - 12. Pp. 87-88. Extract from a letter from Page, Merry Hill, Bertie County, North Carolina, relating to finding of a current bottle thrown from the Coast Survey Steamer JEFFERSON. [Oceanography; Gulf Stream; Currents.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1853 - 17. P. 50. Letter of Superintendent to Secretary of the Treasury, reporting the discovery, by Lieutenants Comanding Craven and Maffitt, of a bank lying to the east of the Gulf Stream. (This "discovery" led to Bache making the erroneous assumption that the configuration of the seafloor led to the banding of the Gulf Stream into warm and cold bands. ) [Oceanography; Gulf Stream; Marine Geology.]

Pourtales, L. F. , Appendix No. 1853 - 30. Pp. 82-83. Examination of specimens of bottom obtained in Gulf Stream. [Oceanography; Deep Sea Soundings; Gulf Stream; Marine Geology.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1854 - 47. Pp. 156-161. Gulf Stream temperatures. On the distribution of temperatures on and near the Gulf Stream: (1) at different depths; (2) at the same depths on sections across the axis of the Gulf Stream with probable uncertainty in determination of the maximum and minimum points; (3) connection with the figure of the sea bottom with the distribution of temperature; (4) the "cold wall;" (5) reference to shifting; and (6) chart of Gulf Stream. [Oceanography; Gulf Stream.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1854 - 52. Pp. 189-190. Current bottles. One from Mobile Bay to Mosquito Inlet and one from Cape Florida to Jupiter Inlet. [Oceanography; Currents.]

Craven, T.A.M., Appendix No. 1854 - 54. Pp. 191-192. Craven's specimen box for deep-sea bottoms. [Oceanography; Deep Sea Soundings; Marine Geology; Instrumentation.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1855 - 54. P. 359. Bottle paper. Current bottle card thrown over near Sandy Hook and picked up at the bar at Santa Cruz, one of the Western Islands. [Oceanography; Currents.]

Bailey, J.W., Appendix No. 1855 - 55. P. 360. Gulf stream bottoms. On the characteristics of some bottoms from the Cape Florida Gulf Stream section. [Oceanography; Gulf Stream; Marine Geology.]

Sands, B.F., Appendix No. 1855 - 56. P. 361. Specimen box. Instrument for procuring specimens of bottoms in sounding. [Hydrography; Instrumentation; Marine Geology.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1856 - 46. Pp. 279-280. Cards from current bottles. Picked up on the shore of Loggerhead Key, Fla. And on the North Caicos, Bahamas. [Oceanography; Currents.]

Sands, B.F., Appendix No. 1857 - 46. P. 398. Deep-sea sounding apparatus. Description of a form proposed and used by B. F. Sands. [Oceanography; Deep Sea Sounding; Instrumentation.]

Hunt, E.B., Appendix No. 1858 - 31. Pp. 213-216. Dynamics of ocean currents. [Oceanography; Currents; Gulf Stream.]

Hunt, E.B., Appendix No. 1858 - 32. Pp. 217-222. Florida Gulf Stream. Notices of certain anomalies; changes of current depending upon the wind and season. [Oceanography; Gulf Stream; Currents; Meteorology.]

Trowbridge, W.P., Appendix No. 1858 - 37. Pp. 228-246. Deep-sea soundings. Investigation of the laws of motion governing the descent of the weight and line; formulae of velocity of descent - rates of descent and resistance, in pounds, upon the sinker and line, with one and with two 32-pound shot, attached to a line 0.07 inch in diameter; same with 96 and 128 pound weights, deep-sea line; III, influence of different lengths of line moving with the same velocity; ratios of lengths to ratio of resistances; comparison of resistances upon the same lengths of lines of different diameters, moving at the same velocity; influence of lengths at different depths; rates of descent, velocity, resistance to sinker and line, and weight of line in water, from observations made by Joseph Dayman; diameter of line, 2 inches; weight 96 pounds; specific gravity, 1.3. [Oceanography; Deep Sea Soundings; Error Analysis; Computations; Instrumentation.]

Pourtales, L. F. , Appendix No. 1858 - 39. Pp. 248-250. Analysis, microscopical, of specimens of bottom taken in sounding. Green and ochraceous incrustation of Foraminifera, and jet tint of specimens. [Oceanography; Deep Sea Soundings; Gulf Stream; Marine Geology; Marine Biology.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1859 - 25. Pp. 306-310. Gulf Stream. Distribution of temperature in the water of the Florida channel and straits. Form of bottom; change of temperature with depth; temperature in a direction across the stream; bands of warm water and cold water; the "cold wall;" longitudinal section; effects of pressure on Saxton's deep-sea thermometer, under pressure and free from pressure; thermometers No. 5 and 10. [Oceanography; Currents; Gulf Stream; Instrumentation.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1859 - 28. Pp. 320-321. Current cards thrown from the surveying steamer CORWIN, and found on the eastern coast of Florida. [Oceanography; Currents.]

Trowbridge, W.P., Appendix No. 1859 - 34. Pp. 359-364. Deep-sea sounding apparatus. Description of a form devised by W.P. Trowbridge, and explanation of its use. [Oceanography; Deep Sea Soundings; Instrumentation.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1860 - 17. Pp. 165- 176. Gulf Stream. General account of the methods used in developing its hydrography, and summary of results obtained: (1) instruments for temperatures; for depth; for obtaining specimens of the bottom; (2) plan of the work; (3) method of discussion of results; (4) results; type curves of law of distribution of temperature, with depth at the most characteristic positions; type curves of law of distribution of temperature across the stream; curves of temperature at the same depths; curves of depths at the same temperatures. -- Table I. Distance of the cold wall from the shore, and widths of the several bands of cold and warm water of the Gulf Stream, measured on the lines of the sections; (5) limit of accuracy of the determinations; II, probable uncertainty in the determination of maximum and minimum points by running the same sections over in different years, by different observers; III, value of probable error of determination of the bands for each section and the average of the whole; (6) figure of the bottom of the sea below the Gulf Stream; (7) general features of the Gulf Stream. [Oceanography; Currents; Gulf Stream.]

Trowbridge, W.P., Appendix No. 1861 - 11. Pp. 135-139. Sounding apparatus and log. Results obtained with an instrument devised by him. [Oceanography; Deep Sea Sounding; Instrumentation.]

Hunt, E.B., Appendix No. 1862 - 25. Pp. 241-248. Florida reef; its origin, growth, substructure, and chronology. [Oceanography; Marine Geology.]

Mitchell, H., Appendix No. 1866 - 5. Pp. 35-44. Florida Straits. Report on soundings; northern approach; southern approach; difficulties in the way of laying a telegraph cable; remarks upon lines and leads; table of soundings across the Straits of Florida from Sand Key to El Moro, 1866. [Oceanography; Deep Sea Soundings; Instrumentation.]

Mitchell, H., Appendix No. 1867 - 15. Pp. 176-179. Soundings in the Gulf Stream between Key West, Florida, and Havana. Table I, soundings in the Gulf Stream near the coast of Cuba, 1867; II, current observations. [Oceanography; Gulf Stream; Deep Sea Soundings; Currents.]

Pourtales, L. F. , Appendix No. 1867 - 16. Pp. 180-182. Fauna of the Gulf Stream. Dredgings in the Straits of Florida. [Oceanography; Gulf Stream; Marine Biology.]

Mitchell, H., Appendix No. 1868 - 11. Pp. 166-167. Note on Gulf Stream observations. Decrease of bottom temperature in still-water channels. [Oceanography; Gulf Stream; Currents.]

Pourtales, L. F. , Appendix No. 1868 - 12. Pp. 168-170. Report upon dredgings near the Florida Reef. Organic specimens; corals, echinoderms, brachiopods; etc. [Oceanography; Gulf Stream; Marine Biology.]

Agassiz, L., Appendix No. 1869 - 10. Pp. 208-219. Report upon deep-sea dredgings in the Gulf Stream during the third cruise of the United States Steamer BIBB. Fauna of the submarine zones; reef zone; sedimentary zone; coral slope of living cretacean types; floor of foraminiferine mud; geological inferences; inclination of the reefs; pot holes; formation of oolithic, amorphous, and compact limestones; embryology of corals and formation of colonies by disk embranchment; extinct forms representing modern developmental transitions; lines to be dredged. [Oceanography; Gulf Stream; Marine Biology; Marine Geology.]

Pourtales, L. F. , Appendix No. 1869 - 11. Pp. 220-225. The Gulf Stream. -- Characteristic of the Atlantic sea bottom off the coast of the United States. Manner of dredging; silicious formation; green sand formation. [Oceanography; Gulf Stream; Marine Geology; Instrumentation.]

Pourtales, L. F. , Appendix No. 1872 - 11. Pp. 213-221. Voyage of the Steamer HASSLER from Boston to San Francisco. [Oceanography; Marine Biology; Marine Geology.]

Sigsbee, C.D., Appendix No. 1874 - 14. P. 152. Device for detaching from a line the heavy weight requisite in deep-sea soundings. [Oceanography; Deep Sea Soundings; Instrumentation.]

Hilgard, J.E., Appendix No. 1874 - 16. P. 154-155. Ocean salinometer. [Oceanography; Instrumentation.]

Hilgard, J.E., Appendix No. 1877 - 10. Pp. 108-113. Optical densimeter for ocean waters. [Oceanography; Instrumentation.]

Agassiz, A., Appendix No. 1879 - 6. Pp. 95-102. Dredging operations in the Caribbean Sea. [Oceanography; Marine Geology; Marine Biology; Instrumentation.]

Mitchell, H., Appendix No. 1879 - 10. Pp. 175-190. Physical hydrography of the Gulf of Maine. General description; tides and currents; George's Bank. [Hydrography; Oceanography; Tides; Currents.]

Dall, W.H., Appendix No. 1880 - 16. Pp. 297-340. Bering Sea. Report on the currents and temperatures, and also those of the adjacent waters; sources of information; surface temperature; tables of temperatures; pack ice; summer temperatures; the Kuro Siwo and its extensions; table of North Pacific Sea temperatures; comparison of sea temperatures from observations by the CHALLENGER, 1873 and 1875; currents of Bering Sea; observations of the TUSCARORA and VENUS; those of Krusenstern, 1804-1806; notes by whalers and others; table of temperatures; of currents; observations off the coast of Asia; in the Arctic in general; in the vicinity of Point Barrow. Supplementary note.-- Additional observations in the Arctic Sea; boundary line between the territory of the United States in Alaska and Russia in Asia; diagrams of surface and vertical isotherms; chart of currents. [Oceanography; Currents; History.]

Bartlett, J.R. and Suess, W., Appendix No. 1882 - 18. Pp. 451-457. John R. Bartlett and Werner Suess. Report on the Siemens electrical deep-sea thermometer. Test of thermometer on the U.S. Coast Survey steamer BLAKE , with tables of results obtained at different depths and under different conditions and a description of the apparatus. [Oceanography; Instrumentation.]

Pillsbury, J.E., Appendix No. 1882 - 19. Pp. 459-461. Recent deep-sea soundings off the Atlantic Coast of the United States. Development of the bed of the Gulf Stream. A general summary of the operations of the U.S. Coast Survey steamer BLAKE in the examination of the western Atlantic basin in 1880, 1881, 1882, and 1883. [Oceanography; Gulf Stream; Deep Sea Soundings.]

Lindenkohl, A., Appendix No. 1884 - 13. Pp. 435-438. Geology of the sea bottom in the approaches to New York Bay. Prefatory remarks; characteristics of sea bottom: (1) a well-defined submarine valley; (2) an area of clay bottom extending about 100 miles seaward; (3) a deep ravine at the edge of the continental slope, the Hudson River fiord. [Oceanography; Deep Sea Soundings; Marine Geology.]

Hilgard, J.E., Appendix No. 1884 - 17. Pp. 619-621. Description of a relief model of the depths of the sea in the Bay of North America and Gulf of Mexico. A detailed description of the model; oceanic depressions and terrestrial elevations contrasted; addendum giving effect of an assumed reduction in the depth of the sea of 100 fathoms. [Oceanography; Marine Geology.]

Pillsbury, J.E., Appendix No. 1885 - 14. Pp. 495-501. Report on deep sea current work in the Gulf Stream. [Oceanography; Gulf Stream; Currents; Instrumentation.]

Pillsbury, J.E., Appendix No. 1886 - 11. Pp. 281-290. A report of Gulf Stream explorations. Observations of currents, 1886. [Oceanography; Gulf Stream; Currents.]

Pillsbury, J.E., Appendix No. 1887 - 8. Pp. 173-184. Gulf Stream explorations; observations of currents, 1887. [Oceanography; Gulf Stream; Currents.]

Pillsbury, J.E., Appendix No. 1889 - 16. Pp. 467-477. Gulf Stream explorations; observations of currents, 1888-1889. [Oceanography; Gulf Stream; Currents.]

Pillsbury, J.E., Appendix No. 1890 - 10. Pp. 461-620. The Gulf Stream; a description of the methods employed in the investigation and the results of the research. Preface; introduction; general historical account of the Gulf Stream and its investigation up to the time of Franklin to those made by the U.S. Coast Survey; Gulf Stream investigations made by the U.S. Coast Survey until 1884 and those contemporary with them; outfit of the BLAKE for anchoring at sea and observing the currents; characteristics of the Gulf Stream in the Straits of Florida and in the Yucatan Passage; the Gulf Stream off Jupiter Inlet and Cape Hatteras; the equatorial current; causes of the Gulf Stream and of Atlantic currents; conclusions; index. [Oceanography; Gulf Stream; Currents; Instrumentation; History.]

Libby, W., Jr., Appendix No. 1891 - 7. Pp. 279-281. On an investigation of the relations of cold and warm ocean currents off the New England coast, by the U.S. Fish Commission, with the cooperation of the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. [Oceanography; Currents; Fisheries.]

Haskell, E.E., Appendix No. 1891 - 10. Pp. 343-364. On observations of currents with the Direction Current Meter in the Straits of Florida and in the Gulf of Mexico, 1891. [Oceanography; Currents; Instrumentation.]

Lindenkohl, A., Appendix No. 1895 - 6. Pp. 355-369. Notes on the specific gravity of the waters of the Gulf of Mexico and the Gulf Stream. [Oceanography; Gulf Stream.]

Putnam, G.R., Appendix No. 1898 - 5. Pp. 237-246. Physical observations made in connection with the Pribilof Islands expedition of 1897. Magnetic irregularities on St. George Island; sea-water densities in the northeast Pacific and Bering Sea; determination of the force of gravity on St. Paul Island, Bering Sea. [Geophysics; Magnetism; Gravity; Oceanography; Geographic Exploration.]

Lindenkohl, A., Appendix No. 1898 - 9. Pp. 463-471. Problems of physiography, concerning salinity and temperature of the Pacific Ocean. Includes sections on Bering Sea, Okhotsk Sea, and Central Pacific Ocean. [Oceanography; Marine Geology.]

OCEANOGRAPHY: SHALLOW-WATER AND ESTUARINE

Patterson, C.P., Appendix No. 1849 - 20. P. 97. Description of a float for observations of surface currents. [Oceanography, Currents.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1851 - 8. Pp. 136-137. Graphical method of representing current observations, as used in the Coast Survey. [Oceanography; Currents.]

Whiting, H.L., Appendix No. 1851 - 28. Pp. 482-484. Beaufort Harbor, North Carolina. Operative causes of its physical permanency. [Oceanography; Currents; Topography; Shoreline Changes.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1854 - 48. Pp. 161-166. On the currents of Nantucket Shoals from Coast Survey current observations. Mean direction, maximum velocity, groups of luni-current intervals. [Oceanography; Currents.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1854 - 49. Pp. 166-168. Muskeget Channel and Marthas Vineyard currents. Tables showing the currents and rate of current in Muskeget Channel and the northeast coast of Marthas Vineyard; velocity of current; duration of ebb, flood, and slack water; current establishments. [Oceanography; Currents.]

Mitchell, H., Appendix No. 1856 - 39. Pp. 264-266. New York Harbor and dependencies. On tidal and current observations made in New York Harbor, city docks, Newark Bay, and the Kills. [Oceanography; Tides; Currents.]

Gibbs, W., Appendix No. 1856 - 63. Pp. 317-318. Analysis of sea water. Chemical analysis of the water of New York Harbor. [Oceanography; Miscellaneous.]

Mitchell, H., Appendix No. 1857 - 35. Pp. 350-354. Tides and currents in the Nantucket and Vineyard Sounds and in the East River. Hell Gate and vicinity, tides and currents; Hudson River levelings; Nantucket and Marthas Vineyard sounds, tides and currents. [Oceanography; Tides; Currents.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1857 - 37. Pp. 358-373. New York Harbor; report of advisory council. Physical causes of change: (1) Changes at Sandy Hook; (2) northern side of entrance, Coney Island and south shore of Long Island; (3) New York bar; (4) New York upper bay; (5) Newark Bay; (6) Hudson River; (7) East River to Throgs Neck; statistical extracts. [Oceanography; Tides; Currents; Hydrography; Shoreline Changes.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1858 - 27. Pp. 197-203. New York Bay and Sandy Hook. On the character of the tidal currents in the vicinity of the bar; normal currents at the entrance to New York Bay and False Hook Channel and the approaches; currents of Sandy Hook Bay. Tables of lunar time, duration, velocity, and direction of currents; velocities corrected for diurnal and half-monthly inequalities. [Oceanography; Tides; Currents.]

Mitchell, H., Appendix No. 1858 - 28. Pp. 204-207. East River and New York Bay. On the observations of surface currents and subsurface currents. [Oceanography; Tides; Currents.]

Mitchell, H., Appendix No. 1859 - 26. Pp. 311-317. New York Harbor. On its physical survey, with description of apparatus for observing the currents. [Oceanography; Currents; Instrumentation.]

Mitchell, H., Appendix No. 1867 - 13. Pp. 158-169. Tides and currents of Hell Gate, N.Y. [Oceanography; Tides; Currents.]

Mitchell, H., Appendix No. 1867 - 14. Pp. 170-175. Surveys on the Merrimack River. [Oceanography; Tides; Currents.]

Mitchell, H., Appendix No. 1869 - 5. Pp. 75-104. Reclamation of tide lands, and its relation to navigation. (1) General discussion; scour of tidal and river currents; general rule of bar scouring; parallel works; traverse works; physical history of salt marshes; shingle levees; other natural levees; Peirce's criterion; (2) field work; Green Harbor River; North River; tabular sections of shingle levees; sand beach; section of slueway formed by Minot's gale; general rise; local changes of heights of tide - tables; effect of a dam; general conclusions relative to the projects of reclamation; shore of Nahant; tabular sections; maps and diagrams. [Oceanography; Shoreline Changes.]

Mitchell, H., Appendix No. 1870 - 11. Pp. 98-99. Extract from a report relative to a method of determining differences of elevation along the course of a tidal river, without the aid of a leveling instrument by setting up graduated staves at such distances apart that the slacks of the tidal currents extend from one to another. -- Rule: The difference in the elevations of the zeros of the tide gauges is equal to one-half the sum of the differences of their readings at the two slack waters. [Oceanography; Tides; Currents; Geodesy; Leveling.]

Mitchell, H., Appendix No. 1870 - 18. Pp. 180-181. On the probable effect of extended piers in modifying the channel facilities of San Francisco near Yerba Buena Island. [Hydrography; Topography; Shoreline Changes.]

Mitchell, H., Appendix No. 1871 - 8. Pp. 110-133. Harbor of New York, 1873. Increase of Jersey Flats; changes in Buttermilk Channel; changes in the vicinity of Middle Ground Shoal and Gowanus Bay; changes at and near the Sandy Hook Entrance; tides and currents; phenomena in the pathway of the Hudson; movement through East River; East River and Hudson tidal current compared; relations of East River movements to those over the bar. [Hydrography; Oceanography; Tides; Currents; Shoreline Changes.]

Mitchell, H., Appendix No. 1871 - 10. Pp. 144- 153. Location of harbor lines. Value of tidal volume; encroachment on the channels; isodynamic lines; anchorage and winding room; requisite depths of frontage; length of slips; riparian rights; laws establishing harbor lines. [Hydrography; Oceanography; Tides; Currents; Shoreline Changes; Social Issues.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1872 - 15. Pp. 255-256. Correspondence relative to the preservation of New York Harbor. [Hydrography; Social Issues.]

Mitchell, H., Appendix No. 1872 - 16. Pp. 257-261. Middle-ground shoal, New York Harbor. Tables of current observations. [Oceanography; Currents.]

Mitchell, H., Appendix No. 1873 - 8. Pp. 94-102. Physical survey of Portland Harbor. Correspondence; velocities of tidal currents; diagrams. [Oceanography; Tides; Currents.]

Mitchell, H., Appendix No. 1873 - 10. Pp. 108-109. Changes in the submerged contours of Sandy Hook. [Hydrography.]

Mitchell, H., Appendix No. 1874 - 12. Pp. 135-147. Terminal points of the proposed canals through Nicaragua and the Isthmus of Darien. Greytown; history of the harbor; causes of its decline and final destruction; the work of restoration; obstructions of the lower San Juan; Uraba mouth of the Atrato and conclusions relative to improvement of the Uraba; Brito; conclusions; Limon and Chiri Chiri Bays; general exposure. [History; Oceanography; Tides; Currents; Shoreline Changes.]

Davidson, G.O., Appendix No. 1875 - 18. Pp. 293-314. Observations on certain harbor and river improvements collected on a voyage from Hongkong, via Suez, to New York. Nagasaki; Shanghai; Hongkong; Canton; Singapore; Penang; Calcutta; Bombay; Suez and canal; destructive action caused by passing vessels; current through the canal; saltness of water; tides; breakwater at Port Said; dredging, estimate of cost; Alexandria; Naples; Genoa; Swinemunde; Copenhagen; Kiel; Hamburg; Bremerhafen; Wilhelmshafen; Amsterdam Canal; entrance locks and sluices; the beton blocks; North Sea Harbor breakwater; design; method of building; dam at Schellingwonde, eastern extremity of the Amsterdam Canal; difficulties of construction; Cherbourg; docks; breakwater; Brest; docks; Admiralty Pier, Dover; construction; cost; Portland Breakwater; ripraps; description; cost; Holyhead Breakwater; Alderney Breakwater; conclusions; fascinage for breakwater foundations; river improvements. [Oceanography; Tides; Hydrography; Shoreline Changes.]

Mitchell, H., Appendix No. 1876 - 10. Pp. 147-185. Physical survey of New York Harbor. [Oceanography; Tides; Currents; Hydrography.]

Mitchell, H., Appendix No. 1876 - 11. Pp. 186-189. Report concerning the location of a quay or pier line in the vicinity of the United States Navy Yard at New York. [Shoreline Changes; Oceanography; Tides; Currents.]

Marindin, H.L., Appendix No. 1877 - 9. Pp. 104-107. Apparatus for observing currents devised for use in the Mississippi River. Description of floats; diagram. [Oceanography; Currents; Instrumentation.]

Collins, F., Appendix No. 1877 - 14. Pp. 184-190. Density of the waters of the Chesapeake Bay and its principal estuaries. Instruments employed; specific gravity; method of working; explanation of tables in the full report. [Oceanography; Instrumentation.]

Mitchell, H., Appendix No. 1878 - 9. Pp. 121-175. Physical survey of the Delaware River at Philadelphia. The channel; form of cross-section; tables of transverse curves of velocity. [Hydrography; Oceanography; Tides; Currents.]

Mitchell, H., Appendix No. 1879 - 13. P. 199-200. Addendum to a report on a physical survey of the Delaware River. [Hydrography; Oceanography; Tides; Currents.]

Winslow, F., Appendix No. 1881 - 11. Pp. 269-353. Report on the oyster beds of the James River, Virginia, and of Tangier and Pocomoke Sounds, Maryland and Virginia. [Oceanography; Fisheries; Marine Biology.]

Mitchell, H., Appendix No. 1881 - 18. Pp. 464-469. Report on a new rule for tides in Delaware Bay and River. Proposed new rule for the currents of Delaware River; currents of Delaware Bay; "Station No. 4," outside of Cape Henlopen - lighthouse bearing nearly west by compass; diagram showing manner of computing middle line; rule; table of currents of Delaware Bay; table of currents of Delaware River; note relative to the lines of high and low water in Delaware Bay and River; progress of tide in Delaware Bay and River. [Oceanography; Currents; Tides.]

Mitchell, H., Appendix No. 1882 - 16. Pp. 433-436. Study of the effect of river bends in the Lower Mississippi. Introductory remarks; inductions; a comparison of air-line and river distances with mean depths, mean widths, and mean areas in the Mississippi River; bend effects in the Mississippi River from 4.5 miles below Fort Saint Philip to near Point Houmas, 150. 8 miles; inferences; authority for data. [Hydrography; Topography; Shoreline Changes.]

Mitchell, H., Appendix No. 1883 - 8. Pp. 239-245. The estuary of the Delaware. Introductory remarks; term estuary defined; table of half-tide dimensions of the estuary of the Delaware; diagram representing mean depths, widths, and sectional areas for each nautical mile; table giving progress of the tide in Delaware Bay and River; discussion concerning tide; resume ofdata used; estuary of the Delaware; table of widths, areas, and depths. [Oceanography; Tides; Currents.]

Mitchell, H., Appendix No. 1886 - 13. Pp. 409-433. On the circulation of the sea through New York Harbor. Types of tidal profiles; field work of 1886; recapitulation; current observations taken by the Naval parties, October, 1886; East River tides and tidal currents; table giving lunar intervals of upper and lower restorations of level between Governor's Island and Willet's Point, with synchronous heights at other stations, for eight tides between October 4 to 6, 1886; maximum and minimum slopes; table giving a comparison of restorations of level ; maximum slope (by reaches) of the East River, October 4 to 6, 1886; comparison of slopes Governor's Island to Willet's Point; intervals and heights of restoration of level between New York Harbor (Governor's Island) and Long Island Sound (Willet's Point), from observations of October, 1886; currents; tables of slope and velocity in East River; tables showing decomposition of tides; graphic decomposition of tides; comparison of mean levels at Governor's Island and Willet's Point; concluding remarks. [Oceanography; Tides; Currents.]

Mitchell, H., Appendix No. 1887 - 6. Pp. 159-163. On the movements of the sands at the eastern entrance of Vineyard Sound. A continuation of the discussion of the changes among the Monomoy Shoals; table of tides and currents at the entrance of Vineyard Sound; composition of tidal forces; tides at entrance of Vineyard Sound graphically represented. [Oceanography; Tides; Currents; Hydrography.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1887 - 7. Pp. 165-172. Fluctuations in the level of Lake Champlain and average height of its surface above the sea. Introductory remarks; fluctuations of the level of Lake Champlain, as shown by monthly means from daily observations made by the United States Engineers at Fort Montgomery, N.Y., between the years 1871 and 1882; fluctuations in the level of Lake Ontario, shown by monthly means at Charlotte Harbor as a representative station, between the years 1859 and 1881; comparison of the state of Lake Champlain with the amount of rain (and melted snow) during the years 1871-1882; table showing the effect of wind; secular variation in the level of Lake Champlain; diagram showing annual variation in the level of Lake Champlain and Lake Ontario, with annual variation in rainfall; diagram showing secular variation of the two lakes; absolute height of lake Champlain above the ocean; probable uncertainty of this result. [Hydrography; Meteorology; Geodesy; Leveling; Computations.]

Mitchell, H., Appendix No. 1887 - 13. Pp. 269-273. Addendum to Appendix No. 8, report of 1883, on the estuary of the Delaware; table giving physical elements of the estuary of the Delaware, with introductory letter. [Oceanography; Tides; Currents.]

Mitchell, H., Appendix No. 1887 - 15. Pp. 301-311. Report on the results of the physical surveys of New York Harbor. Part I. The underrun of the Hudson River; its relation to New York bar; underrun in the Hudson during the dry season; tables giving the densities at different depths, from observations taken in the summer of 1885; currents at different depths at various localities; depth of neutral plane below surface; limit of the tide, as affecting the scour of the channels in New York Harbor. Part II. Courses of the Hudson tides through New York Harbor; slopes of the hudson and East Rivers; synchronous tides in the tract of the Hudson. [Oceanography; Tides; Currents.]

Marindin, H.L., Appendix No. 1888 - 9. Pp. 405-408. Tidal levels and flow of currents in New York Bay and Harbor. [Oceanography; Tides; Currents.]

Hayford, J.F., Appendix No. 1890 - 14. Pp. 691-703. On the use of observations of currents for prediction purposes. [Oceanography; Currents.]

Marindin, H.L., Appendix No. 1892 - 5. Pp. 225-241. On the tides and currents in the harbor of Edgartown and Katama Bay, Martha's Vineyard. [Oceanography; Tides; Currents.]

RECONNAISSANCE AND EXPLORATION

Gerdes, F.H., Appendix No. 1850 - 23. Pp. 106-110. Extract from the report of Assistant F. H. Gerdes to the Superintendent on the reconnaissance of the Florida Keys, etc. [Reconnaissance.]

McArthur, W.P., Appendix No. 1850 - 31. Pp. 119-120. Report accompanying a reconnaissance chart of the western coast of the United States from Monterey, Cal., to the Columbia River, Oregon. [Reconnaissance; Hydrography.]

Gerdes, F.H., Appendix No. 1851 - 31. Pp. 488-494. Florida coast reconnaissance from the Suwannee River to St. Martins reef. A. description; B, survey; C, tides and currents; D, railroad cross the peninsula; E, lighthouses and buoys; F, general remarks on the Cedar Keys Harbor. [Reconnaissance.]

Gerdes, F.H., Appendix No. 1852 - 12. Pp. 87-94. Extracts from the report of Assistant F. H. Gerdes on a reconnaissance from Suwannee River, Florida, to Delta of Mississippi. [Reconnaissance.]

Alden, J., Appendix No. 1852 - 18. Pp. 104-107. Report of Lieut. Commanding James Alden, U.S.N., Assistant in the Coast Survey, on the reconnaissance from San Francisco to San Diego, including Santa Barbara Islands and channel. [Reconnaissance.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1852 - 29. Pp. 127-130. Letter of Superintendent to Secretary of the Treasury in relation to proposed reconnaissance, south from San Diego to Cape St. Lucas. [Reconnaissance.]

Palmer, W.R., Appendix No. 1853 - 14. P. 47. Report upon the reconnaissance of the Rappahannock River, Virginia, from Fredericksburg to Chesapeake Bay. (This reconnaissance and subsequent work along the river led to the remarkable finding that the distance along the river to Fredericksburg had been over-estimated by 50 miles. The best information available felt that the distance was approximately 150 miles while the true distance was closer to 100 miles. Such errors, even in the relatively civilized areas of the east, were quite common and reflected the general ignorance of geography prevalent prior to the advent of modern surveys.) [Reconnaissance.]

Gerdes, F.H., Appendix No. 1853 - 19. P. 51. Report on the reconnaissance of the entrance of Barataria Bay, coast of Louisiana. [Reconnaissance; Hydrography.]

Gerdes, F.H., Appendix No. 1853 - 20. P. 51. Report on the reconnaissance of the entrance of Timbalier Bay, coast of Louisiana. [Reconnaissance; Hydrography.]

Alden, J.M., Appendix No. 1853 - 23. P. 55. Extracts from a letter on the results of a reconnaissance of the coast, harbors, etc., between San Francisco and the Coluumbia River. [Reconnaissance.]

Gerdes, F.H., Appendix No. 1854 - 20. Pp. 28-30. Extracts from the report of F. H. Gerdes on the reconnaissance of the coast of Louisiana in 1854 (Mississippi Delta.) [Reconnaissance.]

Greenwell, W.E., Appendix No. 1854 - 21. Pp. 30-31. Extracts from a report by W.E. Greenwell on the general features and peculiarities of the coast of Lower Texas, with suggestions in regard to facilities for navigation, from the harbor of the Brazos de Santiago to the mouth of the Rio Grande. [Reconnaissance.]

Johnson, W.M., Appendix No. 1854 - 22. P. 31. Extract on report of the features of the country between the Pajaro and Salinas Rivers. [Reconnaissance.]

Kohl, J.G., Appendix No. 1855 - 64. Pp. 374-375. Abstract of a complete historical account of the progress of discovery on the western coast of the United States from the earliest period. [History; Geographic Exploration.]

Kohl, J.G., Appendix No. 1856 - 65. Pp. 319-322. Annals of discovery on the Atlantic coast. Abstract of a history of the progress of discovery on the Atlantic coast of the United States. [History; Geographic Exploration.]

Kohl, J.G., Appendix No. 1856 - 66. Pp. 322-324. Annals of discovery, Gulf of Mexico. Abstract of a memoir on the discovery and geographical development of the shores of the Gulf of Mexico within the limits of the United States. [History; Geographic Exploration.]

Johnson, W.M., Appendix No. 1857 - 44. Pp. 390 - 391. Coast of Santa Barbara Channel. [Reconnaissance; Topography.]

Kohl, J.G., Appendix No. 1857 - 52. Pp. 414-433. Western coast annals of maritime discovery and exploration. Report of the method and scope of a memoir on. [History; Geographic Exploration.] Greenwell, W.E., Appendix No. 1857 - 44. Pp. 392-395. Santa Barbara Islands and main. Report on the character and progress of the work. [Reconnaissance; Topography.]

Mechan, J., Appendix No. 1858 - 34. P. 224. Eastern coast of Florida, south of St. Johns River. Report of Subassistant J. Mechan on local characteristics. [Reconnaissance.]

Gilbert, S.A., Appendix No. 1859 - 32. Pp. 324-328. Coast of Texas, embracing the shores of Espiritu Santo, San Antonio, and Aransas Bays. Report on a reconnaissance. [Reconnaissance.]

Gilbert, S.A., Appendix No. 1860 - 34. Pp. 356-357. Corpus Christi Bay and Laguna Madre, Texas. General description and characteristics. [Reconnaissance.]

Murray, A., Appendix No. 1860 - 41. Pp. 399-402. Labrador expedition. Report of a voyage on the steamer BIBB to northern Labrador to observe a total eclipse of the sun. [Geographic Exploration; Tides; Currents.] See also Appendix No. 1860 - 21, Solar Eclipse, July 18, 1860.]

Bell, G., Appendix No. 1861 - 29. Pp. 263-264. Coast of Texas above Galveston Bay. Extracts from a descriptive report. Capt. George Bell, U.S. Army, Assistant in the Coast Survey. [Reconnaissance.]

Davidson, G.O., Appendix No. 1867 - 18. Pp. 187-329. Alaska territory; coast features and resources. (This report was a major factor in the decision by the United States to purchase Russian Alaska. George Davidson led a contingent of several scientists on the Revenue Cutter LINCOLN for the express purpose of evaluating this territory prior to purchase. Sections of this report included a Directory of the coast of Alaska, list of geographical position, aids to navigation, geology, zoology, botany, meteorology, and various Alaskan native vocabularies.) [Reconnaissance; Geographic Exploration.]

Davidson, G.O., Appendix No. 1868 - 15. Pp. 260-277. Condensed account of M. Hellert's explorations on the Isthmus of Panama, including his special explorations on the Isthmus of Darien, with suggestions for conducting a future survey. Plan for exploration of the River Darien; outfit and duties of engineers; instrumental outfit; use of the heliotrope for sending messages; form of record of levelings, courses and distances; rod for leveling, distance, and station mark for courses; methods of ascertaining discharge of water in any stream. [Geographic Exploration; History.]

Dall, W.H., Appendix No. 1873 - 11. Pp. 111-122. Geographical and hydrographical explorations on the coast of Alaska. Islands of Attu, Buldir, Kiska, Amchitka, Adak, Atka, Amlia, Four Craters, Agashagok, Unalaska, Sannakh Reefs, Popoff Strait; current observations, azimuths, positions, and magnetic declinations. Sea surface temperatures; temperatures five fathoms below surface; current observations made on board U.S. C&G.S. Schooner YUKON during the voyage from San Francisco to Unalaska in May, 1873; heights of mountains determined in 1873. [Geographic Exploration; Reconnaissance; Hydrography; Oceanography; Magnetism.]

Dall, W.H., Appendix No. 1875 - 10. Pp. 157 - 188. Report on Mount Saint Elias, etc., Alaska. Historical notes; tabular results of heights, latitudes, and longitudes; general considerations. Discussion of data; reduction of observations made in 1874 to determine the heights of Mounts Saint Elias, Cook, Crillon, Fairweather, and Vancouver.; details of computations. [Geographic Exploration; Reconnaissance; History; Computations.]

Fox, G., Appendix No. 1880 - 18. Pp. 346-411. Landfall of Columbus. An attempt to solve the problem of the first landing place of Columbus in the New World. Introduction; narrative and discussion; the track of Navarrete; of Varnhagen; of Washington Irving; of Captain Beecher; according to G. V. Fox; conclusion; summary. (Gustavus Fox was the Assistant Secretary of the Navy under Gideon Welles during the Civil War. He served on the Coast Survey in the 1840's as a Naval Officer on the Brig WASHINGTON. In this paper, he reconstructed the track of Columbus and concluded that the true first landing of Columbus was at Samana Cay instead of San Salvador Island. A well publicized reconstruction of the Columbus track arrived at the same conclusion just prior to the Columbus Quincentenerary. In that reconstruction, Fox's presumed track was duplicated almost exactly by a computer simulation of the Columbus track and landfall.) [Geographic Explorations; History.]

Kohl, J.G., Appendix No. 1884 - 19. Pp.495-617. History of discovery and exploration on the coasts of the United States. Preface; abstract. I. History of discovery and exploration on the Atlantic coast: the Northmen; Sebastian Cabot, 1497; Ponce de Leon, 1512; Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon, 1520-1525; John de Verrazano, 1524; Estevan Gomez, 1525; English voyage, 1527; spanish expeditions, 1524-1543; Jean Ribout; Sir John Hawkins, 1565; Florida, 1565-1574; Sir Walter Raleigh; John White, 1587-1590; New England, 1602-1605; Gosnold and Gilbert; 1602; Martin Pring, 1603; Bartolomew Gilbert, 1603; Sieur de Monts and Champlain, 1605; George Weymouth, 1605; Christopher Newport; 1606; John Smith, 1607; Popham and Raleigh, 1607; Samuel Argall, 1613; John Smith, 1614; Henry Hudson, 1609; David Pietersz de Vries, 1632; table of maps of the Atlantic coast of North America published between 1500 and 1770.

II. Discovery and exploration of the Gulf of Mexico. Columbus, 1492-1502; Sebastian Cabot, 1497; Juan Diaz de Solis and Vincente Yanez Pinzon, 1506; Sebastian de Ocampo, 1508; Kiam {pmce de Leon, 1512; Velasquez, 1511-1514; Diego Miruelo, 1516; Cordova; Grijalva and Alominos, 1518; Cortez, 1519; Don Alonzo Alvarez Pineda, 1519; Narvaez, 1520; Pineda and Camargo, 1520; Francisco de Garai, 1523; Narvaez, 1527-1536; De soto, 1539; Diego Maldonado, 1540; Andres de Ocampo, 1543; Guido de Las Bazares, 1558; French and English adventurers, 1555-1567; Menendez 1573; New Mexico, 1581-1583; Robert de la Salle, 1682; Juan Enrizuez Barroto, 1685; Iberville, 1698-1699; St. Joseph's Bay, 1718; Galveston Bay, 1721; Charlevoix, 1722. Titles and copies of maps of Gulf of Mexico. III. Discovery and exploration of the Pacific coast of the United States. California, 1532-1534; California, 1535-36; California, 1539-1540; Sir Francis Drake, 1579; Francisco Gali and Jayme Juan, 1584; Sebastian Rodriquez Cermenon, 1595; Sebastian Vizcaino, 1596; New Mexico and California, 1582-1717; Juan Ugarte, 1722, 1732, 1746, 1766; Russian expeditions; French expeditions, 1769; Franciscans and Vancouver, 1769-1792; Missions, 1769; Don Juan Battista Anza, 1774; Sonora-San Diego, 1775; Northwestern coast, 1775; San Francisco Bay, 1775; Santa Clara Mission, 1769, 1779; James Cook, 1778, La Perouse, 1785-1787; John Meares, 1788; Strait of Fuca, 1789; Don Manuel Quimper; 1790; Malaspina, 1791; Marchand, 1791; Vancouver, 1792-1795; Galiano and Valdez, 1792; Caamano, 1792; W. R. Broughton, 1795-1798; Lewis and Clark, 1804-1806; Russian expeditions, 1803-1806; Fur companies, 1806-1821; Russian settlements, 1812-1841; missionary travels; F. W. Beechey, 1827; Edward Belcher, 1836-1842; French exploration, 1820-1842; U.S. expeditions, 1820-1847; U.S. Exploring Expedition under Charles Wilkes, 1841; Oregon and California, 1842-1846; W. H. Emory, 1846-1847. List of titles of maps of western coast. [History; Geographic Exploration.]

Davidson, G.O., Appendix No. 1886 - 7. Pp. 155-253. An examination of some of the early voyages of discovery and exploration on the northwest coast of America from 1539 to 1603. Introduction, prefatory remarks; efforts to reconcile many of the discrepancies of the old Spanish, English, American, and French navigators; courage and perseverance of the old Spanis navigators; many of the positions of Ulloa, Cabrillo, Ferrelo, Drake, and Vizcaino can now be located; effort to follow the navigators day by day; some of the authorities cited; origin of the name California; what it designated; principal work consulted; description of the localities by the different navigators, Ferrelo, Cabrillo, Ulloa, and Vizcaino with notes by Davidson; landfalls of Cabrillo and Ferrelo with their names by Ulloa, Drake, and Vizcaino, and present names and latitudes. Index with authorities and publications consulted or referred to; discoverers and explorers; harbors and anchorages, bays, channels, coves, gulfs, lagoons, straits; headlands, capes, points, bluffs; islands, reefs, and rocks; mountains and mountain ranges; table-lands; rivers, streams; Indian villages. [History; Geographic Exploration.]

Dall, W.H., Appendix No. 1890 - 19. Pp. 759-774. Notes on an original manuscript chart of Bering's expedition of 1725-30, and on an original manuscript chart of his second expedition; together with a summary of a journal of the first expedition, kept by Peter Chaplin, and translated into English from Bergh's Russian version. [Geographic Exploration; History.]

Townsend, C.H., Appendix No. 1890 - 20. Pp. 775-777. On an early chart of Long Island Sound. [History; Geographic Exploration; Cartography.]

SHIP OPERATIONS

Bache, G.M. and others, Appendix No. 1846 - 5. Pp. 53-62. Copy of the log-book of the Coast Survey Brig WASHINGTON up to and following the disastrous hurricane of September 8, 1846. Includes statement of ship pilot describing events leading to death of Lieutenant Commanding G.M. Bache and 10 crew members. [Ship; Disaster.]

Officers of Coast Survey Brig WASHINGTON, Appendix No. 1846 - 6. Pp. 62. Statement of officers of the United States Coast Survey Brig WASHINGTON. [Ship; Disaster.]

Bache, A.D., Secretary of the Treasury, Secretary of the Navy, Officers of the Coast Survey; Appendix No. 1846 - 7. Pp. 63-68. Communications concerning disaster to Coast Survey Brig WASHINGTON and resolutions of mourning concerning those who were killed in the hurricane of September 8, 1846. [Ship; Disaster; Necrology.]

Gerdes, F.H., Appendix No. 1846 - 9. Pp. 70-71. Letter describing Coast Survey crew members of schooner PHOENIX saving two fishermen in heavy surf off Dauphin Island, Alabama. [Ship; Lifesaving; Assistance Rendered.]

Perry, M.C., Appendix No. 1847 - 9. Pp. 72-73. Letter to Lieutenant Commanding S.P. Lee of the U.S. Brig WASHINGTON commending the officers and crew for their conduct during combat operations in the Mexican War. Order returning WASHINGTON to Coast Survey duty. (The WASHINGTON was turned over to the Navy for use in the Mexican conflict. This was the first of many Coast Survey and Coast and Geodetic Survey vessels turned over to the Navy in times of national emergency.) [Ship.]

Hall, J., Appendix No. 1847 - 10. Pp. 73-74. Statement of Lieutenant John Hall, First Lieutenant of the United States Coast Survey Brig WASHINGTON, in the autumn of 1846, relating to part of the disastrous circumstances of that season. (This is a vivid account of the most dangerous hours experienced by the WASHINGTON during the hurricane of September 7-8, 1846.) [ Ship; Disaster.]

Blake, G., Davis, C.H., and Bache, G.M., Appendix No. 1847 - 17. Pp. 83-84. Remarks in regard to the use of steam vessels in the Coast Survey. (In 1847, Lieutenant Commanding Charles H. Davis took command of the steamer BIBB for work on Nantucket Shoals. This use of a new technology increased productivity fifteen-fold by Davis's reckoning at a cost of only four times as much for ship operations. The use of steam vessels as opposed to sailing vessels for hydrographic surveying was the single greatest advancement in offshore surveying in the Nineteenth Century.) [Ship.]

Davis, C.H., Appendix No. 1847 - 18. Pp. 85-86. On the use of steam-vessels in sounding, made subsequent to the use of the revenue steam-vessel BIBB, under his command. (Davis eloquently discusses the merits of steam over sail for hydrographic surveying purposes in this appendix.) [Ship; Hydrography.]

Goldsborough, J.R., Appendix No. 1849 - 8. P. 80. Report of the circumstances of the rescue of three persons from a vessel capsized in a squall of wind, October 24, in the Vineyard Sound. [Ship; Lifesaving.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1849 - 10. Pp. 82-86. Tables showing operating costs of steamer LEGARE in 1848 and 1849. [Ship.]

Alden, J.M. and Jenkins, T.A., Appendix No. 1850 - 17. Report in regard to fitness of steamer JEFFERSON for hydrographic party on west coast. [Ship; Condition.]

Rodgers, J., Appendix No. 1850 - 22. Letters and reports relative to stranding of Coast Survey Steamer HETZEL near Cape Canaveral, and her subsequent relief, etc. (In the saving of the HETZEL, John Rodgers displayed the indomitable spirit that would make him a scourge of the Confederate Navy.) [Ship; Grounding.]

Comstock, S.W., Appendix No. 1852 - 27, bis. P. 126. Correspondence with Lieutenant Commanding James Alden regarding his assisting Pacific Mail Steamship CALIFORNIA, disabled at San Pedro. [Ship; Assistance Rendered.]

Hewston, J., Jr., Appendix No. 1853 - 35. P. 89. Boiler incrustation. Analysis of two specimens of deposit from the boiler of the Coast Survey steamer HETZEL. [Ship; Boiler.]

Craven, T.A.M., Appendix No. 1853 - 40. P. 164. Correspondence between Lieutenant Commanding T.A.M. Craven and Captain T.E. Shaw, of the steamer WILLIAM GASTON, in relation to assistance rendered that vessel by the Coast Survey Steamer CORWIN. [Ship; Assistance Rendered.]

Alden, J.M., Appendix No. 1853 - 41. P. 164. Letter in regard to the wreck of the ship ABERDEEN, lying in the entrance of the harbor of San Francisco, California. [Ship; Disaster.]

Alden, J.M., Appendix No. 1853 - 42. P. 165. Letter recognizing the services of acting Lieut. R.M. Cuyler in rendering assistance to the steamer TENNESSEE wrecked near the entrance of San Francisco harbor. [Ship; Assistance Rendered.]

Edgartown Citizens, Appendix No. 1854 - 58. P. 212. Letter of thanks from Edgartown citizens to Lieut. Comdg. H.S. Stellwagen, for services of the steamer BIBB to the brig B.M. PRESCOTT. [Ship; Assistance Rendered.]

Gerdes, F.H., Appendix No. 1854 - 59. Pp. 212-213. Letter on the stranding of the Coast Survey Schooner GERDES in a hurricane, near Fourchon Pass, Gulf of Mexico, March 30, 1854. (The Coast Survey Schooner PHOENIX was sunk during this storm and subsequently raised. See Appendix No. 1854 - 55.) [Ship; Disaster.]

Davidson, G.O., Appendix No. 1854 - 60. P. 213. Letter on the wreck at Tomales Bay, California, of a vessel carrying Coast Survey instruments and camp equipage, under charge of Assistant James S. Lawson. [Ship; Disaster.]

Alden, J.M., Appendix No. 1854 - 61. P. 214. Letter on his search, by owner's request, for the SEA BIRD, disabled near Ano Nuevo. [Ship; Assistance Rendered.]

Almy, J.J. and Gibson, A.A., Appendix No. 1855 - 66. Pp. 398-400. Letters giving particulars of Coast Survey Steamer HETZEL boiler explosion, and its fatal effects. (Six men died as the result of an explosion of the boiler of the Steamer HETZEL and the ship was nearly lost.) [Ship; Disaster.]

De Haven, E.J., Appendix No. 1855 - 67. Pp. 400-401. The stranding of the Coast Survey Schooner ARAGO on the Texas coast. [Ship; Disaster.]

Alden, J.M. and Prince, H., Appendix No. 1855 - 69. Letter of Lieut. Comdg. J. Alden, and order by Major Henry Prince, relative to the rescue of the shipwrecked command of Major Prince on the Oregon Coast. [Ship; Assistance Rendered.]

Trenchard, S.D., Appendix No. 1856 - 69. Pp. 333-335. Correspondence relative to the rescue of the British bark ADIEU by the Coast Survey Steamer VIXEN. [Ship; Assistance Rendered.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1856 - 70. Pp. 335-340. Letter transmitting report of the commission called to investigate the causes which led to the explosion of the port boiler of the Coast Survey Steamer HETZEL in 1855. [Ship; Boiler; Disaster.]

Harrison, A.M., Appendix No. 1856 - 71. Pp. 341-342. Report detailing the actions of sailing-master P.R. Hawley of the Coast Survey Schooner BENJAMIN PEIRCE in saving his vessel and others from the drift of the burning steamer SEMINOLE. [Ship; Disaster; Assistance Rendered.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1856 - 73. Pp. 343-345. Correspondence detailing the actions of Lieut. Comdg. J.M. Alden, Coast Survey Steamer ACTIVE, in assisting War Department in resisting Indian depredations in Washington Territory. [Ship; Assistance Rendered.]

Muse, W. T., Appendix No. 1857 - 53. Pp. 434-436. Relief of the Ship MANLIUS by the hydrographic party in the Coast Survey Steamer HETZEL. [Ship; Assistance Rendered.]

Duer, J.K., Appendix No. 1857 - 54. Pp. 436-437. Providing passage to the crew of the Ship JULIA HOWARD after the wreck of that vessel in the Bahamas. [Ship; Assistance Rendered.]

Secretary of the Treasury, Appendix No. 1859 - 36. P. 367. Letter advising of the disposal of the surveying steamer ACTIVE under the orders of Brevet Lieutenant General Winfield Scott for use in Indian war in Washington Territory. [Ship; Assistance Rendered.]

Pope, J., Appendix No. 1859 - 37. P. 367. Letter relative to service to Navy provided by Coast Survey Steamer BIBB at Portsmouth, New Hampshire. [Ship; Assistance Rendered.]

Farragut, D.G., Appendix No. 1859 - 38. Letter recognizing services of Assistant Charles O. Boutelle in piloting U. S. Steamer BROOKLYN in Beaufort River, South Carolina. (This was a precursor to Boutelle's role as Chief Hydrographer of the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron during the Civil War. It is ironic that the Beaufort River is in the upper reaches of Port Royal Sound where Boutelle was instrumental in assisting the Union Fleet during the Battle of Port Royal Sound.) [Ship; Assistance Rendered.]

Boutelle, C.O., Appendix No. 1861 - 31. Pp. 265-268. Letter from Boutelle describing Battle of Port Royal Sound and extracts from official reports detailing cooperation of Coast Survey in naval and military operations. [Ship; Civil War.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1861 - 32. Pp. 268-269. Orders calling for the cooperation of the Steamer ACTIVE, B.F. Sands, Commanding, with the military authorities of the Pacific coast of the United States. [Ship; Civil War.]

Emery, C.E., Appendix No. 1874 - 13. Pp. 148-151. Economy in coal, as exemplified by the action of the compound engines in the steamer HASSLER. General description of the HASSLER. [Ship; Miscellaneous.]

Emery, C.E., Appendix No. 1876 - 13. Pp. 192-196. On marine governors. [Ship; Miscellaneous.]

TIDES

Gerdes, F.H., Appendix No. 1845 - 3. Pp. 41-43. Remarks on the currents in Mississippi Sound and changes in the magnetic variation. [Oceanography; Currents; Magnetism]

Patterson, C.P., Appendix No. 1846 - 8. Pp. 68-70. Tides at the entrance of Mobile Bay. (This was written while Patterson was a Naval Officer on duty with the Coast Survey. He became the fourth superintendent of the Coast Survey in 1874. ) [Oceanography; Tides.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1851 - 7. Pp. 127-136. Notes on Cat Island tides. [Oceanography; Tides.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1852 - 22. Pp. 111-122. Discussion of Cat Island tides. Diurnal and semidiurnal curves deduced from observations, with curves of sines; diurnal wave; heights and times; maximum ordinates of diurnal curve, etc.; effect of sun's declination on height; effect of moon's parallax; coefficients; computed diurnal ordinates compared with observations; residuals classed by moon's ages; same corrected by change of cosines; difference of diurnal maximum ordinates, from last and from first methods of groups -- semidiurnal effect; correction to maximum diurnal ordinate for high-water ordinate; further residual corrections; comparison with hypothesis; semidiurnal curve; half monthly inequality in height; discrepancies between observations and formulas. (Alexander Dallas Bache was quite interested in tides even prior to his association with the Coast Survey. This appendix, besides being his first major technical foray into the realm of tides, presented his analysis of tides in the Gulf of Mexico, a phenomena which had defied rational explanation prior to sustained Coast Survey observations.) [Oceanography; Tides.]

Fairfield, G.A., Appendix No. 1853 - 13. P. 46. Extracts from the report in relation to establishing a tide gauge at Siasconsett. [Oceanography; Tides.]

Almy, J.J., Appendix No. 1853 - 15. P. 48. Report upon the observations of off-shore tidesseaward of Sand Shoal Inlet, Virginia. (This limited attempt to observe offshore tides was the first attempt by the Coast Survey to carry direct tide observations into offshore waters.) [Oceanography; Tides.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1853 - 26. Pp. 67-70. Tide tables for the use of navigators, with descriptions of bench marks, explanations and examples for use. [Oceanography; Tides.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1853 - 27. Pp. 71-76. Notes on tides at Key West. Half-monthly inequality of tides, one year's observations; diurnal inequality with formula; decomposition of the curves of observation; effect of moon's declination and moon's age; changes of mean level; height of high water referred to moon's age; etc. [Oceanography; Tides.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1853 - 28. Pp. 77-81. Notes on tides at Rincon Point, Cal. [Oceanography; Tides.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1853 - 29. Pp. 81-82. Notes on the tides at San Francisco, Cal. [Oceanography; Tides.]

Hunt, E.B., Appendix No. 1853 - 38. Pp. 94-96. Saxton's self-registering tide gauge. (This was the first automated tide gauge used by the Coast Survey and was designed and made by the Joseph Saxton, the great Coast Survey instrument maker.) [Oceanography; Tides; Instrumentation.]

Mitchell, H., Appendix No. 1854 - 29. Pp. 35-37. Nantucket and Vineyard Sound tides. Method of securing Mitchell's tide gauge; remarks on swells. [Oceanography; Tides; Instrumentation.]

Trowbridge, W.P., Appendix No. 1854 - 30. Pp. 37-40. Western coast tidal and magnetic observations. Report on observations at San Diego, San Pedro, San Luis Obispo, Monterey, San Francisco, Humboldt, Port Orford, Columbia River, and Cape Disappointment. [Oceanography; Tides; Magnetics.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1854 - 45. Pp. 147-152. Cotidal lines, Atlantic. Preliminary determinations of cotidal lines on the Atlantic coast of the United States, from observations by the U. S. Coast Survey; observations for cotidal hours; cotidal hours of ports on the Atlantic coast; rate and trend of cotidal lines. [Oceanography; Tides.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1854 - 46. Pp. 152-155. Diurnal inequality, western coast tides. Comparison of the diurnal inequality of the tides at San Diego, San Francisco, and Astoria. [Oceanography; Tides.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1854 - 50. Pp. 168-179. Tides, Long Island Sound and approaches. Range, or mean of rise and fall of tides, to April, 1853; set and maximum rates of ebb and flood streams; luni-current interval for beginning of outgoing streams; eastern part of the sound 1846-'47; western part of New York Bay and channel, 1844; New York Harbor, 1844-'45; Hell Gate, 1845; Hell Gate and Throgs Neck, 1846; mean duration of slack waters and of respective ebb and flood streams, from the middle of one slack-water period to that of the next; irregularity of luni-current intervals of successive tides. [Oceanography; Currents.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1854 - 51. Pp. 180-189. Tide tables for the use of navigators. [Oceanography; Tides.]

Mitchell, H., Appendix No. 1854 - 53. Pp. 190-191. Seacoast tide-gauge. Description of tide-gauge used at stations on the open seacoast and in situations exposed to strong currents. [Oceanography; Tides; Instrumentation.]

Pourtales, L.F., Appendix No. 1855 - 32. Pp. 220-222. Report on field work and office work of the Tidal Division and observations received. [Oceanography; Tides.]

Mitchell, H., Appendix No. 1855 - 33. Pp. 222-223. Nantucket Sound. Tidal observations. Interference phenomena. [Oceanography; Tides.]

Trowbridge, W.P., Appendix No. 1855 - 34. Pp. 223-227. Report on the tidal and magnetic observations under his charge on the Western coast. [Oceanography; Tides; Geophysics; Magnetism.]

Trowbridge, W.P., Appendix No. 1855 - 35. Pp. 227-228. Report of Mr. C.J. W. Russell's trip to Nootka Sound, Vancouver Island, for tide observations. Extraordinary measures to secure tidal observations in face of hostile natives. [Oceanography; Tides; History.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1855 - 50. Pp. 338-342. Pacific cotidal lines. Tide stations on the western coast of the United States; data for cotidal lines; cotidal hours; cotidal groups; discussion of the middle group between Cape Mendocino and Point Conception. Chart of cotidal lines. [Oceanography; Tides.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1855 - 52. Pp. 346-347. Gulf of Mexico tides. Observations and type curves at the several stations, showing their decomposition into diurnal and semidiurnal tides. [Oceanography; Tides.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1855 - 53. Pp. 347-359. Tide tables for the use of navigators. (These tables represented an early experiment in co-operation between private industry and Government as they were prepared for publication by the nautical firm of E. & G.W. Blunt.) [Oceanography; Tides.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1856 - 17. Pp. 120-133. Tide tables for the use of navigators. [Oceanography; Tides.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1856 - 34. Pp. 249-251. Prediction tables. Notes on the progress made in their preparation with reference to tides of Boston harbor. [Oceanography; Tides.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1856 - 35. Pp. 252-260. Cotidal lines, Gulf of Mexico. Discussion and preliminary determination; diurnal waves; stations; diurnal intervals; tide elements of the stations; semidiurnal tides; comparison of establishments of diurnal and semidiurnal tides in the Gulf of Mexico. [Oceanography; Tides.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1856 - 36. Pp. 260-261. Type curves, Gulf of Mexico. Descriptive references to Sketch No. 38, representing the decomposition of curves of observation. [Oceanography; Tides.]

Mitchell, H., Appendix No. 1856 - 37. Pp. 261-263. Interference tides. On observations made in Nantucket and marthas Vineyard Sounds. [Oceanography; Tides.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1856 - 38. Pp. 263-264. Tidal currents at Sandy Hook. Notes on the causes of northwardly increase of the peninsula. [Oceanography; Tides; Currents; Topography; Shoreline Changes.]

Wurdemann, G., Appendix No. 1856 - 40. Pp. 266-267. Hudson River, tidal observations made between Albany and New York City. [Oceanography; Tides.]

Pourtales, L.F., Appendix No. 1856 - 41. Pp. 267-269. General report on the Coast Survey tidal observations made during the year. [Oceanography; Tides.]

Pourtales, L. F. , Appendix No. 1856 - 43. Pp. 271-272. Winds of Albemarle Sound. Discussion of their effect upon the tide. [Oceanography; Tides; Meteorology.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1856 - 44. Pp. 272-276. Winds in the Gulf of Mexico. Discussion relative to the disturbance caused in the intervals of successive tides at several stations on the Gulf Coast. Observations at Key West, Fort Morgan, Ala., and Galveston, Tex. [Oceanography; Tides; Meteorology.]

Dean, G.W., Appendix No. 1856 - 45. Pp. 276-278. Winds and tides of Cat Island Harbor. Results deduced by G.W. Dean from observations made by G. Wurdemann and R. T. Bassett. [Oceanography; Tides; Meteorology.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1857 - 20. Pp. 157-158. Tide tables for the use of navigators. [Oceanography; Tides.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1857 - 33. Pp. 342-347. Atlantic coast tides. Generalization of heights relative to the configuration of the coast. Heights of tides on the Atlantic coast of the United States and on the coast of Cape Breton and New Brunswick. [Oceanography; Tides.]

Pourtales, L.F., Appendix No. 1857 - 34. Pp. 348-350. General report on the Coast Survey tidal operations during the year. [Oceanography; Tides.]

Trenchard, S.D., Appendix No. 1857 - 49. Pp. 402-403. Description of Trenchard's tide gauge. [Oceanography; Tides; Instrumentation.]

Mitchell, H., Appendix No. 1857 - 50. Pp. 403-404. Mitchell's tide gauge for deep water. [Oceanography; Tides; Instrumentation.]

Pourtales, L.F., Appendix No. 1858 - 29. Pp. 208-209. Report of activities of Tidal Division including stations occupied and series observed. [Oceanography; Tides.]

Peirce, B., Appendix No. 1858 - 30. Pp. 210-213. Cotidal lines of an inclosed sea, as derived from the equilibrium theory. General theory and its modification by the incompleteness of the inclosure. [Oceanography; Tides.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1858 - 43. Pp. 275-297. Tide tables and sailing lines for the use of navigators. [Oceanography; Tides; Coast Pilot.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1859 - 14. Pp. 136-167. Tide tables for ports of the United States, and description of co-tidal and sailing lines along the Atlantic coast. [Oceanography; Tides.]

Pourtales, L.F., Appendix No. 1859 - 27. Pp. 317-319. Report of Tidal Division with list of permanent and temporary tidal stations. [Oceanography; Tides.]

Batchelder, J.M., Appendix No. 1859 - 35. Pp. 365-366. Tide meter. Results of experiments made with the apparatus devised by E. B. Hunt. [Oceanography; Tides; Instrumentation.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1860 - 16. Pp. 131-164. Tide tables for the use of navigators. [Oceanography; Tides.]

Gilliss, J.R., Appendix No. 1860 - 40. Pp. 398-399. Dividers for tidal curves. Description of form invented by J. R. Gillis for tidal decomposition. (These dividers were the forerunners of the ten-space dividers used by hydrographers, draftsman, and engineers the world over in the Twentieth Century.) [Oceanography; Tides; Instrumentation.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1861 - 9. Pp. 98 - 131. Tide tables for the use of navigators. [Oceanography; Tides.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1862 - 8. Pp. 93 - 126. Tide tables for the use of navigators. [Oceanography; Tides.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1862 - 9. Pp. 126-128. Cotidal lines of the Gulf of Mexico deduced from recent observations. [Oceanography; Tides.]

Pourtales, L.F., Appendix No. 1862 - 10. Pp. 128-129. Report on series of observations on tidal stations and associated office work. [Oceanography; Tides.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1863 - 12. Pp. 84-117. Tide tables for the use of navigators. [Oceanography; Tides.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1864 - 8. Pp. 58-90. Tide tables for the use of navigators. [Oceanography; Tides.]

Pourtales, L.F. and Rodgers, J., Appendix No. 1864 - 9. Pp. 90-92. Report on Tidal Division with list of tide stations. Rodgers on tides at Tahiti, South Pacific Ocean. Their general character. [Oceanography; Tides.]

Pourtales, L.F., Appendix No. 1865 - 6. P. 46. Report on tidal observations with list of tide stations. [Oceanography; Tides.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1865 - 11. P. 138. Explanation of diagram of type curves of the tides on the Pacific coast. [Oceanography; Tides.]

Mitchell, H., Appendix No. 1866 - 6. Pp. 44-46. Hell Gate tides (East River, New York.) Preliminary report on the interference tides of Hell Gate, with directions for reducing the soundings. Table of relative elevations of tidal planes from observations; tides and currents of Hell Gate, from observations of 1857. [Oceanography; Tides; Currents; Hydrography.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1866 - 7. Predictions for Eastport as a specimen. (In 1866 the Coast Survey began publishing a separate volume of tide tables for one year in advance for the Atlantic and Pacific coasts.) [Oceanography; Tides.]

Bache, A.D., Appendix No. 1866 - 18. Pp. 113-119. Tidal observations at Cat Island, Gulf of Mexico. Reprinted from Appendix No. 1851 - 7. [Oceanography; Tides.]

Avery, R, R.S., Appendix No. 1867 - 11. Pp. 146-148. Report on work of Tidal Division. [Oceanography; Tides.]

Avery, R, R.S., Appendix No. 1868 - 6. Pp. 103-108. Mode of forming a brief tide table for a chart, with example. [Oceanography; Tides.]

Ferrel, W., Appendix No. 1868 - 5. Pp. 51-102. Discussion of the tides of Boston Harbor. The observations and the locality; expression of the disturbing forces; tidal expressions; object and plan of the discussion. Tables I to XI: average normal values; the constant or mean tide; the semi-monthly inequality; inequality depending upon the moon's mean anomaly; inequality depending upon the moon's longitude; inequality depending upon the sun's anomaly and longitude; inequality depending upon the moon's node; inequalities depending upon N8 and N9; diurnal tide. Recapitulation of results; comparisons with the equilibrium theory; determination of the general constants; comparisons with the dynamic theory; prediction formulas; computation of a tidal ephemeris; example of the computation of a tidal ephemeris. [Oceanography; Tides; Computations.]

Avery, R, R.S., Appendix No. 1870 - 5. Pp. 66-69. Tabular statement of results of computed tide tables for charts of the western coast of the United States. {Oceanography; Tides.]

Avery, R, R.S., Appendix No. 1870 - 6. Pp. 70-74. Mode of forming brief prediction tide tables. [Oceanography; Tides.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1870 - 9. Pp. 90-91. List of heights, above the half-tide level of the ocean, of trigonometric stations determined by the U.S. Coast Survey. [Geodesy; Leveling; Oceanography; Tides.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1870 - 10. Pp. 92-97. Description of bench marks at tidal stations. [Oceanography; Tides; Geodesy; Leveling.]

Ferrel, W., Appendix No. 1870 - 20. Pp. 190-199. On the moon's mass, as deduced from a discussion of the tides of Boston Harbor. [Oceanography; Tides; Geophysics.]

Avery, R, R.S., Appendix No. 1872 - 6. Pp. 69-72. Field and office work related to tides. [Oceanography; Tides.]

Ferrel, W., Appendix No. 1872 - 7. Pp. 73-74. Maxima and minima of tides on the coast of New England for 1873. [Oceanography; Tides.]

Dall, W.H., Appendix No. 1872 - 10. Pp. 177-212. Harbors of Alaska and the tides and currents in their vicinity. Statistics; notes on the North Pacific current; hydrographic notes on Captains Bay and vicinity; meteorology of Unalaska; tides of Iliuliuk; compound tides; semidiurnal tides; tide referred to the lower transits; to the upper transits; tidal current of Unalaska; the Alaska current; its effect on the climate of the Aleutian district; the circular current of the Bering Sea; the Shumagin Islands; miscellaneous hydrographic notes; meteorological observations from September, 1871, to October, 1872. [Oceanography; Tides; Currents; Hydrography; Coast Pilot; Meteorology.]

Ferrel, W., Appendix No. 1875 - 12. Pp. 194-221. Discussion of tides in New York Harbor. General plan and immediate object of the discussion; adopted notations; averages deduced from the observations. Semidiurnal tides, half-monthly inequality; lunar parallactic inequality; mean lunar declinational inequality; lunar nodal inequality; solar declinational and parallactic inequalities; mean sea level; diurnal tide; comparison of theory with observation; practical application; directions for computing a tidal ephemeris; tables for computing heights and times of high water with example. [Oceanography; Tides.]

Avery, R.S., Appendix No. 1876 - 8. Pp. 130-142. Methods of registering tidal observations. Bench-marks; tide-gauges; self-registering tide-gauges; use of three roller gauge; large cylinder gauge; tabulating high and low water; hourly readings; scales of heights; time, precautions. [Oceanography; Tides; Instrumentation.]

Ferrel, W., Appendix No. 1878 - 11. Pp. 268-304. Tides in Penobscot Bay. General principles of the harmonic analysis and discussion of tide observations; analysis of the tides at Pulpit Cove; comparison of observations with theory; practical application. [Oceanography; Tides; Computations.]

Ferrel, W., Appendix No. 1882 - 17. Pp. 437-450. Discussion of the tides of the Pacific Coast of the United States. Introduction; tides of Port Townsend; tides of astoria; tides of San Diego; determination of general constants. [Oceanography; Tides; Computations.]

Ferrel, W., Appendix No. 1883 - 9. Pp. 247-251. Report on the harmonic analysis of the tides at Sandy Hook. Introduction; results of the harmonic analysis of the tides at Sandy Hook; discussion. [Oceanography; Tides; Computations.]

Ferrel, W., Appendix No. 1883 - 10. Pp. 253-272. Description of a maxima and minima tide-predicting machine. Introduction; mathematical theory of the tide-predicting machine; mechanical solution of the problem; construction of the machine; directions for setting and using; efficiency of the machine. [Oceanography; Tides; Computations; Instrumentation.]

Ferrel, W., Appendix No. 1885 - 13. Pp. 489-493. On the harmonic analysis of the tides at Governor's Island, New York Harbor. Results of the analysis with sketch showing positions of tide gauges at Governor's Island and Sandy Hook; determination of general constants. [Oceanography; Tides; Computations.]

Christie, A.S., Appendix No. 1890 - 15. Pp. 705-714. Comparison of the predicted with the observed times and heights of high and low water at Sandy Hook, N.J., during the year 1889. [Oceanography; Tides.]

Harris, R. A., Appendix No. 1894 - 7. Manual of tides. Part III. Some connections between harmonic and non-harmonic quantities, including applications to the reduction and prediction of tides. Chapter I, properties of compound wave having a predominating component. Chapter II, computation of nonharmonic quantities from harmonic tidal constants. Chapter III, reductions of observations made upon high and low waters. Chapter IV, to reduce results to their mean value. Chapter V, on the classification of tides. Chapter VI, prediction of tides, including a description of the British and Ferrel tide prediction machines as well as a description of a proposed machine. Tables. [Oceanography; Tides; Computations; Instrumentation.]

Pratt, J.F., Appendix No. 1897 - 7. Pp. 313-318. Notes relating to self-registering tide gauges as used by the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey. [Oceanography; Tides; Instrumentation.]

Harris, R.A., Appendix No. 1897 - 8. Pp. 319-470. Manual of Tides, Part I. Introduction, and historical treatment of the subject. [Oceanography; Tides.]

Harris, R.A., Appendix No. 1897 - 9. Pp. 471-618. Manual of Tides, Part II. Tidal observations, equilibrium theory, and harmonic analysis. [Oceanography; Tides.]

Harris, R.A., Appendix No. 1900 - 7. Pp. 535-700. Outlines of tidal theory. Chapter I, tidal forces and equilibrium tides; Chapter II, hydrodynamics; Chapter III, oscillating areas; chapter IV, concerning waves in deep water and long waves where the depth may vary; Chapter V, experiments with moderately long waves; Chapter VI, small oscillations sustained by periodic forces; Chapter VII, a partial explanation of the tides; Chapter VIII, on the classification of rivers, straits, bays, etc., with reference to their tidal movement; tables. [Oceanography; Tides; Computations.]

Harris, R.A., Appendix No. 1904 - 5. Pp. 313-400. Manual of tides - Part IV B Cotidal lines for the World. Chapter I, on the combination of long waves; Chapter II, additional lemmas; Chapter III, matters concerning amphidromic regions; Chapter IV, cotidal lines; Chapter V, the semidiurnal tides in the Indian Ocean; Chapter VI, the semidiurnal tides in the Atlantic Ocean; Chapter VII, the semidiurnal tides in the Arctic Ocean; Chapter VIII, the tides in the Pacific Ocean. [Oceanography; Tides.]

Harris, R.A., Appendix No. 1907 - 6. Pp. 231-546. Manual of Tides - Part V. Currents, shallow-water tides, meteorological tides, and miscellaneous matters. Chapter I, flow and resistance. Chapter II, consideration of dimension and resistance in tidal waves. Chapter III, shallow-water and river tides. Chapter IV, combinations of motions. Chapter V, observation and reduction of tidal currents. Chapter VI, description of tidal currents. Chapter VII, tidal currents in relation to marine engineering. Chapter VIII, circulation of the sea, and annual inequality in the tides. Chapter IX, seiches in lakes, bays, etc. Chapter X, tides in lakes and wells. Chapter XI, miscellaneous remarks on tides and modes of reduction. Tables. [Oceanography; Tides; Currents; Instrumentation; Computations.]

TOPOGRAPHY

Whiting, H.L., Appendix No. 1850 - 9. Pp. 81-82. Progress of Sandy Hook 1848-1850. [Topography; Shoreline Changes.]

Gerdes, F.H., Appendix No. 1855 - 21. Pp. 162-163. Topography of Manhattan Island, New York City. [Topography.]

Gilbert, S.A., Appendix No. 1855 - 22. P. 164. Report on topography executed on the western and southern sides of Long Island. [Topography.]

Harrison, A.M., Appendix No. 1855 - 23. Pp. 164-165. Report on topography on the coast of New Jersey, Raritan Bay to Shrewsbury Inlet. [Topography; Shoreline Changes.]

Trowbridge, W.P., Appendix No. 1855 - 27. Pp. 185-186. Descriptive report of Bodega Bay and South Farallon. [Topography; Reconnaissance.]

Johnson, W.M., Appendix No. 1855 - 28. Pp. 186-188. Descriptive report of Santa Cruz, valley of San Buenaventura, and coast north of Santa Barbara Channel. [Topography; Reconnaissance.]

Whiting, H.L., Appendix No. 1856 - 13. Pp. 116-117. Report on re-survey and development of changes in beach and shoreline of Muskeget Channel. [Topography.]

Boschke, A., Appendix No. 1856 - 48. Pp. 281-282. Comparative maps, New York Harbor. Method of survey. [Topography; Shoreline Changes.]

Harrison, A.M., Appendix No. 1856 - 51. Pp. 284-286. Report on concluding the topographical survey of St. John's River, Florida. [Topography.]

Harrison, A.M., Appendix No. 1856 - 53. Pp. 289-290. Report on topographical reconnaissance of Waccassa and Crystal Rivers, Florida. [Topography; Reconnaissance.]

Whiting, H.L., Appendix No. 1857 - 10. Pp. 148-149. Report on a resurvey of Provincetown and East Harbor, Cape Cod, and development of changes in shoreline. [Topography.]

Harrison, A.M., Appendix No. 1857 - 40. P. 377-379. Plane table survey of a base line site on Cumberland Island, Georgia. [Topography.]

Johnson, W.M., Appendix No. 1857 - 43. Pp. 390-391. Report on the topographical characteristics of the coast of Santa Barbara Channel. [Topography.]

Bolles, C.P., Appendix No. 1858 - 14. Pp. 150-151. Report on alteration to the shoreline of Cape Fear Entrances. [Topography.]

Harrison, A.M., Appendix No. 1858 - 33. Pp. 222-224. Report on topographical features of Ossabaw Sound, Georgia. [Topography.]

Mechan, J., Appendix No. 1858 - 34. P. 224. Report on local characteristics of eastern coast of Florida, south of St. Johns River. [Topography; Reconnaissance.]

Dorr, F.W., Appendix No. 1858 - 36. Pp. 227-228. Report on the surface features of Pine and Sanibel Islands at the entrance to Charlotte Harbor, Florida. [Topography.]

Dorr, F.W. and Ferguson, C., Appendix No. 1859 - 31. Pp. 323-324. Extracts from reports showing the topographical features of Charlotte Harbor, Florida. [Topography.]

Dorr, F.W., Appendix No. 1860 - 30. P. 353. Description of the coastal features in the vicinity of St. Augustine, Florida. [Topography.]

Finney, N.S., Appendix No. 1860 - 32. Pp. 354-355. Extracts from a report relative to the general characteristics of Waccasassa, Crystal, and adjacent rivers of Florida. [Topography.]

Gilbert, W.S., Appendix No. 1860 - 33. Pp. 355-356. The topographical features of the shores of San Antonio and Aransas Bays, Texas. [Topography.]

Schott, C.A., Appendix No. 1860 - 38. P. 397. Table of heights for the use of topographers. Height in feet corresponding to a given angle of elevation and distance in meters, for use in the construction of contour lines by plane table. [Topography.]

Dorr, F.W., Appendix No. 1861 - 26. Pp. 261-262. The character of the North and Guano Rivers, and topographical features of the coast of Florida between St. Johns River and St. Augustine. [Topography.]

Bagwell, G.H., Appendix No. 1861 - 27. P. 262. Extracts from a report on South St. Josephs Bay and Clearwater Harbor, Florida. [Topography.]

Finney, N.S., Appendix No. 1861 - 28. P. 263. Extract from a report on Bayport, Florida, and the adjacent coast. [Topography.]

Harrison, A.M., Appendix No. 1865 - 22. Pp. 203-231. Treatise on the plane table and its use, with diagrams. (This appendix also gives a clear explanation of many of the field topographic methods used during the Civil War.) [Topography; Civil War.]

Whiting, H.L., Appendix No. 1867 - 12. Pp. 149-157. Provincetown, Harbor, Massachusetts. Special survey. [Topography; Shoreline Changes.]

Whiting, H.L., Appendix No. 1869 - 15. Pp. 236-259. Reports concerning Marthas Vineyard and Nantucket. -- H. L. Whiting and H. Mitchell. Edgartown Harbor, changes; Vineyard Haven its character as a port of refuge and present condition; Tables of exposures of anchorages in: Provincetown Harbor; Vineyard Haven; Great Woods Hole; Tarpaulin Cove; Old Stage Harbor; New Bedford Harbor and Quicks Hole; Plymouth Harbor; Boston Harbor and Hull Bay, President Roads, Georges Roads; Marblehead Harbor; Salem Harbor; Gloucester Harbor; Upper and Lower Bay, New York Harbor; anchorage room and average exposure in respective harbors. Surveys; physical aspects and peculiarities; Edgartown tides; Nantucket tide tables; elements of the field work. [Topography; Hydrography; Coast Pilot; Oceanography; Tides; Currents.]

Mitchell, H., Appendix No. 1871 - 9. Pp. 134-143. Nauset Beach and Monomoy Peninsula. Physical history of the Monomoy area; recent movement of Chatham Beach. [Topography; Shoreline Changes.]

Whiting, H.L., Appendix No. 1872 - 17. Pp. 262-265. Shore-line changes at Edgartown Harbor, Mass. [Topography; Shoreline Changes.]

Mitchell, H., Appendix No. 1873 - 9. Pp. 103-107. Additional report concerning the changes in the neighborhood of Chatham and Monomoy. The real point of interest; corrections to previous paper; results of the last survey. [Topography; Shoreline Changes.]

Hergesheimer, E., Appendix No. 1880 - 13. Pp. 172-200. A treatise on the plane table and its use in topographical surveying. Description; alidade, new style; old style; adjustments; field work; three-point problem; by construction; by trigonometry; determination of position by resection; Bessel's method by inscribed quadrilateral; by construction of similar triangles; practical modes of determining, from the triangle of error, the position of a fourth point by resection upon three fixed points; Lehmann's method; Netto's method; two-point problem; representation of the terrain; table of heights; example; formula for determining heights by a vertical angle and distance; example; comparison of feet and meters; regular and irregular method of determining curves; adjustment of the new alidade for observation of altitudes; example; distance; stadia; composed of two parts, rod and telescope with vertical arc; focal distance; its relation to distant object; table for reduction of hypotenuse to base; projection for field sheets. [Topography; Instrumentation; Computations.]

Hergesheimer, E., Appendix No. 1881 - 7. Pp. 124-125. Type forms of topography, Columbia River. Discussion of the forms of hills and mountains of the Columbia River Basin below Wallula. [Topography; Geology.]

Whiting, H.L., Appendix No. 1886 - 9. Pp. 263-266. Report of changes in the shore line and beaches of Martha's Vineyard, as derived from comparisons of recent with former surveys. [Topography; Shoreline Changes.]

Marindin, H.L., Appendix No. 1889 - 12. Pp. 403-407. Encroachment of the sea upon the coast of Cape Cod, Mass., as shown by comparative surveys. [Oceanography; Topography; Shoreline Changes.]

Marindin, H.L., Appendix No. 1889 - 13. Pp. 409-457. Cross-sections of the shore of Cape Cod, between Chatham and Highland Light-House. [Oceanography; Topography; Shoreline Changes.]

Whiting, H.L., Appendix No. 1889 - 14. Pp. 459-460. Recent changes in the south inlet into Edgartown Harbor, Martha's Vineyard. [Hydrography; Topography; Shoreline Changes.]

Whiting, H.L., Appendix No. 1890 - 11. Pp. 620-623. Report in relation to a portion of the boundary line in dispute between the States of Maryland and Virginia. (The portion of the boundary line to be examined and located was near Hog Island, in the lower Potomac, and its course depended upon the method adopted of measuring the low-water line of the river.) [Topography; Oceanography; Tides.]

Marindin, H.L., Appendix No. 1891 - 8. Pp. 283-288. On the changes of the shoreline and anchorage areas of Cape Cod (Provincetown) Harbor, as shown by a comparison of surveys made between 1835, 1867, and 1890. [Hydrography; Topography; Shoreline Changes.]

Marindin, H.L., Appendix No. 1891 - 9. Pp. 289-341. Cross sections of the shore of Cape Cod, Mass., between the Cape Cod and Long Point light-houses. [Hydrography; Topography; Shoreline Changes.]

Anonymous, Appendix No. 1891 - 16. Pp. 565-746. Proceedings of the topographical conference held at Washington, D.C., January 18 to March 7, 1892. [Topography; Conference.]

Marindin, H.L., Appendix No. 1892 - 6. Pp. 243-252. On the changes of the ocean shorelines of Nantucket Island, Mass., from a comparison of surveys made in the years 1846 to 1887 and in 1891. [Topography; Shoreline Changes.]

Flemer, J.A., Appendix No. 1893 - 3. Pp. 37-116. Phototopography as practiced in Italy under the auspices of the Royal Military Geographical Institute, and as practiced in Canada under the auspices of the Department of the Interior. Also a short historical review of other photographic surveys and publications on the subject. [Topography; Photogrammetry.]

Flemer, J.A., Appendix No. 1897 - 10. Pp. 619-736. Photo-topographic methods and instruments. [Topography; Photogrammetry; Instrumentation.]

Wainwright, D.B., Appendix No. 1898 - 8. Pp. 409-462. A Plane Table Manual. Preliminary statement; instruments and adjustments; field work. All phases of plane table topographic work. Includes small section on "photogrammetry." [Topography; Instrumentation.]

Wainwright, D.B., Appendix No. 1905 - 7. Pp. 289-342. A plane table manual. Definitions: topographic map; projection; scale; datum plane; relief; control. Instruments: plane table including description, the board, movements, and tripod; mountain plane table; the alidade; stadia rod; micrometer eyepiece; plane-table sheet; projections; accessories; weights. Field work: organization of party; preliminary reconnaissance; signal poles; graphic triangulation; amount of control; three-point problem; two-point problem; deflection of long lines; distortion errors; height of instrument; relief; station routine; number of elevations to be determined; contour sketching; typical contour groups; order of development of contours; filling in; traverse lines; determinations for hydrography; high-water and storm-water line; determination of inaccessible points; large scale surveys; rapid surveys including military reconnaissance with plane table or with compass and notebook; photogrammetry; survey in advance of triangulation; office work; tables and formulas. [Topography; Instrumentation; Methods.]

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES

Barnard, F.A.P., Appendix No. 1867 - 7. Comparison of metres. Comparison of an iron metre forwarded to France by the Government of the United States. [Weights and Measures.]

Hilgard, J.E., Appendix No. 1876 - 22. Pp. 402-406. The relation of the lawful standards of measure of the United States to those of Great Britain and France. [Weights and Measures.]

Hilgard, J.E., Appendix No. 1877 - 12. Pp. 148-181. Comparison of American and British standard yards. [Weights and Measures.]

Hilgard, J.E., Appendix No. 1881 - 12. Pp. 354-356. On the length of a nautical mile. [Hydrography.]

Schott, C.A. and Tittmann, O.H., Appendix No. 1889 - 6. Pp. 179 -197. Relation between the metric standards of length of the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey and the U.S. Lake Survey. By C.A. Schott and O.H. Tittmann. [Triangulation; Base Line Measurement; Weights and Measures.]

Tittmann, O.H., Appendix No. 1890 - 16. Pp. 715-720. On the relation of the yard to the metre. [Weights and Measures.]

Tittmann, O.H., Appendix No. 1890 - 18. Historical account of United States Weights and Measures, of the inception and construction of national prototypes of the metre and kilogramme; of their transportation from Paris to Washington; of their official opening and certification, and of their deposit in the Office of Weight and Measures. [Weights and Measures.]

Tittmann, O.H., Appendix No. 1891 - 6. Pp. 275-277. On the reduction of hydrometer observation of salt-water densities. [Weights and Measures.]

Hayford, J.F., Appendix No. 1892 - 10. On the Least Square Adjustment of Weighings. [Weights and Measures;Computations.]

Mendenhall, T.C., Appendix No. 1893 - 6. Pp. 165-172. Fundamental standards of length and mass. [Weights and Measures.]

Mendenhall, T.C., Appendix No. 1893 - 7. Pp. 173-176. Units of Electrical Measure. [Weights and Measures.]

Hayford, J.F., Appendix No. 1895 - 9. Report on the Ruprecht Balance belonging to the United States Office of Weights and Measures. [Weights and Measures.]

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